ECS Introduction to Computers Guidelines for Citation and Format of References. 1. Introduction

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1 ECS Introduction to Computers Guidelines for Citation and Format of References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources, including journal articles and books (whether available electronically or in printed form); some may come from other sources such as other websites or interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of sources. The underlying purpose of the research paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. This is a skill that will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association (APA, 2010), which is a good format (though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications). This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these two are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences. You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. There are two parts of an APA citation: a brief citation in the body of your paper (explained below in Rules for In-text Citation to References ) and a list of full citations at the end of the paper (explained below in Rules for your List of References ). In this class, footnotes will not be used for citations. 2. Rules for In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list in the body of your paper, please use the following conventions. Put in parentheses: the author(s) last names, the year the work you re citing was published, and optionally the page number(s) you are citing, separated by commas. For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma: e.g., (Lutz, 2008). or (Austin, 1996). For two to five authors, use their last names separated by commas and an ampersand "&" before the very last name in the list, then the year separated by a comma: e.g., (Li & Crane, 1993) (Eichelberg, Aden, Riesmeier, Dogac, & Laleci, 2005). For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al." as follows: (Walters, et al., 1992). For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author(s) for the same year, use letters after the year: (Walters, 1993b). If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year (Walters, 1994, pp ). 1

2 If you include the author's name(s) in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: "Austin (1996) includes valuable references to..." or "The examples given by Li and Crane (1993) on web addresses...". If there is only a corporate author (rather than an individual person) cite that: According to the instructions given by the Purdue OWL writing lab in their APA Formatting and Style Guide (2009),... If there is no author, cite the title. In-text citations should make it easy to find the complete reference at the end of the paper. All references listed in the reference list at the end of the paper should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy of the reference for themselves. 3. Rules for your List of References Your list of references will be in a section at the end of your paper titled References. The list should be alphabetized by the first author's last name (or organization or title, if no author is listed). This format is easier for the reader to look up references. Double-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry and indent only the first line. Separate each entry with an blank line. Do not number the references. Do not use footnotes to cite references. Doing so adds confusion when you have to insert a new reference in an alphabetized list. The basic parts of a citation are: For articles: Author name(s). (date published). Article title, Journal name, volume number (issue number), page numbers, URL or DOI for online sources. For books: Author name(s). (date published). Book title. Place it was published: Name of publisher, Pages you used. For conference papers or articles collected together in a proceedings or book: Author name(s) of the chapter or paper. (date published). Title of the article. In Authors of the book, Title of the book (pages numbers of the article). Place it was published: Name of the publisher. For websites: If a document is an article published on a website as part of a collection (but not in a journal): Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from 2

3 If you are citing a single webpage: Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved date retrieved from Author: List as First author's last name, initials. If there are two authors, separate their names with "&". For three or more authors, separate all but the last author's name with commas, and use "&" before the last author's name in the list. If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of the agency. End with a period. Examples: Walters, R.F. Walters, R.F. & Reed, N.E. Walters, R.F., Bharat, S. R. & Austin, A.A. Charniak, E. Riesbeck, C. McDermott, D. & Meehan, J. National Bureau of Standards. Date: Use a date sufficient to be specific for the item (Year for book, Year and month for some journals, Year, month and day for newspapers and websites). Put the date in parentheses, and end with a period. Examples: (1995). (2009, October). (2008, August 30). note: if there is no date (such as for a website), use (n.d.) Title: Give the title in regular font if an article title, or in italics if a book title. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns. If there is a subtitle, it too should begin with a capital letter. End with a period. Examples: Computer-based systems integration. [article title] The abc's of MUMPS: An introduction for novice and intermediate programmers. [book title] Journal and Magazine Titles: When citing the name of a journal or newspaper, it should be in italics, with all words capitalized except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions. Volume, umber, and Page numbers: For articles: give the Volume number in italics, followed if available by the issue number in parentheses, and the page number(s). For newspapers only, precede page numbers with "p." (single page) or "pp." (multiple pages). Examples: 3

4 Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 27 (2), Journal of Advertising Research, 32, Publisher and Location: For books only: give the location (city, state (if needed, not for New York City etc.), a colon and the publisher name, followed by a period. Examples: Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. London: Edward Arnold tip: you can usually find the place of publication and the publisher of a book on the inside front title pages: use the city that is listed first. URL or DOI: If you are citing a scholarly article that s available online and a DOI is given, list this after the page numbers. If no DOI is available but you got it online from a source such as the publisher s website, add the URL after the page numbers. If you are citing a website, say Retrieved from, the date you retrieved the information, and list the URL of the website. Be specific as possible, and list as much information as you can for websites. What s the difference between a journal article available online and a website? If the article you are citing was published in a scholarly journal, cite it as a journal article, whether you use the online version or not. The articles you will find in the online library databases are typically journal articles or magazine articles in pdf form. Journals have journal titles, volume and issue numbers, and are paginated; you can get all of this information from the article itself or the database or publisher s page you download it from. Pages on websites that aren t articles such as you might find by doing a Google search should be cited as websites. For websites, always list the URL (the address you used to find the website). when do I use the URL or DOI? A DOI is a number that many journal publishers provide with their online articles. The DOI is typically listed somewhere on the page you download the article from. It stands for digital object identifier and is a number that you can use to always find the exact article you are referencing. Even if the publisher website changes, you can put the DOI into this website: to pull up the article. Don t cite the retrieval date if you use a DOI. s If you can t find the DOI for an online article, cite the website it came from instead, 4

5 4. Examples Article: (found online in the ACM Portal database) Eichelberg, M., Aden, T., Riesmeier, J., Dogac, A., & Laleci, G. (2005). A survey and analysis of Electronic Healthcare Record standards. ACM Computing Surveys, 37 (4), doi: / Book: Lutz, M. (2008). Learning Python (3 rd ed). Sebastopol, CA : O Reilly. Article collected in a book: Ochs, E., & Schieffelin, B. (1984). Language acquisition and socialization: Three developmental stories. In R. Schweder and R. Levine (Eds.), Culture theory: Essays in mind, self, and emotion (pp ). New York: Cambridge University Press. Website: Bernstein, M. (2002). 10 tips on writing the living Web. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, 149. Retrieved October 10, 2009 from Computer science. (2009, October 13). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from 5. References and further resources for learning about APA American Psychological Association. (2009). Basics of APA style tutorial. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6 th ed.). Washington, DC : American Psychological Association. Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) (2009 October 9). APA Formatting and Style Guide. Retrieved October 13, 2009, from Social Sciences Documenting Sources. (n/d). Retrieved October 20, 2009 from UC Davis Library. (n.d.). APA Style Sheet for Term Paper Citations. Retrieved October 13, 2009 from 5

6 Note: the APA publication manual is available in: Shields Library Humanities/Social Sciences Reference, BF76.7.P Lib Use Only Older editions are also available in Shields Library H/SS reference. If you need more information about citing another type of source not listed here, please consult the sources listed above. If you have more questions, ask at the library reference desk for help. Nancy Reed and the ECS15 staff -- Updated by Phoebe Ayers, CS Librarian 6

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