FRBR AND FRANAR - FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND AUTHORITY RECORDS

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1 FRBR AND FRANAR - FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BIBLIOGRAPHIC AND AUTHORITY RECORDS Prepared by Randall K. Barry (Internet: Library of Congress FRBR and FRANAR 1

2 WHAT IS FRBR? FRBR = Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: A conceptual model for bibliographic records; It establishes the relationships between the attribute elements in bibliographic records and the functions performed by catalog users; It defined certain entities and their attributes. FRBR and FRANAR 2

3 WHY DEVELOP THIS MODEL? In order to provide a structured framework for the data in a bibliographic record; In order to recommend better the basic levels of functionality for bibliographic records created by national bibliographic agencies (that is, national libraries). FRBR and FRANAR 3

4 THE REASON FOR HAVING A CATALOG: Searching is simplified by the applicattion of rules for description and access; Collocation of information through controlled vocabulary that help the fine-tune a search; Serves as a substitute for printed and non-print resources; In the futre it will possess links to born digital resources. FRBR and FRANAR 4

5 CATALOG USER TASKS: Find resources that correspond to search criteria (among all the resources that exist); Identify that the content of the located sources corresponds to what was wanted in the list of responses; Chose between many possible resources (preferred language, format/material); Obtain the chosen resource. FRBR and FRANAR 5

6 PRINCIPAL FRBR ENTITIES (GROUP 1): The products of intellectual and artistic activity: Work a distinct intellectual or artistic creation; Expression a realization of a work in one form or language; Manifestation the physical incarnation of the expression of a work; Item a single copy of a manifestation. FRBR and FRANAR 6

7 MODEL FRBR GROUP 1 ENTITIES: Work Realized through an... Expression Embodied in a... Manifestation Found in an.. Item FRBR and FRANAR 7

8 SECONDARY FRBR ENTITIES (GROUP 2): Those responsible for the intellectual and artistic content, physical production and distribution, or the owners of copies (of items): Person someone who has a relationship with one of the entities of Group 1; Collectivity an agency or group of individuals with a relationship to entities in Group 1. FRBR and FRANAR 8

9 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN GROUP 2 ENTITIES AND THOSE IN GROUP 1: Work Expression Manifestation Item created by Realized by Person Produced by Collectivity Owned by FRBR and FRANAR 9

10 EXAMPLE OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ENTITIES OF GROUP 2 TO GROUP 1: Novel French version Pocket ed. Copy 1 Written by Translated by Author Published by (publisher) Translator Copy belonging to the library FRBR and FRANAR 10

11 TERTIARY FRBR ENTITIES (GROUP 3): Another group of entities that serve as subjects for the work. The other entities of groups 1 and 2 can be the subject as well, but they are almost always supplemented by an entity of this group: Concepts: for example terrorism ; Objects: for example lace ; Events: for example the WTC attacks Places: for example Frankfurt am Main, Germany. FRBR and FRANAR 11

12 RELATIONSHIPS OF GROUP 3 ENTITIES TO THOSE OF GROUPS 1 AND 2: Work Expression Manifestation Item Work That has as a subject Person Collectivity Concept Object Event Place FRBR and FRANAR 12

13 FRBR ENTITY ATTRIBUTES: Every entity in the FRBR model may have one or more attributes, for example: Attribute Entity Author of a work Uniform title of a work Form of an expression Language of an expression Publisher of a manifestation condition of an object (item) FRBR and FRANAR 13

14 ATTRIBUTES SPECIFIC TO A WORK: Identification standard number (ISTC, ISWC, etc.); Author - person or corporate body that created the work; Title normally a standardized uniform title; Date the date of the work, often needed to distinguish one work from another (in the uniform title); Sujects Usually, most of the subject headings are applicable even at the higher level of the work. FRBR and FRANAR 14

15 ATTRIBUTES SPECIFIC TO THE EXPRESSION Identification - ISRC? (standard numbers for this level are currently lacking); Form the type of material in which the work is realized (for example, novel, film, sound recording); Language the language of the expression is probably the most important attribute after its form; Access points Names of other persons or corporate bodies associated with the expression (for example, the translator). FRBR and FRANAR 15

