INFS 423 Preservation of Information Resources

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1 INFS 423 Preservation of Information Resources Session 7 Deterioration Caused by Insects Lecturer: Mr. Michael Allotey, Dept. of Information Studies Contact Information: College of Education School of Continuing and Distance Education 2015/ /2018

2 Session Overview In the previous session, we learnt how fungi thrive and damage information resources and how we can contain them. In this session, I will be introducing you to the various types of insects that can cause damage to our materials. You will be taken through how to control their activities and how to prevent their infestation. Slide 2

3 Session Outline The key topics to be covered in the session are as follows: Topic One: Economic Importance of insects Topic Two: Categories of Insects Topic Three: Conducive Environment for Propagation Topic Four: Damages Caused by Insects Topic Five: Extermination of Insects Slide 3

4 Reading List Akussah, H. (2011). Preservation of Documents. Department of Information Studies, Legon, NAB Superior Services. Gorman, G. E., & Shep, S. J. (2006). Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums. London: Facet Pub. Adcock, E.P. (2000). Principles for the care of handling of Library Materials. Washington, D.C., IFAPAC. Swartburg, S. G. (1983). Conservation Library. A Handbook of use and care of traditional materials. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Feather, J. (2004). Managing preservation for libraries and archives: current practice and future developments. Aldershot, Hants, England, Ashgate Publishing. Slide 4

5 Topic One ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF INSECTS Slide 5

6 Economic Importance of Insects 1. Financial Implications Insects can cause partial damage to documents cost of repair Insects can cause total loss of documents cost of replacement 2.Health Hazards Custodians visiting hospitals Hospital Bills Loss of Man-Hours 3.Psychological Revulsion Loss of Clients/Patrons Slide 6

7 Common Insects That Affect Documents: Silver Fish Book worms/beetles Book lice Cockroaches Termites Mud wasps Slide 7

8 Silverfish Silverfishes feed on mould and starchy materials that are found on paper documents. Silverfishes are small grey insects (approximately 12mm in length). They have a scaly appearance and are generally found in dark, cool and moist environments such as basements. Evidence of silverfish damage is visible as an abraded, rough surface on paper materials. Slide 8

9 Book Lice This is generally found in heated buildings. It feeds on mould spores that are found on paper and cardboard. Direct feeding by this insect does not cause visible damage to paper; however, its squashed body can cause staining. Book louse prefers high humidity levels above 60% and they reproduce at warm temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius. Slide 9

10 Book Worm/ Beetles This is actually the larva of any of 160 different species of beetle. Eggs are laid on the edges of books and when the larvae hatch they burrow into the books, eating their way through the leaves, leaving little tunnels. It feeds on anything that is cellulosic in content. When it matures into a beetle, it stays on the cover of a book to feed since it can no longer penetrate books. Slide 10

11 Termites These are also known as white ants. They are the most dangerous of all the insects and very difficult to dislodge. There are two types of termites: the wood dwelling termites and the earth dwelling termites. Wood Dwelling Termites Wood dwelling termites are all over the place always looking for organic materials. They feed rapidly and can cause great havoc within a week or less. They hate light even though they are not nocturnal. Most times, it is difficult to detect because they hide under wood and any sign is hardly seen, therefore vigilance is required. To destroy them, their hiding place should be ruffled. They should be exposed to light in order to kill them. Glue traps can also be used to trap them. The only permanent method however is termite-proofing. Slide 11

12 Termites Earth Dwelling Termites Earth dwelling termites normally live in nests called ant hill. They usually come from fields or nests far away and they move through tunnels and enter the storage areas through cracks in the foundation, walls or ceiling. They travel long distances in search of food or organic matter to feed on. Once they get a source of food, it becomes their source of attraction. They go in, take food and go back. They move along sewage lines and their presence can easily be detected by tunnels on walls or floors of the storage area. To destroy them, the nests from which they come must be identified, destroyed and fumigants placed in them. DDT can be used to spray inside the nests. This is very effective because when some of the termites die, others feed on them and they also die. Termites can also be exterminated by digging round the building as deep as 2 feet and disinfesting the trench round. The trench is filled with insecticides. Slide 12

13 Topic Two CATEGORISATION OF INSECTS Slide 13

14 Categorisation of Organisms Habitual/Permanent Visitors They live permanently in the storage area or on the premises. They are born on books, feed and die on books. Example: silver fish, booklice, bookworm. Occasional/Casual Visitors only visit the storage area looking for food. Once accomplish their aim and go back. Example: termites, cockroaches and mud wasps. Slide 14

