LIFE Mtli / / /1,,/ Ii II II

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1 I0 LIFE Mtli / / /1,,/ / / Ii II II

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4 Copyright i8i PIIOtMCttCI-1Ug, Inc. Lthtuiy of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data RonSthalgr, ESIVaM Life witft Letters as they turned photogenic Inclules t 1. Phototypesetting Histoiy. z. Lype-setting Histoiy. I. Title. TRioto. R ' ISBN (pbl) AACRz 7 Publishetsimultaneously in Canada by Saunders of Thronto, Ltd., Don Mills, Ontario Printed in the United States of America

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7 Many skilled hands have shared in. the preparation and the printing of these pages. Special recognition and appreciation are due not only to those on the staff of Photo -Lettering who ditijently executed the Arbtn composition, the camera work, the pltoto-letteritig tnuth of the art, optical effects, & assembty but also to those whose thougs screened the author from other tasks white writing &production were in prngress. Appreciation; above all, goes toalovat wife who after afulififty years among thejoys and the tribulations ofalifewith letters has provided muck assistance in bringing together into writtenform. these memorable experiences. A

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9 A TO HAROLD HORMAN PHOTO-LETFERINGS DISTINGUISHED PIONEER

10 3000 B.C. LEGACY OF SAQRA; IN THE ELEVENTH ROOM; AN HISTORIC BREAK WITH TRADITION. PAGE I A.D.900 THE BANKS OF THE DANUBE; THE YELLOW BRICK PAVEMENT; ON MAY TWENTY-FOURTH. PAGE IN THE BEST OF COMPANY; LAPIDARY FMKTUR: JOHANN GUTENBERG; THE RIGHT MAN IN THE RIGHT PLACE AT THE RIGHT TIME. PAGE Contents OTFMAR'S CLOCK; MR. BURRAGE INVENTS PER- PETUAL MOTION; "ITS A LINE 0' TYPE." PAGE YOUTHFUL JOURNALISTS; THUNDERING IN THE BASEMENT; PRIVATE PRESSES LEAD THE WAY; THE BIG BAD WOLF; ART NOUVEAU & JUGEND- STIL; BIRTH OF THE MIGHTY ATF. PAGE THREE BY FIVE FERVOR; TROOP 9; MR. PFOHL BUYS FIVE; OPENING THE BIG-LITTLE PRINT SHOP; 75 IN U.S. SILVER; EXTRA! EXTRA! PAGE THE LORD IS RISEN; POCONO LAKE; ROOM, 22; THE INVINCIBLE EAGLE; 300 COMMIJNIPAW; MR. BULLEN: DEATH IN WHITENSVILLE. PAGE NINE SALEM SQUARE NORTH; BITTER LESSON FROM THE PTA; EARLY TO RISE; MR. SCOGGIN; LUNCH AT THE ZINZENDOp $2297 IN THE TILL AND ON TO CHAPEL HILL PAGE BAD NEWS IN THE TAR HEEL; YOU DONt HAVE TO EAT THE WHOLE PIE; MR. TALLY RECALLS; SONG OF SONGS; PHYSICS AND PSYCH. PAGE ABOUT $77; BITTEN BY BAUHAIJS; JUJITSU ON SECOND AVENUE; THE VOICE WITH A SMILE; TWO CRASHES; GROVE PARK; THE PRESIDENTS SUITE- GREENWICH VILLAGE; STICK & BOWLER; BALTIMORE; HAROLD HORMAN; CLOUD 9. p.29 Viii

11 TO THE 171H! VANGOGI-!, TOULOUSE-LAUTREC; RUTHERFORD; OF GEARS, CAMS, SOLENOIDS & PROBLEMS: AN X-Y MOVEMENT IN THE DARK MOTHER SENT ME OVER TO GET YOU. PACE QUICKER BY AIR; PHILADELPHIA; AMERICAN BANKNOTE; DAY OF DECISION: RESCUE COMES AT THE TOLL 806TH; PHOTO-LETTERING INC; QUARRANTA; WORLD SERIES: CARD GAME WITH FATEFUL STAKES: 9-POUND FANFARE PAGE 43 12/28/36 BETWEEN CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEARS; TO JWT FIRST: PONDS; WITH THE FINESSE OF HAND LET- TERING: THE FAITHFUL FIVE. PAGE TRAGEDY STRIKES; NINE OUNCES; SLIMMING THE MODELS; UPHILL ALL THE WAY: RAILROAD GOTHIC: GOOD TO THE LAST DROP: POLAND; WORKHORSES MERITORIOUS. PAGE PHILLIPSE MANOR & CROTON; PEARL HARBOR; TO COUNTERFEIT OR NOT TO COUNTERFEIT; HITLER'S DOPPELGANGER; OFFICE OF EMER- GENCY MANAGEMENT; OFFICE OF WAR INFOR- MATION: DAWN OF THE TYPE DIRECTOR. PAGE TOMMY THOMPSON; NEITHER RAIN NOR SNOW NOR SLEET NOR GLOOM: ON COLUMBUS DAY; ALL LETTERERS WELCOME; COAST-TO-COAST; A5-FOOT WORIENCH: MURRAYHILL2. PAGE LONG-PLAYING LETTERS; THE '50 LOOK; WITH PAUL STANDARD: THE ALPHABET GALLERY; AND SEND THE BILL TO FORTUNE: FRINGES OF TIME: THE RED HOT LETTERERS; QUICK BROWN FOX AND THE OOZYJELLYFISH; OMINOUS TV. PAGE IN REMEMBRANCE OF THE ROYAL AIR FORCE; QUEEN WILHELMINA; DESIGNER HERMANN ZAPF; MAXIMILIEN VOX; ÉCOLE DE LURS. PAGE BICYCLE SIMPLICITY; THE YMCA CAFETERIA: DISAPPOINTMENT IN CHICAGO; STROBE LIGHT ON CREAKY FLOORS: 40X40X40. PAGE84 12/25 COLORFUL CHRISTMAS KEEPSAKES: DEEP DEEP DOWN IN THE VAULTS OF BUDAPEST. PAGE THIRTEEN BY THIRTEEN AND STRAWBERRY RED; THE BALCONY GOES WITH IT; UPSTAIRS DOWN- STAIRS; A NOSTALGIC PARTING. PAGE THE SEVENTEEN FOOT WELCOME;-BUSY NIGHT OWLS; PHOSPHOROUS TRIUMPHANT! PAGE BORDERING ON STEP & REPEAT: SUNDAY ROTO; FROM PETER ROGET 'S MODEL: PEANUTS. PAGE XENOTYPES, POPTYPES, POW, AMERICANA, TYGH- TYPE, PSYCHE DELETYPES, ART DECO, ULTRAS, NOSTALGIA; RENAULT THE WINNER; ALL FOR LOVE; SPECTRAKROME COLORS THE FUTURE; COSMOGRAPHS IN ORBIT; LOOKING BACKTO '13: MISS CONNOR AND MR. RASPBERRY: HOISTING OLD GLORY: BLUM'S ALMANAC. PAGE A GUEST BOOK; HAPPY HOMECOMING FOR THE RUTHERFORDS; BLUE-BLOOD SURGERY. PAGE HALLMARK; REFINING THE KEYBOARD; THE TELEPHONE CALL; AVANT GARDE PAGE PHOTO-LETTERING 'S LEGACY TO THE FUTURE; ALPHABET CRITIQUING: CARTOONISTS & TYPE DESIGNERS; LETTER GEOMETRY; MR. LINCOLN; TYING UP THE LOOSE ENDS: FITTING WHAT'S FIT TO PRINT; VICTOR BORGE & 'WAS I AN IDIOT!?" GHOTE AND GHEAUPHTHEIGHTTEOUGH. P.118 A PICTURE ALBUM OF HIGHLIGHTS IN A LIFE WITH LETTERS. PAGE 141 INDEX. PAGE 190 ix A

