1 MLA Formatting: The Works Cited Page Updated based on the 8 th Edition of the MLA Handbook
2 IMPORTANT MLA UPDATES 2016 changes in MLA: MLA has changed to a general style of documentation which makes it easier to cite any type of source. Namely, the new MLA formatting rules make punctuation in citations much simpler.
3 IMPORTANT MLA UPDATES MLA citations now focus on the following (note the punctuation that comes after each part of a source): 1. Author. 6. Number, 2. Title of Source. 7. Publisher, 3. Title of Container, 8. Publication Date, 4. Other Contributors, 9. Location. 5. Version,
4 IMPORTANT MLA UPDATES Note, the new MLA refers to CONTAINERS frequently. A container is only a larger work that has smaller works contained in it. As a hint, think of a bucket full of small pieces of something. See the following examples for more clarification: A magazine is a container, and an article from that magazine would be the smaller work. A newspaper is a container, and an article from that newspaper would be the smaller work. A book is a container, and a chapter would be the smaller work. If the book is a collection of smaller works, such as short stories, the book would still be the container, and each short story would be a smaller work contained in the book. A television show would be a container, and each individual episode would be a smaller work contained in the show. A music album would be a container, and each song would be a smaller work contained in the album.
5 #1 RULE FOR ANY FORMATTING STYLE: Always follow your teacher s guidelines!
6 WORKS CITED PAGE: THE BASICS Title - Centered Hanging Indent Notice how this indent differs from an indented paragraph. Instead of the first line being indented, a hanging indent will indent each line after the first. The indention should be ½ inch. ½ On the Works Cited Page, you cite all of the information for your sources: author, title (both the container and smaller work, if applicable), publisher, year of publication, and location.
7 WHY IS CITING SOURCES IMPORTANT? First, you want to give an author credit if you use his/her work. Think about it: if someone took portions of your paper, wouldn t you want to get credit for the good work you ve done? Second, you want to make it easier for your reader to look up your sources. This is not a gotcha tool that teachers use to catch plagiarism. Actually, it is a helpful resource for other researchers. Often, in academic writing, a researcher finds a book or an article that cites a quote by another author. If the cited author s words or publication title seem as if they would be perfect for YOUR paper as well, you may want to look up the source yourself to see what else the author had to say on the topic. It could be useful in your own paper.
8 WORKS CITED PAGE: BOOKS Basic Entry Example Basic Format: Lastname, Firstname. Title of Book. Publisher, Year of Publication, Location (page numbers, if you only used a portion of the book). Book entry with 2 authors (note, there s a different format if you have 3 or more): Where you have more than one work by the same author, you give the author s name for the first entry, and you use dashes instead for entries that follow. Examples: Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn, Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin's, The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Southern Illinois UP, 1993.
9 WORKS CITED PAGE: BOOK PARTS Format: Lastname, Firstname. Article or Section Title. Title of Book (i.e. title of container). Edited by Editor s Name (if applicable). Publisher, Year of Publication, Location. Blanchard, Drew. Idle. Best New Poets Edited by Eric Pankey. Samovar, 2006, pp
10 WORKS CITED PAGE: PERIODICALS Periodicals Include: Magazines Newspapers Scholarly Journals Online articles Articles from Databases
11 WORKS CITED PAGE: PERIODICALS Article in a Magazine: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Periodical, Volume (if applicable), Issue Number or Date (if applicable), Year of Publication, Location. Buchman, Dana. "A Special Education." Good Housekeeping, March Issue, 2006, pp Article in Scholarly Journal (Print): Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume (if applicable), Issue Number (if applicable), Year of Publication, Location. Duvall, John N. "The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo's White Noise." Arizona Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp
12 WORKS CITED PAGE: PERIODICALS Article in Online Scholarly Journal: Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume (if applicable), Issue Number (if applicable), Year of Publication, Location (the URL, if applicable, and the date you accessed it). Buchenot, Andy and Kristi Prins. Doing Digital: A Production-focused Pedagogy. Kairos, vol. 17, no. 1, 2012, Accessed 19 November Article in Scholarly Journal (From Database): Author(s). "Title of Article." Title of Journal, Volume (if applicable), Issue Number (if applicable), Year of Publication, Location (Database Name and date you accessed it). Medium of publication. Date Accessed. Leonard, Laurence B. Speech Selection and Modification in Language-Disordered Children. Topics in Language Disorders, vol. 4, no. 1, ERIC. Accessed 2 Jan
13 WORKS CITED PAGE: PERIODICALS You may need to adjust the periodical format depending on the source: No Issue Number omit the issue number: Charles, Camille Zubrinsky. "The Dynamics of Racial Residential Segregation." Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 29, 2003, pp Only a Date, No Volume or Issue Number put the month and year where you would normally put the volume and issue: Birnbaum, Charles A. Cultivating Appreciation. Dwell, September Issue, 2007, pp Daily Newspaper daily periodicals have no volume or issue number, so put only the date: Rozek, Dan. Girls Squabble over ipod Over: And in the End, Neither Will Get Music Player. Chicago Sun-Times, 10 Nov. 2006, p. 3.
