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1 A Review of Turabian 8th Edition Changes From the Turabian 7th Edition The majority of the changes in the Turabian 8th Edition are in regard to formatting online resources. Additionally, many subsections in the Manual have been renumbered, making it easier to find particular references; most notably in chapters 15, 16, 17, 18, and Revising Your Draft 9.1 Check for Blind Spots in Your Argument In this added section, the editors suggest that you check your argument s reasoning before improving your sentences. 15 General Introduction to Citation Practices 15.1 Reasons for Citing Your Sources A reminder about plagiarism is added in the final paragraph. Plagiarism is still also covered in and The Requirements of Citation Information Required in Citations Para. 5 identifies the need for better documentation of online material so that readers will be able to locate the original source. The writer needs to provide answers to four questions (previously three questions): Who wrote, edited, translated, or was otherwise responsible for creating the source? What data identify it? Who published it and when? Where can it be found? 15.3 Two Citation Styles Author-Date Style The term for the parenthetical style of citation has been changed from Reference List Style to Author-Date Style. The 8th ed. adds this information on how to cite: The publication date immediately follows the name of the author, making it easy to follow a parenthetical citation to its corresponding entry in the reference list (Turabian 2013, 139) Electronic Sources This section (formerly Citation of Electronic Sources) has been expanded and subcategorized Information in Citations Para. 1 indicates that online sources provide information that may change and therefore may make it difficult for the reader to locate as well as question the authority and reliability of a source. Para. 2 warns that many websites do not have identifiable authors, publishers, or sponsors; therefore they are the equivalent of any other anonymous source. TURABIAN 8TH EDITION CHANGES [1]

2 Para. 3 warns that online content can be revised without notice and there are no standards for indicating revisions. Para. 4 warns that online content may be simultaneously available from more than one site, some more reliable than others. Para. 5 warns that online resources are located through a URL (uniform resource locator), and that URLs can change or disappear unexpectedly. It may be impossible for your reader to find your original content. It is necessary, therefore, to include as much information as possible about your resource Two Categories of Sources 1. Many online sources are like print sources in every way except medium (i.e. online books, newspapers, etc.). Cite these sources as you would the paper version, add the date accessed, and include the URL or DOI. More details on this can be found in chapters 17 and Other types of online sources (institutional, personal websites, social networking services) are unique to the medium. These sources may lack the standard facts of publication. See 17.7 (bibliography style) and 19.7 (author-date style) for more details on citing these types of sources URLs and Access Dates Always include the full facts of publication, plus the URL. Capitalize the components of a URL exactly as they appear on your screen (it is a good idea to use copy & paste). Do not enclose the URL in brackets; see for guidelines. Sometimes a website will give a preferred form of the URL. If so, use the preferred form instead of your browser s address. Some sources are identified by a DOI (digital object identifier). DOIs are more stable than a URL. When citing a source with a DOI, use the phrase followed by the DOI number. The example of Journal Article Online in section 7 of Figure 16.1 (p. 148) demonstrates this formatting for the DOI. Always include the last date accessed in your citation. For more details see and Commercial Databases Many online sources (LexisNexis Academic, Liberty s Online Library, etc.) will list a recommended URL or DOI. If no suitably short and direct URL exists, you may substitute the name of the database for the URL. See and for more details Other Electronic Media Other electronic media (download, CD, DVD) is cited the same way as printed material with additional information about the medium. See , , and Citation Management Software This section makes recommendations about the advantages of using citation management software when doing online research. Previously, the 7th ed. warned against using this type of software. TURABIAN 8TH EDITION CHANGES [2]