12 Introduction CHANGE OF VOICE The voice of the author as he tells the story is represented visually in the text by the type NARRATOR with matching small caps and italics: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ ABCDEFGI-IIJIçLMNoPQftsTuvwxYz abcdefghijlumnopqrstuvwxyz ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQJ(STUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrstuuw.vyz Voices of others quoted in the text are identified by a slightly obliqued derivative of NARRATOR in which the vowel e and several low frequency consonants have been redesigned to suggestachange ofvoice: ABCDEFGHIJIçLMNOpQRTuvwxyz abcdefghijkjmnopqj'stuvwxy NARRATOR was designed for Life with Letters by the author in collaboration w th the staff of Photo-Lettering. Its use is not restricted.

13 THE TASKOF MAKING MANY BOOKS FROM A SINGLE MANUSCRIPT has Challenged man's ingenuity for hundreds ofyears. No matter how skilled an author maybe, his words are but a faint whisper until amplified by print. Only print can effectively multiply the written word; butthis multiplication cannotbe achieved bythe waving of a magic wand. No indeed. Before the middle ofthe fifteenth century every letter in every word on every page of every book was slowly copied by gifted scribes laboring long monotonous hours at dreary writing desks. Then came typesetting. No longer was it necessary to copy each word by hand. Instead, raised letters molded on the tops of slender metal blocks about the size of a small match, billions of them, were hand assembled into words, lines and pages; inked; printed; and carefully separated again for reuse. Setting type manually - assembling and distributing these slender metal spikes, then tediously reassembling and redistributing them over and over and over again continued for more than four centuries, straight through the industrial revolution when other crafts were reaping the benefits of ingenious labor-saving aids. Not until the invention of the Linotype in 1886 did typesetting's first revolution get underway. This step toward labor-saving was followed some fifty years later by pioneeringin quite another direction. At first the new direction received little attention. Then in the late 30s itgained a measure ofcredibility, and still more in the'40s and thereafter. Today, this early effort is seen as the tiny sparkthat ignited the fillfledged photo-typesetting revolution which, at last, has brought the assembly of letters into step with the times, and perhaps even beyond. No attempt is made here to record the minute technicalities of these sweeping changes. Such particulars have been ably recorded by others. This is the story, rather, ofwhatitwas like to live through typesetting's most exciting and challenging period: what it was like, day after day, to live with letters as the revolution ofmolten metal reached maturity only to be eclipsed by the revolution of photo; and to have been in the thickofit all for nearly "three score and ten:' It is the story of only one set of circumstances ftom one person's point of view, but it is a story influenced profoundly and at every turn by the grandeur and power of the twenty-six shapes that shaped history. Edward Rondthaler