16 ATTRIBUTES SPECIFIC TO THE MANIFESTATION: Identification standard numbers (ISBN, ISSN, etc.); Title the title of the edition transcribed as is ; Statement of responsibility the names that appear on the manifestation or that are added by the cataloger; Edition The statement: 2nd revised edition Imprint Place, publisher, date of publ. or distribution Collective titles for monographic series, etc. Physical description number of pages, volumes, etc. FRBR and FRANAR 16

17 ATTRIBUTES SPECIFIC TO THE ITEM: Identification control number for the copy, barcode associated with the copy, etc. Provenance - source of the copy, price, etc. Location the place where the copy can be found in the library s collections Condition details about the status of the copy (for example: available, lost, damaged) Policies decisions affecting circulation and preservation FRBR and FRANAR 17

18 FRBR-IZATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION IFLA experts and others who helped with the development of functional requirements have analyzed the correspondence between the formats and ISBDs; Library system developers considered the possibility of automatically generating bibliographic databases composed of FRBR-ized records (VTLS was one of the first to do so); Catalogers should consider changes to their practices to facilitate FRBR-ization (use of field 240?). FRBR and FRANAR 18

19 SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION OF FRBR Implementing FRBR normally requires preprocessing of bibliographic data; The data required at each level is generally limited; At the work level, there is the uniform title, and the name(s) of responsible persons or corporate bodies; At the expression level, there is information relating to the form of material (carrier) and language; At the manifestation level, there is edition, publication information, and secondary access points. FRBR and FRANAR 19

20 EXAMPLE OF DATA AT THE WORK LEVEL: n??\\ ua\ xx w 003 XX-XxXXX s1807\\\\ 100 1\$aBeethoven, Ludwig van,$d $aSymphonies,$nno. 6, op. 68,$rF major.$f \7$aSymphonies. 990 \\$awork[local VTLS FIELD] FRBR and FRANAR 20

21 EXAMPLE OF DATA AT THE EXPRESSION LEVEL: nj?\\ \a\ xx e 003 XX-XxXXX 004 xx w [LOCAL VTLS FIELD!] suuuuuuuuuuuu s1966\\\\ 511 0\$aRoyal Philharmonic Orchestra ; Sir Charles Groves, conductor \$aGroves, Charles,$cSir,$d1915-$4cnd 710 2\$aRoyal Philharmonic Orchestra. 990 \\$aexpression [LOCAL VTLS FIELD!] FRBR and FRANAR 21

22 EXAMPLE OF DATA AT THE MANIFESTATION LEVEL: njm\\ \a\ xx m 003 XX-XxXXX sd\bsmennmpluu r nyusynng\d\\\\\\\\n\\\\\d $aSymphony no 6 in F (Pastoral), op. 68,$h[sound recording] /$cbeethoven $aPastoral 260 \\$a[new York] :$bfunk & Wagnalls :$brca Custom,$c \\$a1 sound disc :$banalog, 33 1/3 rpm, stereo ;$cd30 cm. 440 \0$aFamily library of great music ;$valbum \\$amanifestation [LOCAL VTLS FIELD!] FRBR and FRANAR 22

23 EXAMPLE OF DATA AT THE ITEM (COPY) LEVEL: nx\\\ i\ xx i 003 XX-XxXXX 004 xx m p\\\\8\\\l001abeng \\$adlc$bstacks principaux$hm1160.b24$ip6.68$p $t1 990 \\$aitem [LOCAL VTLS FIELD!] FRBR and FRANAR 23

24 THE EFFECT OF FRBR ON THE MARC FORMATS The FRBR model is causing MARC users to consider the content of their records; The requirements of some MARC 21 (and UNIMARC) data elements do not correspond exactly to the different levels of hierarchy in FRBR; Certain elements that are seen in FRBR implementations are lacking in MARC (field 990?); It s not clear what type of record to use for FRBR. FRBR and FRANAR 24

25 TREE STRUCTURES/HIERARCHIES IN DISPLAY; The results of online searches of a catalog can be difficult to manage without some kind of filtering; Display in the form of tree structures or hierarchies can improve the understanding of the FRBR-ized records retrieved; FRBR benefits from the use of tree structures in grouping search results in lists or batches of records; FRBR does not required this implementation strategy, but it is very popular. FRBR and FRANAR 25

