1 Alice Oswald s Memorial! Make sure you carefully read Oswald s introduction and Eavan Boland s afterword to the poem. Memorial as a translation? This is a translation of the Iliad s atmosphere, not its story. (ix) Irreverent translation instead of carrying the words over into English, I use them as openings through which to see what Homer was looking at. I write through the Greek, not from it aiming for translucence rather than translation. (x) Emphasis on Iliad as a vocative poem, perhaps even invocative (addressing or even invoking a person or persons) (ix). Think about the speaker s address to the reader, the muses, and individual characters here. Patroclus!
2 Alice Oswald on Memorial! Make sure you carefully read Oswald s introduction and Eavan Boland s afterword to the poem. Subtractive narrative principle What s left is a bipolar poem made of similes and short biographies of the soldiers, both of which derive (I think) from distinct poetic sources: the similes from pastoral lyric the biographies form the Greek tradition of lament poetry. (ix) Eavan Boland s interpretation of the poem s moments of multiplication: The similes occur in short stanzas [and] in turn serve to widen the blunt record of death into the music of elegy. They help to get at the essence of epic on which Oswald is so obviously focused. But just as we take this in, just as we absorb this juxtaposition, the simile-stanza is repeated. In fact, every simile-stanza occurs twice, right through the poem. The effect is intense. The soldiers die in one paragraph, but the world they lose occurs in two. The repeated stanzas hold an acoustic mirror up to each other. The repetition builds throughout the poem into a sheer persuasion of sound. (86-7)
3 MLA REVIEW!
4 Titles Italicize the titles of all books and works published independently, including novels and book-length collections of stories, essays, or poems (Waiting for the Barbarians) Long/epic poems (Iliad, Memorial)! Technically, the article the should not be capitalized in referring to the Iliad. Some of the materials from HCC contradict this, so I won t be enforcing this rule. But, I do expect you to be consistent in whether or not you choose to capitalize/italicize the article the. plays (Mother Courage) names of periodicals: newspapers, magazines, scholarly journals, and the like (The New Yorker; The Los Angeles Times) Use quotation marks for the titles of works that have been published as part of longer works, including: short stories ( How to Tell a True War Story ) essays and periodical articles ( The Iliad, or The Poem of Force ) poems ( Come Up from the Fields Father ) speeches ( I Have A Dream )
5 In-text citations: Author-page style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. The exception for epic poetry: (Author s last name book number in Arabic numerals:line number-line number). For example: (Homer 21:113-34)
6 Short quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
7 For example: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)?
8 Long quotations For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. (You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.)
9 For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
10 Long quotations (cont.) When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines. Indent the first line of each quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch.
11 For example: In "American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement," David Russell argues, Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination.... From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrial society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate... (3)
12 Adding or omitting words in quotations If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text. For example: Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states, "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78). If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks, which are three periods (... ) preceded and followed by a space. For example: In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale... and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
13 Basic rules for Works Cited page Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations by 0.5 inches to create a hanging indent. List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as Note that MLA style uses a hyphen in a span of pages. For every entry, you must determine the Medium of Publication. Most entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources, but other possibilities may include Lecture, Film, CD-ROM, or DVD.
14 Introduction should accomplish the following: Provide a credible academic ethos Command reader s attention with a convincing argument and a compelling purpose Anticipate the reader s need for information, explanation, and context, and provide that information succinctly (i.e., not getting bogged down in plot summary) Demonstrate that there is a problem or question about agency inherent to the Iliad that the essay will address Present a clear, precise, well-defined thesis that is sophisticated in both insight and articulation Make a qualitative assessment about the form and scope of agency in the Iliad, rather than an argument about whether or not agency merely exists in the text Present an interpretive (as opposed to axiomatic) thesis Present a debatable thesis (i.e., not merely suggest a fact about the text) Make a claim about how the specific thematic illuminated in the passage relates to the text as a whole, that is, how it functions as a literary text, what it says, or how one should understand it (i.e., establish part-towhole connection)
15 Body of essay should accomplish the following: Articulate, support, and develop one specific claim (topic sentence) in each paragraph Mobilize well-chosen examples as evidence of the claim in each paragraph In this particular assignment, some specific quotations should be part of a close reading of a passage that the writer has selected. Line-by-line explication clearly distinguish between what the text implies and what one can infer from that evidence Analysis should explicitly identify the formal elements of the chosen evidence all figures of speech, diction, imagery, tone, use of repetition, etc. Each instance of figurative language should be analyzed for the conceptual work that it accomplishes (What does each instance of figurative language DO? Why use figurative language instead of literal? A simile doesn t just make a comparison, it makes a comparison for a reason. Those reasons need to be made readily apparent in the analysis.) Use MLA citation procedure correctly and gracefully present quoted material. Provide clear warrants that describe the relationship between the evidence and the larger conceptual claims of the essay Provide a roadmap how the reader should understand the development of the argument and guide the reader through the logic of this essay Make clear, dynamic transitions between subclaims
16 Conclusion should accomplish the following: Give readers the sense that they ve gotten somewhere and that journey has been worthwhile Reinforce how the specific thematic illuminated in the passage relates to the text as a whole, that is, how it functions as a literary text, what it says, or how one should understand it (i.e., re-establish part-to-whole connection) Indicate the implications of the argument Consider relevant evaluative questions Discuss questions that remain unanswered to open the conversation to future research and inquiry