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15 A CDEFGH JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 3000 B.C. jf YOU'D LIKE ME TO SHOW YOU themostsignijlcant invention of Western Civilization, then get ready for a big surprise. We woni search in the vaults of any patent office or snoop through the Pentagon's secret files. No indeed. Well make our way to legendary Cairo with itsjibbeh-robed millions crowding the ancient streets. Well hail one of the tattered lithe sailboats that taxi up and down the Nile and ask its wrinkled helmsman to take us to Saqqara. The wind on the Nile is very obliging. It usually comes j±om the Mediterranean and blows steadily against the river current, making it easy for sailboats to navigate in either direction, drifting down with the natural flow, or pushing upstream as a warm breeze tills the sail. Saqqara is three or four hours upriver j±orp Cairo, sailtime, and the peaceful silence of this mode of travel is seldom broken by more than a pleasant lap of water against the bow planking. Every few miles the tempo of life along the shore drops back a thousand years, bringing us slowly into tune with what lies just ahead. Our boatman pulls ashore where a trail leads to the tomb of King Orris. We walkwestward a coupleofmiles leaving behind the lush banks ofthe Nile, and pass quickly into the burning Sahara sands, desolate and forbidding. Here again history leaps backwards, and when we reach the tomb we're more than 3000 years B.C. The first ten rooms are notvery different from those in any number of ancient tombs. Colorful drawings and hieroglyphic writings in picturecharacters record the exploits of King Orris, showing battles won, enemies subdued, and riches piled upon riches. There are pictures ofhorses, servants, captives with hands tied behind their backs, grain, fruit, jewels, pots, and countless other paraphernalia. But the eleventh room is different. Instead of covering the walls of the King's final resting place with royal decorations, the artist broke tradition and drew a rabbit,-water, a knife, a sheaf of cloth, and enclosed all four within an oval. The oval (correctly called a cartouclie) is all-important. It tells the reader that the word-signs within it are to be read acrophonically that only the first sound of each word is to be pronounced. In ancient Egyptian these sounds probably resembled our 0-sound for rabbit, our N-sound for water (Nile), I for knife, and S for cloth. Putting the four together in the same order as pictured we find ourselves pronouncing the name of the King - ONIS - and face to face with an early concept that served as the forerunner ofphonetic writing!

16 Here in this tomb at the edge ofthe barren Sahara we meet the dawn of an idea that led to the most important invention of Western Man: the development ofa system ofgraphic symbols to represent individual phonetic sounds a single symbol for a single sound, rather than a picture for a whole word. Today we take it for granted that symbols - letters - can be strung together one after another to make a written word just as sounds are put together to make a spoken word. We take it for granted that ifeach letter represents a single sound, then our hands can write for our eyes to read any word that our ears can hear. Five thousand years ago this brilliant idea wasjust beginning to come to life. Later in.phoenicia and elsewhere along the eastern Mediterranean it blossomed into complete alphabets that doubled man's power ofcommunication and gave him the ability to write anything he could say. It gave him a permanent, accurate, visual record of speech. The phonetic alphabet, along with its equally remarkable numerals, is the major man-made miracle that underlies our Western Civilization. It serves as areliable way to pass lmowledge from generation to generation; to teach; to broaden the knowledge ofthe learned, and to transmit information and ideas from the learned to the unlearned efficiently and accurately. Without interchangeable phonetic symbols the West could never have overtaken the headstart of ancient Eastern Civilization. In the Orient, China's long adherence to dead-end pictographic writing cramped its progress for 5000 years, ever widening the gap with the West. A short dispatch with vast significance was recently issued by the offical Peking news agency: LtHE CEwtac CO)JIJJJIEE HF the PiEeptVs EPUuLjC F CHINA ANNO UNCED THIS ThenN j u THAT PHONETIC 19nItiN tain4 THE TJtAI3ITIONAC ROMAN ACPHAUET SOON!3E INtt%ODt4Cfl3 1NTP YUNAN PQOVINCE' Ifa similar dispatch had been issued in3000 B.C. we'd be li v ing in a world very different from the one we now see around us. Our science, technology, education, art, ethics, political and economic systems, race relationships, and probably our religion and philosophy would all have strong Oriental overtones. It is fascinating to picture what the world would be like if both East and West had shared in the use of phonetic symbols. Nothing man-made has been more influential than letters: their magic keeps speech from vanishing into thin air; their magic passes on to us the speech, the knowledge, the wisdom of earlier generations. Deeply implanted in letters is the magic that makes speech stand still. A.D. 900 TODAY WE USE OUR 26 LETTERS as ifthey were part oforiginal Creation like gravity or day and night. That's a high compliment to pay a manmade idea. The old Saqqara scribe would be surprised and pleased. In reality our particular 26 letters are not very ancient. Our capitals date backonly 2000 years. Creek and Hebrew letters are much older. But let me tell you a delightful story about a newer alphabet - Cyrillic - now used chiefly in Russia, Bulgaria, and parts ofyugoslavia. Just a thousand years ago a Greek king married a Bulgarian princess who, upon moving to Athens, became fascinated with the way in which

17 the Greeks could write with letters. When her two sons, Cyril and Methodius, were old enough she encouraged them to develop a set of letters for the Slavic sounds so that her people in Bulgaria could have this wonderful means of recording their words. This the young men did, and under the auspices ofthe Eastern O?thodox Church they brought alphabetic writing to Bulgaria. Later the letters followed the Church into Bohemia and eventually into Russia, and Cyril and Methodius were honored by being sainted. The shape ofcyrillic letters as seen today in Russian newspapers has changed quite a bit ifom the drawings of a thousand years ago, but that made them no less exciting when I first encountered them in Bulgaria. My wife and I had learned the sounds of Cyrillic characters in preparation for this great moment - our first face-to-face meeting with an unfamiliar alphabet. As the plane ji-om Budapest moved southeastward it passed high over the Danube River, the natural boundary between Roumania and Bulgaria. I looked out of the window and in imagination saw our familiar Roman letters on the Roumanian side, and across the river in Bulgaria the exciting new Cyrillic shapes we'd soon be seeing in Sofia. A short taxi ride whisked us ftom the airport to our hotel on the outskirts of the city. After getting settled we took a battered old trolley downtown and got off at an impressive building bearing a Cyrillic inscription that I carefully deciphered. It was the municipal library. On the far wings were enormous poster-pictures of Lenin and, I suppose, some other important Communist. Over the main entrance hung a smaller poster of two bearded old patriarchs. I liked to think that these were Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, but knew very well that in an atheistic country no pictures of saints would be displayed in public. We walked on to the central square, a small version ofmoscow's wellknown Red Square. Many posters of Communist greats decorated the buildings and some were even lying on the yellow brick pavement, an ancient pavement given to a princess as a wedding present! The square itselfwas almost empty. This puzzled us, but we were even more puzzled to see crowds ofyoung people pouring into the main boulevard beyond. Something was about to happen and we climbed to a porch nearby to take some pictures. Here we could see far down the boulevard. It was packed with young people of high school and college age. Suddenly a stem voice blared an order through a loudspeaker. This was followed by stirring liturgical music, and the throng moved forward in orderly fashion twenty-five abreast - I counted them. Many of the marchers wore semi-athletic uniforms, some carried flags, but there was no clue to the meaning ofit all. Before long an elderly man who had overheard us talking sidled up and asked in very broken English, (Aie M1j F$'M )IMesic'l?)' We assured him that we were and he told us how, back in the '20s, he had gone to college in Ohio. As soon as I could break in politely I asked what the parade was all about. t H, THia ia juat TH3 psactice," he said. ((He)KT TueaauLi fa TH3 big ceieb5iattth. OLL9 pneaieih, CnhIblMai T$aiRIi AH6 ma atnvv null Be in TH3 qbaila-at)lha Tc Vesaee THe MACH. I wpe L44uxe g4iug T Be HeBe 4n Tueadji q. Unfortunately that was the day we were leaving for Moscow. "But what is next Tuesday?' I asked him. 44ec Tueaanq! - ujhti THJIT& M)J'-1 TH3 TIueHTM- F4)WITH!" And when he realized that the date meant nothing to me, ((THRTa 1H3 aaq are celeaxate TH3 begil4nig or rh3 )ITpwlb37F!" ABCDEFG 3 44