26 FRANAR FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS AND NUMBERING OF AUTHORITY RECORDS Following on the success of FRBR, in April 1999, IFLA created a new working group to develop FRANAR: the Functional Requirements and Numbering of Authority Records; The task is much more complicated than that of the functional requirements for bibliographic records; There few standards for authorites; There is nothing like the ISBDs for authorities. FRBR and FRANAR 26

27 MAIN TASKS OF THE FRANAR WORKING GROUP: Define the functional requirement for authority records; Study the possibility of establishing a system of International Standard Authority Data Numbers ISADN; Serve as the official liaison to other IFLA groups working with authority files, such as INDECS, ICA/CDS, ISO/TC46 and CERL FRBR and FRANAR 27

28 PARTNERS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF FRANAR IFLA - International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions INDECS - Interoperability of Data in E-Commerce Systems ICA/CDS - International Council on Archives, Committee on Descriptive Standards ISO/TC46 - International Standards Organisation, Technical Committee on Information and Documentation CERL - Consortium of European Research Libraries FRBR and FRANAR 28

29 THE FRANAR MODEL: Experts are in the process of examining the entities that are part of authority records; basing this study on an initial document written in January 2002; They have identified the basic entities and the important relationships between these entities; They are beginning to establish the relationships between FRANAR entities and those of FRBR and other standards; Graphicly, the model is very complicated and not yet completely developed. FRBR and FRANAR 29

30 SAMPLE FRANAR ENTITIES: Person name and other information Family name and other information Corporate body name and other information Bibliographic identity - association with a work Authorized heading the preferred form (a big problem!) Variant heading a non-authorized form (depends on the catalog) Reference entry record with a non-preferred form of heading Explicative heading for special situations FRBR and FRANAR 30

31 NEW ENTITIES: A being (creature) an animated entity (living) A thing an entity without characteristics of life A concept an entity that one cannot perceive through the five senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell) An event a dynamic relationship between two or more entities (something must happen!) Situation - a static relationship between two or more entities (nothing changes) FRBR and FRANAR 31

32 CONCEPTUALIZATION SOURCES FOR FRANAR The following three sources have been instrumental in the initial development of the FRANAR model GARR - Guidelines for Authority Records and References FRBR - Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records The <indecs> Metadata Framework FRBR and FRANAR 32

33 WORK TO BE DONE: The FRANAR Working Group recently completed work on a document describing a draft model; The document must be reviewed by specialists in many institutions; It is already clear that the development of FRANAR will precipitate changes in certain IFLA documents that are associated with authority records; Liaison activities with other groups will continue, especially in the area of interoperability. FRBR and FRANAR 33

34 CONCLUSION: FRBR & FRANAR are still in the process of being developed; Their use in catalogs is not yet widespread but it is increasing, especially for FRBR; The FRBR model could have a great influence on cataloging rules and practice, especially at the work level; FRBR has already caused a review of AACR rules that will result, most likely in changes to the use of uniform titles. FRBR and FRANAR 34

35 MARC AND FRBR: An extensive analysis of the correspondence between MARC and FRBR has been done by the Library of Congress; it is available at Functional Analysis of the MARC 21 Formats for Bibliographic and Holdings Data Display of Multiple Versions in MARC 21 and FRBR FRBR and FRANAR 35

36 FRBR-IZATION AND DISPLAY TOOLS: The Library of Congress is developing tools that will generate FRBR-ized displays of sets of MARC 21 records; The tools rely on the establishment of mappings between MARC 21 data elements and FRBR; The conversion tools are not required for systems implementers, but can help them to conceptualize implementation of FRBR. FRBR and FRANAR 36

37 ADDITIONAL SOURCES OF INFORMATION ON FRBR AND FRANAR: Patrick LeBœuf (FRBR) Françoise Bourdon (FRBR & FRANAR) Sally McCallum (FRBR & MARC) Barbara B. Tillett (FRBR/FRANAR) FRBR and FRANAR 37

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