14 WORKS CITED PAGE: PERIODICALS Weekly or Bi-Weekly Journal or Magazine do not give the volume and issue number even if they are listed, and do not put parentheses around the date Gorman, Christine. To an Athlete, Aching Young. Time, 18 Sept. 2006, p. 60. Print. Monthly or Seasonal Journal or Magazine same as above (do not give the volume and issue number even if they are listed, and do not put parentheses around the date) Freedman, David H. The Perfected Self. Atlantic, June 2012, p. 42+.
15 WORKS CITED PAGE: PERIODICALS Non-Sequential Pages In newspapers and magazines, articles are often broken across non-sequential pages (pages that do not come one after the other). In this case, give the number of the first page, followed by a + (a plus sign): If the article below is on pages and then continues on 66-71: Lenzer, Jean. Citizen, Heal Thyself. Discover, Sept. 2007, p. 54+.
16 WORKS CITED PAGE: ONLINE SOURCES Online Source: Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Article Name. Name of Site, Date, URL. Date of access. Example: Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Social Media Today RSS, 29 June 2012, Accessed 02 Jan
17 WORKS CITED PAGE: ONLINE SOURCES More Examples Bernstein, Mark. "10 Tips on Writing the Living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 16 Aug. 2002, Accessed 4 May Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, Accessed 10 May Michelle, Julia. "How to Make Homemade Chili in a Slow Cooker." ehow.com, n.d., Note the abbreviation n.d. You should use this abbreviation when no date is given for a particular source. Accessed 19 Nov
18 WORKS CITED: REFERENCE BOOKS Article from a Reference Book (Print) Taoism. The New York Public Library Desk Reference, Article from a Reference Book (Online) Abraham Lincoln. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2007, Abraham-Lincoln. Accessed 25 Feb Please note that Wikipedia is NOT a legitimate encyclopedia! Do NOT use it as a source!
19 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES No Author Named If you cannot find an author s name, begin the citation with the title of the book or article. Idol Worship. Rolling Stone, 8 Feb. 2007, p. 7. One Author Whether you have one author or more, the first author listed in the source should always appear as Lastname, Firstname. Shelburne, Ramona. How LeBron has Changed the League. ESPN.com, 11 Feb. 2015, id/ /lebron-james-changing-game. Accessed 19 Nov
20 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES Three or More Authors: Last Name, First Name, et al. Book Title. Publisher, Year, Location (if using only a portion of a book or a smaller piece of a larger container). Lowi, Theodore, et al. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed., Norton, Another Example: Plag, Ingo, et al. Introduction to English Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton, In some instances, the city of publication may be important to your research, so it is appropriate to include it at times. At other times, the name of the publisher is all you need to provide.
21 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES Corporate Author: Begin with the name of the corporation exactly as it is listed in the source (but omit A, An, and The). Museum of Modern Art. The Changing of the Avant-Garde: Visionary Architectural Drawings from the Howard Gilman Collection. New York: Museum of Modern Art, Government Author: Country Name. Government Department. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher (or government office which printed it), Print. Ex 1) United States. Dept. of the Interior. Keweenaw. Washington. GPO, Ex 2) United Nations. Development Program. Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty, and the Global Water Crisis. New York: United Nations, 2006.
22 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES Edited Collection One Editor: Yetman, Norman R., editor. When I Was a Slave: Memoirs from the Slave Narrative Collection. Dover, Two Editors: Hocks, Mary, and Michelle Kendrick, editors. Eloquent Images: Word and Image in the Age of New Media. MIT P, Three or More Editors: Baron, Sabrina Alcorn, et al., editors. Agent of Change: Print Culture Studies after Elizabeth L. Eisenstein. U of Massachusetts P / Center for the Book, Library of Congress, Note that Center for the Book, Library of Congress is included with the name of the publisher because it may be important to the research conducted or provide important information regarding the location of the source.