18 0 Pfioto9raphs f thc parnde iffbefrunton page z4z Then we heard the whole magnificent stow. The end of the school year calls for a week of celebration a celebration focused on the gift of education. The great symbol of Slavic education, unuerlying it all and making it all possible is, of course, the Cyrillic Alphabet. In Bulgaria the alphabet is only a thousand years old young enough not to be taken for granted; new enough to be revered, appreciated, treasured, and given the worthiest of honors. Up the street came a banner carried proudly by several marchers showing Cyril and Methodius dressed in their clerical robes and flanked, behold, by Karl Marx and other notable communists! The sun set but the march continued, and as our self-appointed guide led us back through the park on the way to the hotel he pointed out stalls where new boob would be displayed during Alphabet Week, and where special benches were set up under the trees for quiet reading and meditation. On Tuesday morning we were up at sunrise and watched the youngsters assemble for the great parade. At a newsstand i picked up one of the morning papers and there, on the front page in heroic size, was a drawing of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius holding high a red circle in which were the Bulgarian equivalent of our letters "AB"! 1450 ONE OF THE NICE THINGS aboutgetting excited over letters isthatyou're always in the best Of Company. If your hobby is tennis you can revel in the pleasure of sharing an enthusiasm along with the champions of the game: Bill Cage, Don Budge, Rod Laver,John Newcombe and even Bill Tilden, or at least with his memory. If your hobby is stamp collecting you're of one mind with a number of distinguished philatelists: King Farouk, King George V, Cardinal Spellman, Bjorn Lydersen, and Franklin Roosevelt, all of whom have amassed great stamp collections. But if the alphabet is your hobby you're in the best company of all: Aristotle, Plato, Shakespeare, Gutenberg, King James, Samuel Johnson, Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, A. Lincoln, Ernest Hemingway, Hermann Zapf, Eugene Ettenberg, Norman Cousins, Tom Wicker, Winston Churchill, and Franklin Roosevelt too all of them and many other greats have shown their expertise in using the alphabet superbly. I well remember my first contact with Johann Gutenberg. Although he was not of my generation I've often felt a closeness to him, but never closer than on the night of October 14, I was in the City of Gutenberg, otherwise known as Mainz on the Rhine. We arrived by river boat from Coblenz, and by the time we'd settled in the hotel it was night and very dark The city had not JitIly recovered from war damage, as evidenced by a major lack of street lighting. But inspired by the thrill of this first night in the cradle oftypesetting where in 1450 Gutenberg cast his first type - I set out on a midnight walk, able to see very little and not having the slightest idea where I was going. At one point my path was blocked by a wall or what might have been the pedestal ofa monument, I do not know; but when I reached up I could feel some letters carved in stone and as my fingers traced them slowly one by one it seemed to me that they were spelling out in the old rectangular shapes of German fraktur letters the word "Gutenberg"! I didn't go back next morning to verify it. For me that was a face-to-face visit with the great inventor of movable type, and I'm not one to run the riskofspoiling it with daylight. 4