15 Topic Three CONDUCIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR PROPAGATION Slide 15

16 Conducive Environment for Propagation Insects are attracted to nutrients found in paper documents, particularly cellulose, adhesive and starch. They also thrive under some favorable conditions: damp, dark, warm and dirty locations. When the temperature is above 21 degrees Celsius and relative humidity is above 65%, a conducive environment is created for insects. Long periods of darkness, undisturbed environment and areas of minimal use and inspection encourage insect infestation. Slide 16

17 How Insects Enter the Storage Environment There are several ways through which insects enter the storage area. Among these are: Flying into the storage area through doors, windows, etc. Through new acquisitions or accessions and returned borrowed documents. Through cracks and along sewage lines in the storage area. Slide 17

18 How Insects Enter the Storage Environment Through new and donated furniture. Through archival and pamphlet boxes. Through poor housekeeping practices. Slide 18

19 Indications of their Presence Surface erosions of irregular shapes Pile of fine powder on shelves/book cover Small round holes on spine or cover of books Tiny black/brown droppings Scratches on spine of books Tiny bites/nibbles at edges of documents Occasionally, broken wings left behind Mud tunnels on walls, shelves, furniture, etc. Mud nests at corner of shelves, furniture and at times books. Slide 19

20 Activity 7.1 Undertake another study tour of a public archives or library. Conduct an internal and external survey to identify probable means by which insects can enter the centre. Write down five (5) of them. Slide 20

21 Topic Four DAMAGES CAUSED BY INSECTS Slide 21

22 Damages Caused by Insects Insects are usually active at night when people are not present, and the damage they cause is irreversible: They can cause partial or total destruction. Example is termites. They can cause permanent stains to documents. They can deface documents by scratching. Structural damage can result if a maze of holes or perforations left in sheets of paper or through bindings. Slide 22

23 Topic Five PROTECTION AGAINST INSECTS Slide 23

24 Prevention Insect Infestation A number of measures can be taken: Food and drink should be prohibited in the storage and reading areas. Temperature and relative humidity should be controlled. Building must be insect proof. Screens should be placed on windows and exterior doors and, where possible, all cracks along floors and walls and holes around pipes plugged to limit the entrance of insects from outside. Slide 24

25 Protection Against Insects All new materials should be inspected and fumigated before they are brought into the building. All vegetation around the storage area should be removed or kept trimmed. Ideally, there should be no live plants or flowers in the storage areas as plants can easily habour insects, which can propagate in the storage area and lead to infestations. Insect traps can be used to catch flying insects. It is essential that storage areas be cleaned on a regular basis particularly behind shelves and in dark areas. Slide 25

26 Activity 7.2 Go back to the information centre you visited during activity Conduct a mini interview with the head of the centre to find out how they protect their documents against insect damage. Slide 26

27 Topic Five EXTERMINATION OF INSECTS Slide 27

28 Extermination of Insects Effective eradication of insects is achieved through fumigation. The whole storage area must be exposed to appropriate fumigants insecticides. It is important to practice double or triple stage fumigation as most insecticides are unable to kill the eggs but just the larvae and the live insects. Examples of Insecticides are: Paradichlorobenzene Ethylene-Oxide +CO2 Mythyl Bromride Slide 28

29 Extermination of Insects Insecticides may be toxic causing severe irritation to; skin, eye and respiratory system. Therefore modern methods are recommended. For example: Deep freezing. Slide 29

30 Deep Freezing It kills the insects, larvae and the insect eggs. With this method, infested documents are bagged in polythene bags under room temperature of 21 degrees Celsius and relative humidity of 50% and dropped in a freezing compartment. The temperature is brought to -20 degrees Celsius and left for three days. After three days, the polythene containing the documents is removed but not opened immediately otherwise it will result in cracking of documents. It is allowed to return to normal room temperature of 21 degrees Celsius before opening. The eggs and insects would have been dead. Slide 30

31 Summary You have successfully completed this Session. You have learned the following: Favorable condition under which insects flourish How insects enter storage areas Damages caused by insects Protection against insects, and Extermination of insects Slide 31

32 References Akussah, H. (2011). Preservation of Documents. Department of Information Studies, Legon, NAB Superior Services. Gorman, G. E., & Shep, S. J. (2006). Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums. London: Facet Pub. Adcock, E.P. (2000). Principles for the care of handling of Library Materials. Washington, D.C., IFAPAC. Swartburg, S. G. (1983). Conservation Library. A Handbook of use and care of traditional materials. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, Feather, J. (2004). Managing preservation for libraries and archives: current practice and future developments. Aldershot, Hants, England, Ashgate Publishing. Slide 32