23 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES Place of Publication Give the name of the city only if the city is important to the publishing of the book. For instance, certain works published long ago may have been published in specific cities, so you may want to give that information if it is important to your research. Otherwise, you do not need to give the city prior to the name of the publisher any longer. You also no longer need to provide the type of medium at the end of a citation (e.g. print, web, etc.) Old MLA: Eisner, Will. Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative. Tamarac: Poorhouse, New MLA: Eisner, Will. Graphic Storytelling and Visual Narrative. Poorhouse, 1996.
24 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES If No Information on Place of Publication: Use the abbreviation n.p. to signify that there is no publication information (note that n.p. will be capitalized if it follows a period). Cain, Kevin. "The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication." Social Media Today RSS, n.p., 29 June 2012, content/. Accessed 02 Jan
25 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES No Date Given If a publication does not list a date of publication, put the abbreviation n.d. (for no date) where the year of publication usually goes in a citation: Baudrillard, Jean. Simulations. Semiotext(e), n.d. Book or Article Translated from Another Language In addition to the other required citation information, you will need to include the name of the translator, preceded by Trans. (for Translated by): Plato. Meno. The Collected Dialogues of Plato. Edited by Edith Hamilton and Huntington Cairns. Translated by W.K.C. Guthrie. Princeton UP, 1961, pp
26 WORKS CITED PAGE: SPECIAL RULES Part of a Multi-Volume Series If you need to cite only one part of a multi-volume set, list only the volume you are using. Rothenberg,,Jerome, and Pierre Joris, eds. Poems for the Millennium: The University of California Book of Modern & Postmodern Poetry. Vol. 1. U of California P, If you need to refer to two or more parts, give the total number of volumes in the entire work following the title. Rothenberg,,Jerome, and Pierre Joris, eds. Poems for the Millennium: The University of California Book of Modern & Postmodern Poetry. 2 vols. U of California P, Book is Second (or Later) Edition Put the number of the edition, followed by ed. after the title. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed. Pearson/Longman, 2004.
27 WORKS CITED PAGE: OTHER Personal Interview Example: Smith, John. Personal interview. 1 Dec Address, Speech, or Lecture Example: Atwood, Margaret. Silencing the Scream. Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention, 29 Dec. 1993, Royal York Hotel. Address.
28 WORKS CITED PAGE: OTHER Film Example Because film and television works usually involve multiple people as directors, performers, etc., if your discussion of the work focuses on the contribution of a particular person, begin the works cited entry with his or her name followed by a descriptive label or title. Singer, Bryan, director. The Usual Suspects. Polygram, Gellar, Sarah Michelle, performer. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Mutant Enemy, Musical Composition Entire Album: Bach, J.S. The Goldberg Variations, Performed by Simone Dinnerstein, Telarc, One Song: Allman, Gregg. Midnight Rider. Mycology, Sony, 1998.
29 CAPITALIZATION & PUNCTUATION Capitalize all words in a title except for: Articles (a, an, the) Prepositions (to, at, by, for, from, with,...) Conjunctions (and, but, or, for,...) The word to when it is part of an infinitive (e.g. in to read or to fly) Capitalize the first word and the last word of the title, even if the words are one of the exceptions listed above.
30 ITALICS & QUOTATION MARKS To determine whether to use italics or quotation marks for a title, think about a PIE: If it is a whole pie (a whole work), you use italics: Books, Magazines, Newspapers, Scholarly Journals, Music Albums, Film Names Works of Art (it s hard to divide a painting into slices, so it has to be whole) To borrow the new MLA s terminology, if it s a container, use italics. If it is a slice of pie (part of a larger work), you use quotes: Chapters in Books Articles in Magazines, Newspapers, or Journals Individual Songs, Scenes from a Film Whole Pie = Italics Slice = Quotes
31 ITALICS & QUOTATION MARKS Always use quotation marks around direct quotes. Remember, when using other punctuation with quotation marks: These go inside the end quotation mark: Periods & Commas Pointers for Pets. Question Marks & Exclamation Points She asked, Where did Jane go? The go outside the end quotation mark: Colons & Semi-Colons Teachers should not just teach : they should model what it is to be a good learner as well.
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