19 And then there's a little story I value because it says so much in just two words: The high school son of a friend of mine was filling out his college application blank. To the question "What person has had the greatest influence on your educatioñ7'he answered, 7Ohann Gutenberg." As WE TURN THE CALENDAR BACK TO 1450 we see that Gutenberg was the right man in the right place at the right time. The legacy of Saqqara had reached a bottleneck: there was far greater demand for books than scribes "With pen in hand" could ever satisfy. Printing from large wooden blocks was not new, indeed we have reason to believe that some earlier dreamer had experimented with small interchangeable wooden blocks supporting single letters, but it wasjohann Gutenberg who brought that dream into reality. Albrecht Boiza, grandson of the inventor of an early printing press, stated it correctly: a Ideas are Often to befound when their time is ripe; to announce them to the world is usuallynot difficult, but to find the means to transform them into reality needs a great mäni' Gutenberg was that man. As a craftsman skilled in the use of goldsmith's tools he perfected the technique for cutting a raised letter on the end of a punch or rectangular metal rod. The rod was then hardened and the raised letter hammered (or punched) into a small bar ofcopperwhich formed the matrix or base of a rectangular mold into which hot lead was poured to cast type lead duplicates of the letter originally cut on the punch. By changing the matrix, various letters could be cast in the same adjustable mold. The genius in these miniature castings that we call type is not just that they support a raised letter, but that they secure its position and determine its spacing as well. Combining these three features in a single casting was an achievement of such magnitude that it remained unchallenged for centuries. Gutenberg's brilliance, however, was not welcomed by the scribes of his day. Like many inventors he was a threat to the status quo, and cautiously carried on his workbehind closed doors. To keep the enterprise solvent he found it necessary to imitate manuscript letters so perfectly that buyers rarely suspected his books ofibeing printed from type. It has been suggested, tongue in cheekof course, that Gutenberg was our first counterfeiter. A more worthy appraisal is to credit him with a keen awareness of public prejudice against novelty in so highly regarded an art as the making ofbooks. When finally the idea of printing from type was accepted, then and only then could type be less imitative of the scribes' letterforms. Shapes became more legible, more compatible with metal casting and the elimination of most ligatures (two letters linked together on the same block) drastically reduced the number ofdifferent characters required. More than three and half centuries passed by with no significant change in the printing industry. Then the giant began to stir. Between 1800 and 1875 the speed of printing presses increased from 250 impressions per hour to 12,000. Papermaking was mechanized. Bookbinding machines were introduced. Electrotypes, stereotypes, collotype, Senefelder's lithographic press, mechanical type casting devices, and aids to punch cutting and matrix making all came into being. Yet typesetting itself the very heart of the printed word remained unchanged. Progress in typesetting methods had scarcely moved an inch since It An excellent description 4the art 4puneft cutting and Vpe casting is given in Chaptei-3 of Wasteit Cltappews AM en Histo.y of the Printed Want pubuslvdareda. Xnapf, mo 1'- PUNCH I4LATRLX CAST TYPE - ununun1irutrr.ttnithiutititnt. igs in Do= ccu Itguton iatgrn WMIM=JUMOM qwuttpio4 lugunt gltbrrahunwr:ii into knit uabreinittiotübuttuwrsiair AfEw lines (inrcdncedsite)fnnn Gutenberg's fatuous Bible pnnietbts.co. Full size reproductions eon beftnaid in 'Host libraries. One 4the original Bibles 'nov be seen in the Jr. Morgan Lihran in New Toils. Et in moran ad digitos It flguratio 'Cis parurn adrniitt exit mittce ut aut poftit:auc debea to tarn dedlinationem uint indp This specimen shows how radically type design changed in its first twen! years, and how Gutenberg's liberal use of connected pairs 4 letters (internist to simulate manuscript writing) geve wee to fewer pain and greater legibility

20 was still a totally manual operation; still so drearily slow that the average compositor spent most of a week setting and distributing a single newspaper page. After 400 years, the typesettter not the scribe was now the industry's.botflenecic It's easy to picture the urgent drive for a more mechanized method of typesetting. NewYorknewspaper publishers offered prizes totalling half a million dollars tax free and uninflated to any inventor who could save even 25% of the work ofhand composition. This challenge brought 127 different proposals for composing machines. The Patent Office was inundated. We are told that the complexity of these inventions caused one examiner to lose his mind. The laurels in this frantic race to speed the assembly of letters go to the son ofa German school teacher in a tiny village some fifty miles east of Heidelberg. Ottmar Mergenthaler, at the age of thirteen, showed his aptitude for mechanics by repairing the clock in the village's church tower after the official clocicmaker had given up the task as hopeless. Probably as a result ofthis feat the boy was apprenticed to a watchmaker for four years, then made his way to America where he worked in a model-making establishment building workable miniatures of inventions to be submitted to the Patent Office. The inventors he met, the models he builtfor them, and the stories he.heard about the urgent need for keyboard typesettingfired young Ottmar's imagination. For a man in his twenties he approached this challenge with rinarkable maturity: "Watchmaking had taught me precision," he later said, "I learned to temper a spring to thejinest degree, to combine the constituents of metal alloys in exact proportion. I learned to cut out thejlnest teeth, to make pins, toborejewels withjlrm, steady pressure. I realized that if movement was to work it must be considered as a whole, that each part had to be perfect in itselfandhamionize with evryother." That sobering statement is one that most inventors would do well to remember. So many get carried away with half-inventions, usually the easy half, hoping that some magic will take care of the rest. As a little boy I was fortunate in making friends with a carpenter at the college where my father taught. Mr. Burrage had seen manyyears go by, and considered himself not only a master carpenter but an inventor. I guess he found me a better listener than most of his adult friends, so I had the benefit of his confidence. He told me about a perpetual motion machine he was making at home, and offered to show it to me on that great day when he would start it. But the invitation never came. Thus I learned that it's better not to set a firm date for the completion of one's invention. Another time he said he'd invented a wonderflil new washing machine that would boost the American standard of living. His description seemed to indicate that the mechanism was hand operated. The only washing machines I'd seen were all electrically powered, even in so primitive a year as It was very brash ofme, but I asked Mr. Burrage if he thought many people would buy a washing machine that wasn't electric. I'll never forget his answer: "Let a man getup an hour earlyand do his wife washing before he goes to work" That wasthe trouble with most ofthe prdposed typesetting machines. In practice they neither made the work easier nor faster. A pair of nimble hands were far more reliable. Some machines just set the type without distributing it. One of them required seven operators to equal the work of two ordinary compositors.