3 16 Notes-Bibliography Style: The Basic Form 16.1 Basic Patterns Abbreviations In a bibliography the terms editor, translator, and volume are often spelled out when they introduce an element (Edited by) but are abbreviated when concluding it (ed. or eds.). In notes these terms are always abbreviated Bibliographies Types of Bibliographies Para. 4, Annotated Bibliographies: In the 7th ed., the first line of explanatory text in an annotated bibliography entry is indented; however, in the 8th ed. the explanatory text is formatted with a.5 hanging indentation Arrangement of Entries This section has been subdivided into 4 subcategories Alphabetical by Author has no changes from the 7th ed Special Types of Names provides information on how to cite authors whose names consist of more than a readily identifiable first and last name. For example, compound names, names with particles, names beginning with Mac, Saint, or o, Spanish names, Arabic names, and Chinese/Japanese names Other than Alphabetical provides information for when an order other than alphabetical would be more useful to the reader Categorized Listings provides information on how to organize a longer bibliography into categories. 17 Notes-Bibliography Style: Citing Specific Types of Sources 17.1 Books Author s Name has been broken into multiple subcategories, as follows: Editor or Translator in Addition to an Author Editor or Translator in Place of an Author Organization as Author Pseudonym Anonymous Author The subsection Special Types of Names, which appeared after Anonymous Author in the 7th ed., has been moved to and duplicated in Title now includes subsection numbers for Special Elements in Titles ( ), Older Titles ( ), and Non-English Titles ( ). The material is the same as in the 7th ed. TURABIAN 8TH EDITION CHANGES [3]

4 Edition now includes subsection numbers for Revised Editions ( ) and Reprint Editions ( ). The material is the same as in the 7th ed The 7th ed. section Page Numbers and Other Locating Information has been moved and updated. It appears in the 8th ed. as section , URLs and Access Dates Electronic Books has additional information and examples for citing e-books Journal Articles The 7th ed. section Articles Published Online has been removed Newspaper Articles Citing Newspapers in Notes This section gives several examples of notes but no longer includes instructions for headline or sentence-style capitalization; however, headline and sentence-style capitalization is addressed in Websites, Blogs, Social Networks, and Discussion Groups This section replaces the 7th ed. section Informally Published Electronic Sources. It is broken into four subsections Websites, Blog Entries and Comments, Social Networking Services, and Electronic Discussion Groups and Mailing Lists and provides information on proper citation of each type of source Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts Videos and Podcasts provides information on how to cite this new source of online information Texts in the Visual and Performing Arts combines and replaces the 7th ed. sections , Video Recordings, and , Texts in the Visual and Performing Arts The 7 th ed. section Online Multimedia Files has been removed Public Documents Presidential Publications The public papers of US presidents are collected in two multivolume works. To cite items from these collections, follow the recommendations for multivolume works in Publications of Government Departments and Agencies The information on citation of publications issued by government commissions has been removed. 18 Author-Date Style: The Basic Form 18.2 Reference Lists The Special Types of Names section has been added. The same information is also provided in TURABIAN 8TH EDITION CHANGES [4]

5 19 Author-Date: Citing Specific Types of Sources 19.1 Books Electronic Books has additional information for when citing e-books, as well as rules and examples for including a URL Journal Articles The 7th ed. section Articles Published Online has been removed Websites, Blogs, Social Networks, and Discussion Groups This section replaces the 7th ed. section Informally Published Electronic Sources. It is broken into four subsections Websites, Blog Entries and Comments, Social Networking Services, and Electronic Discussion Groups and Mailing Lists and provides information on proper citation of each type of source Sources in the Visual and Performing Arts Videos and Podcasts provides information on citation of this new source of online information Texts in the Visual and Performing Arts combines and replaces the 7th ed. sections , Video Recordings, and , Texts in the Visual and Performing Arts The 7 th ed. section Online Multimedia Files has been removed Public Documents Presidential Publications The public papers of US presidents are collected in two multivolume works: to cite items in these collections follow the recommendations for multivolume works in References Turabian, Kate L., A Manual for Writers of Research papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 8th ed. Edited by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and the University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.,2007. A Manual for Writers of Research papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 7th ed. Edited by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and the University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. TURABIAN 8TH EDITION CHANGES [5]

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