21 Mergenthaler took a back door approach: he tuned the problem upside down. Whereas Gutenberg had made a single costly matrix from which multiple pieces of type could be cast, Mqrgenthaler did precisely the opposite: he brought down the cost ofthe matrix to the point where multiple matrices could be set side by side and afhll line oftype produced at one casting. Of course it wasn't just that simple: there's much more to Mergenthaler's machine than that But at the heart of the solution lay the ability to produce a 6-cent matrix ofgood quality. It was the watchmaker's precision plus dogged determination that each part be not only perfect within itselfbut harmonize with every other part that led, onjuly 2,1886, to a successful demonstration in the composing room of The New York Tribune. On that occasion the famous publisher, Whitlaw Reid, seeing the machine cast complete lines, exclaimed "Why that's a line o' type!" and the name LINOTYPE was born LOOKING BACK. ABOUT A HUNDRED YEARS we find that the appeal of printing, particularly the excitement of newspaper publishin g, often filtered down to the amateur level. Thousands upon thousands ofboys set up small presées in bedrooms or barns and began to print newspapers. My father was among them. He joined with a friend, Andrew Patterson, and together they published The Enterprise. It was printed whenever the spirit moved them. The first of four pages, about half the size of a post card, usually carried some factual reporting on a timely story like the Sunday School picnic last month, or the recovery of a lost dog. Page two followed with names ofthe proprietors and their tides spelled out in fall; subscription rates (io issues forio); "exchanges" with other boy-printed papers and, if lucky, perhaps a small ad donated by the local bather in trade for a haircut Page three was a mixture ofriddles, jokes, and possibly a word puzzle. Page four could be the classified section ifthe proprietors had friends who swapped stamps, marbles, birds' eggs, etc; otherwise it was likely to list the various printing services offered by the establishment. Circulation was rarely more than twenty-five, including parents, grandparents, uncles, aunts, nearby neighbors, and a few out-oftown subscribers. The latter could have exotic addresses like Alaska or Nicaragua if a missionary friend ofthe family's happened to be stationed there. It was a rare editor who could resist the temptation to comment, in print, on the publication's pride in having worldwide circulation. In typesetting, of course, everything is reversed as in a mirror. This reversal applies not only to the letters and words themselves, but to the position ofthe page on the press. Since many amateur papers are printed two pages at a time the inside pair are likely to be reversed: page one will have its opening on the lefthand side rather than on the right. But it never mattered; what was important was that thousands ofboys were getting a three-dimensional "feel" for letters and for words a feel that is somehow more tangible than pen or typewriter. Recently I've been told that typesetting in rehabilitation centers has remarkable therapeutic value, and that in our schools some of the teachers are using three dimensional letters in the early grades. Schools today certainly need to find some way to teach our children how to read and write but more about that later. This is Ottmar Mergent hater's.nexpenstve inati. The fetter rto(tf may 6eseen sunk into the matrix faa ontfiec'tside; thetflichaessofffwnietat tetn,ntjws the wie(tfroccupiel - - by the (etter in a word; the v-thamtet has a sawtooth coding that eh r. autcnnatic strttutto,t after casting.!e= selsm /1

22 EMP-Mmmoor Snp(ès from the n4bscr pc pflss ire shown at the top of page 144 TTT TT.,t4 ' rai MY OWN INITIATION into the wonders of print came at the age of five from an unplanned visit to the Winston-Salem JournaL Uncle Bob had written something for the paper and suggested that we deliver it together. Up in the editorial office you could hear the press thundering down in the basement, so we went to investigate. No brilliant sunrise, no snowcapped mountain nor starry sky ever captured a boy's eye with more power than those whirling cylinders on that big rotary press spewing out papers faster*han I could count even faster than Uncle Bob could. My escort got the message. On Christmas morning when I opened the biggest package, it was a printing press! and I was hooked for life.. The press was a bantam rubber type affair made to looka little like the Journal's big rotary press except, of course, that it did not thunder in the basement It had speed but not much else. Except ink. The ink was equally tenacious on paper, clothes, and face. Theodore, my brother six years older, comforted me with the observation that a boy's skin changes every seven years so I'd lookbetterby the time I went to high school. Setting type at the age of five is slow and tedious, hardly more than a word or two an hour; so I was delighted when my father brought home one ofthe old Oliver typewriters from the college. He really gave it to the whole family, but since I pampered it with loving affection the Oliver soon became my typewriter. Some of the keys were broken, the most serious being e. But I found that by striking c and drawing a stroke through it I could get a very respectable e. Sometime later I discovered that a hyphen struck directly over the c produced a beautiful e without using a pencil at all. The Oliver didn't make for high volume bookproducton which was my true goal, but it was a valued pastime for rainy days. Mother hoped it would help my spelling but I could see she was disappointed with my book on camping where scrambled eggs were spelled "slcamlx." In those days the heads of small colleges must have been an easy markfor salesmen ofduplicatingmachines, Dad was forever buying new gadgets to cut down the institution's printing bills; and I became the ultimate recipient of anything that wouldn't work meaning most of the new purchases. My collection of decrepit college duplicators may have looked like a scrap yard to some fastidious adults, but it served very well to move me onward and upward in the world of print. The rotary rubber type press had a short revival in third grade when Frank Shafiher and I issued a daily paper after school. It was a paper of minimum news and editorial content, but that was of no moment since the only reason for publishing was to make deliveries by pony Franks pony a sort ofpaul Revere operation that ended disgracefully when our mothers caught us offbounds riding up busy Main Street Then on my tenth birthday Grandfather Boring in Philadelphia, who had a marvelous way of knowing precisely what a boy was longing for, gave me a Baltimorean press with lead type and a 2 x3 ½"chase. The type was only half normal height-to-paper, but it printed well and the ink was controllable. I could now retire the Oliver and all the limping duplicators. I was a real printer, at last This must have impressed my parents. On the following Christmas the big package was a new3x5"kelsey press with what could be found of the old type and cases that my dad and his partner used back in 1885.

23 THE YEARS BETWEEN MY FATHERS PRINTING ADVENTURES AND MYOWN were rough ones for the unsuccessful ihvehtorsbftypesettingmathines as well as for many of the small type foundries allover America. Inventors are loath to abandon their pet ideas no matter how bleak the outlook. Ottmar Mergenthaler's machine, it must be remembered, was not an instant success. There were a hundred thousand typesetters lined up against it. The quality of the Linotype's product was legible but by no means measured up to good hand setting. The physical appearance of the machine, moreover, was uncommonly clumsy and provided typesetters with a natural butt for snide remarks between juicy shots at the cuspidor. Even though a thousand Linotypes were clicking awayjust six years after the famous NewYorkTribune demonstration, many inventors convinced themselves that the field was still open. Indeed, the Linotype was novel enough in 1893 to create a sensation at the Chicago World Fair. Translated into family life this meant that until the end of the century inventors were assuring their wives that down in the basement was the machine that would eclipse Mr. Merganthaler's, and bring riches to their home just as soon as a few details were finished. That position was not totally invalid. It was not until 1899 thattolbert Lanston's Monotype reached commercial acceptability. For fifty years thereafter it easily eclipsed the Linotype in quality bookcomposition. Perhaps a good contestant doesn't quitthe race when the front runner crosses the finish line, but inventor Rene Dacheau of Belgium kept running long after the spectators had left the stadium. In 1912 he finally unveiled his complicated "Pantotype" which set foundry type automatically but it was far far too late. The immediate impact of the Linotype was largely in America. In England the pace was slower. Several very influential private presses were being established, the first of which was William Morris' Kelmscott Press in The long range objective ofprivate presses was to upgrade the quality of book printing and perhaps printing in general by demonstrating how today's printers could adapt and build on the enormous heritage of fine book printing handed down from the distant past. Most of these small enterprises had at least one distinctive typeface privately designed, cut, and castfor its own use. Needless to say they were all hand set. In every case the face was ofa conservative style and based on letter forms developed three or four hundred years earlier. While none of the presses produced more th?n a few titles in very limited editions, the exquisite quality of typographic design, composition, pressmanship, paper and binding made a lasting impact on the printing industry, and may to some extent explain why mechanical typesetting did not make greater inroads on hand composition. Private presses may well have been responsible for the appeal of Monotype's better quality in book composition a middle ground between hand setting and Linotype. America, too, had its share of those who stood up for traditional excellence. In 1893 Daniel B. Updike established the Merrymount Press in Boston. Bruce Rogers and William Rudge are also remembered for the finest in craftsmanship. Ben Franklin, printer, would have been proud of the unswerving integrity and high level of scholarship that these eminent printers brought to the industry. drsignesfr, Wuaam Mo,ts flit h4s ptivate ptcu. Ee A

24 Meanwhile typefounders in Continental Europe were looking for a bulwark against the day when Mr. Merganthaler's Big Bad Wolf would RZ Cc BM?f dg b tap on the door. They plunged headlong into Art Nouveau designs, or.jugeridstil as the avant garde was called in Germany. It was a free-for-all Ad Ub Cc Ud c FT ag for type designers and they made the most of it. Two volumes of the %a 13b Cc Dd EC misleadingly named Petzendotfer Atlas published about 1904 give abundant evidence of the scores of exotic faces produced by thriving little ad MCC Do ae &I Ug European typefoundries at the turn of the century. Their frantic effort undoubtedly delayed the mechanical onslaught, and has left for us a Eta Bb Cc lid EE treasure chest ofhighly imaginative designs. As for the little foundries in our own country, they were a nervous wreck after the 1886 bombshell. The handwriting was on the wall. Whisfling in the dark cured nothing. Since most of the foundries were run for profit rather than love of letters it took only a few years until the moneyminded owners began to talk consolidation. Thus the great American Type Founders Company came into being as the amalgamation of more than twenty small establishments. The basic idea was a sound one: if foundry type was to have a profitable future, everything possible would have to be done to give it the advantage of standardization, efficient manufacture, and a strong selling organization. ATF worked as well as anything could. In due time each foundry sent its punches, mats, and casters to the jersey City headquarters. Most foundries had at least one face that wasvery popular, and when these winners were all put together and promoted by a vigorous team of salesmen working out of eleven branches - not just offices but real buildings spread from Chicago to Dallas and from Seattle to Boston it represented a lot ofpower. In at least one case the amalgamation didn't pan out quite the way it was planned on paper. Barnhart Brothers & Spindler probably had the best type designs of any, and the new consolidation hoped to make the most ofthese prestigious faces. But when the movers drove their wagons up to the foundry on Monroe Street in Chicago they found something they weren't prepared for. Many of the casting machines and hundreds of the mats had some little peculiarity known only to the gray haired operators who over the years had developed a feel for each machine and each matrix. Some of the casters were, of necessity, canted off balance with little wedges "because they work better that way' Many a matrix needed to be shimmed up or run hotter or cooler to minimize defects. It was a maze of minute but very important exceptions recorded only in the agingminds ofthose who had lived with them a potential nightmare for the big operation in.jersey City. The movers were faced with some tough decisions on that day and wisely chose to leave BB&S where it was, to stop advertising the faces even though they were highly prestigious, and to hope that demand for them would subside about the same time the old operators passed away. Steve Watts, sales manager for ATF, told me that story many years ago, and followed it with another that is appropriate here even though it comes from a later period. Steve shared my love for alphabets, but he and I had an even closer bond that dated back to 1919 when he set type in the Scoggin Print Shop in Winston-Salem just a few months before Mr. Scoggin became the apple ofmy eye. The second story came from an old keeper of the mats injersey City who told it to Steve on retirement: During World War II some highly motivated Washington clerk sent a memo to ATF ordering it to sell, at premium junk prices, all mats that

25 A had not been used for ten years. The brass was needed for war production. That was agreeable to the ATF officials who by that time were far more wedded to dollars than to sentiment. Sp the memo was dispatched with official blessingto the keeper fthe mats. The keeper, however, was cutfrom avery different cloth. He knew the history ofeach matrix. It was like sending his own children to the guillotine. So for the next few weekends he stealthily carried, one by one, the old packages of historically significant matrices into a corner ofthe basement and built up a barricade of boxes to hide them. When the junk dealer arrived some nondescript brass was loaded into the truck, all requirements satisfied and, as Steve himself major, wryly observed, 'the Army had plenty of its own brass that should have been melted downjlrst." The consolidated ATF made its bow with the 1896 catalog, followed by another in Ten years later the big 12-pound red bookgave evidence of a thriving organization. By a stroke of luck I got a copy of the bookwhen I was ten, in It was my bible from that day forward. In our house reading the comics on Sunday was forbidden. But the ban did not extend to the ATF catalog, and a long sermon in church was the standard prelude to a happy afternoon on the livingroom floor absorbing page after page ofthis fascinatingbook, memorizing type names, ranges, prices, and font schemes, dreaming ofthe day when I could send an order to that big factory injersey City, the factory with 662 windows and the glamorous address "300 Communipaw Avenue' Little did I suspect that within a few years I'd be opening the heavy front door at 300 Communipaw and stepping inside. Flit' 1915 THE 3x5 KELSEY PRESS was a great success. I had to give up my idea of printing books because books had too many words. But a newspaper was within reach. This time it was Vol. I No.1 ofthe NEWS. I liked that name for three excellent reasons: It would.not be confused with any other Winston-Salem paper; seven letters was not too long for the width of the page, and I had just enough bold type to set it I didn't know it at the time but since all my type was pre-1886 it was not sized to the American point system, the industry standard since then. The body type of which I had a reasonable supply was probably "small pica' It was a simple legible letter somethin'like Montecelld. I had two sizes of Old English and two scripts, one of which was a sloped Spencerian with sharp kerned wings sticking out from the letters, and double wings on the lowercase f the kind ofthing that's a prized collector's item today. Then I had brass rules, ornamental brass dashes, long and short braces, fists, paragraph marks, fractions, 1-and 2-em dashes, 3-and 4-em quads with nicks that matched the small pica type, and plenty of ornamental dingbats which, of course, I greatly overused. Such primitive equipment seems pretty remote today, but in 1915 it was just a step behind the times. I had no composing stickto hold in my hand as I set the type - indeed, being entirely self-taught, I had never heard of one; but, thanks to Kelsey, the chase on the 3x5 press had a solid back, so it served as a typesetter's stick when propped up on one corner or held in my lap. Looking back I wonder how lever managed to compose a frill page, but at the age often an overwhelming desire to print makes trifles out of such inconveniences. TypicaL U9CS Cf The News printeifoitthe 3x5 Ke(stypreas are shon',t on the bottom Of 1 44.

26 Rejnolluction ofathuwing 4thntercarfysakmn is on Pa9c OUR HOUSE WAS BUILT IN 1811 by the Moravian silversmith and watchmaker John Volger. There were numerous evidences of his craftsmanship on the door handles and other hardware. In the late 1950s it was completely restored, and visitors to the Old Salem restoration in Winston-Salem are now guided through its rooms by costumed hostesses. I have searched for some remaining evidence of the fourth estate, but there is none: not even the printers ink spilled on the floor many years ago by a young publisher. Back in 1811 my room was of normal size; but when plumbing came to Salem a third ofit was sliced offto make a bathroom, and another third for the hallway leading thereto. Yet cramped quarters never mattered to a youthful printer, and I managed to pack into 9x9 feet the editorial offices and pressroom of THE NEWS and a bed. The enterprise also operated as a job shop under the name "Footprint Shop." I never liked the name, but an adult neighbor suggested it and I thought it must be good. After more than sixty years I still can't see any brilliance in it. Job printing became the chief source of income. It must have averaged somewhere around 15 a month. That would have been four dozen visiting cards printed in Old English. They were the most popular item. The going rate for boy-printed cards was 5C a dozen. Since there were no Fair Trade laws at that time I could undercut the market by charging 3 ½C, and justified it with this rationale: 3½ would look like a real bargain compared with my competitor's 5', and I hoped that most ofmypotential clients would be tempted to order two dozen to avoid the fractional loss accompanying single dozen; so I'd be 2Q ahead. As a matter Of fact it always worked out that way; the only trouble was that I'd forgotten to figure in the cost.ofthe blankcards. By far the biggest order came from Viola, our cook, who wanted twenty-five copies of a sentimental poem she'd cut out of a newspaper. I had no paper for anything so large, but took courage in hand and went up to the Crist & Keehln print shop where Blum 's Almanac was printed. Old Mr. Crist was hand setting the almanac but he recognized me, appreciated my predicament, and carefully cut the paper to size. Then I asked how much it would be, and got a surprise answer that taught me a lot: "Nothingfor the paper; a niclçelfor the time:' During the month it took to set Violas poem I pondered what Mr. Crist had said: "Nothingjbr the paper; a nickelfor the time." Could time be worth more than paper? It didn't seem quite right. I kept wondering how this fitted in with my hope of35 or 40 cents for printing the poem. That hope, however, had yet a greater hurdle to cross. When the job was finished but before ii: was delivered my mother asked me what I planned to charge Viola. When I timidly suggested forty cents she said it was too large a part ofviola's salary, that I'd better make it twenty-five. Money surprises, however, were not always of that kind. As a tenderfoot scout doing my bit to help Troop 9 reach its wartime quota of Liberty Bond sales, I hesitantly approached Mr. Herbert Pfohl, hoping he would buy one. He bought five! Mr. Pfohi has been gone for a long time, but I still have the deepest gratitude for the courage he gave to that shy little salesman. He knew precisely what he was doing. He knew only too well that what he was teaching me had far greater potential for growth than the bonds. 12

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