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1 EndNote X4 An Introduction EndNote X4 - introduction Page 1

2 Contents 1. Opening an EndNote library 4 2. Adding and deleting references 7 3. Searching your EndNote library Importing references from online databases Using Direct import from an online database Importing text files into EndNote Checking for duplicate references Cite While You Write (CWYW) Output styles Unformatting citations The Traveling Library Removing field codes Glossary 50 EndNote X4 - introduction Page 2

3 EndNote EndNote is one of a range of software packages designed to help researchers keep track of their bibliographic references. You can compile all your references to books, articles, websites, etc into a single database. Exeter also has a licence for Reference Manager, which is a similar piece of software. Other programs available include ProCite. EndNote is designed for use with Microsoft Word, so that you can use the Cite While You Write (CWYW) facility as you create a document. This can then be used to generate citations and bibliographies in a wide range of citation styles, such as Harvard, MHRA, etc., as well as the preferred styles for over 3,000 academic journals. Because it is widely used, many of the major databases to which we subscribe, including ISI Web of Science, Business Source Premier and EBSCO, allow you to export citations directly into EndNote in your preferred bibliographic style. A range of referencing styles are used within the University, so please check your subject handbook for the preferred style for your College/subject. The program is constantly being upgraded. The latest version, EndNote X4, is installed on all the PCs in the Library Cluster. EndNote X4 can be bought for individual use from the Software Office for 68. Log in to the e-support System click on the Software Request tab, choose EndNote from the drop-down list, and then follow the on-screen instructions. Help screens are available within EndNote as you use it; click on Help at the top of the screen to search for detailed help on specific aspects of the program. The EndNote website includes excellent online tutorials and a guided tour. The EndNote Tutorial, Guided Tour and Help are useful sources of help. They are supplied with the software, in the electronic manual (endnote.pdf) in the EndNote folder. On cluster PCs this can be found by going to Start > All Programs > Microsoft Office > Endnote X4 > Endnote Manual or Endnote Help. In some clusters, Endnote is not found under Microsoft Office, but has its own folder you will see this when you click on All Programs. The Library's EndNote pages give details of courses available and useful links. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 3

4 1. Opening an EndNote library An EndNote library is a collection of references, each containing the information required to create a bibliography. As you start to manage your own references you are recommended to store them all in a single library to avoid the problems of duplication or misreferencing. There is no limit to the number of references you can create in an EndNote library, although it is recommended that you do not exceed 100,000. When you open Endnote, you will be asked whether you would like to create a new library, or open an existing one. To create a new library, just give it a file name and save a copy as an.enl file. If you are working on a University cluster, remember to save it to your University filespace (U drive) rather than the C drive, otherwise you will lose it when you log out. Endnote comes with a sample library, to practice on. To open it, look in the program files for EndNote, locate the Examples folder and double click on the file named Sample_Library.enl EndNote X4 - introduction Page 4

5 Open the file Sample_Library.enl. Your screen should look something like this: As this screenshot shows, when you first open a library with EndNote, you will see a Library window made up of three different panes: the Reference List pane, the Tab pane, and the Groups pane. The Reference list pane is the main list of references, which occupies the largest area of the screen. The Tab pane at the bottom of the screen displays a Preview tab, to view formatted references, a Search tab to enable you to search through your references, and a Quick Edit tab allowing you to edit a selected reference in your library without having to open the record. If you want to view the References in full screen, click on Hide Tab Pane in the bottom right of the screen; click on Show Tab Pane to open it again. The Groups pane on the left of the screen shows subsets of your library of references, saved for easy retrieval. It contains several types of groups: Automatic EndNote X4 - introduction Page 5

6 groups (e.g. All References and Trash); My Groups; Online Search; EndNote Web; and Find Full Text. Automatic groups provide information about the number of references in your database (All References) and contents of the Trash folder, where deleted entries are stored until you close EndNote down. You can also create Custom Groups, depending on the categories used in your references. This pane also allows you to connect directly to Online Searches: if you have an Internet connection open you can link your searches directly to EndNote. For more details of this facility you should refer to the online manual provided as part of the EndNote package. This tutorial only covers the desktop version of EndNote; for details of EndNote Web, the online web version, refer to the manual. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 6

7 2. Adding and deleting references The EndNote library works in the same way as a library catalogue to retrieve the references you need you can use the standard tools, such as author/title details, journal titles or subject keywords. When adding new references it is important to include as much information as you have available at the time as this will save work later. To enter a new reference, go to References > New Reference, or use Control +N, or click the button. This opens a New Reference window; this is shown below, with the different fields listed on the left (more fields can be found by scrolling down). By default, a new reference appears as a Journal Article reference; this determines the fields that are displayed. If you wish to add another type of reference, e.g. a book or conference paper, select it from the drop-down list. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 7

8 Adding bibliographic information You do not need to enter data into every field; however, to ensure that your bibliography displays correctly in your work, you should make sure that key fields are completed. These will vary depending on the type of reference, and may include: Author, Year published, Title of article, Title of journal, Volume, Issue, Pages. Fill in as many fields as you can or are likely to need. Some of the most important are: author s name, including initials or first names title of article, chapter, book journal citation or publishing details, inc. ISBN or ISSN and page numbers alternate title (e.g. standard abbreviations of journal titles, etc.) keywords - these are particularly important in retrieving your references. note fields can also be useful to record your comments on a source or the location if you have found it in a particular library. URL or website NB: in most referencing systems it is important to include the date you looked at a website, as documents published on the internet are likely to move or disappear without warning. If you want to link to the full text of an article, it is often worth inserting the DOI (digital object identifier) as this acts as a stable URL which will find the text on many electronic journal services. Adding the names of authors When you are entering author details and keywords into a new reference, it is very important to be consistent this will make your Library easier to search as the number of references grows! Autocomplete allows you to be consistent in entering details in the appropriate fields for author names, journal titles or keywords. When you enter text into one of these fields, EndNote finds the first matching term and suggests it as the term to enter. The suggested text appears highlighted after the cursor. Continue typing until EndNote suggests the correct term, and then press enter to accept it. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 8

9 You can also check entries for consistency as you go by pressing the keys Control +1. Just scroll up and down to see if an author s name already appears in your Library. When you enter details of a new author, their name will appear in red. When you save the reference, the term will be added to your EndNote list and will no longer display in red. If your article has several authors, enter each name on a separate line just hit Return to start a new line. For corporate authors (organisations or official bodies) put a comma at the end of the name so that it is treated in the same way as a surname, e.g. European Commission, Adding your own keywords It is a good idea to add your own keywords when you enter references. This will make your library easier to search, particularly as it gets larger. Although citations imported from bibliographic sources will often include subject words, they may not be the ones you would have chosen yourself. Keywords should be entered in the Keywords field. You can enter multiple keywords, separated by a semi-colon (;). DO NOT use a full colon (:) as the EndNote program will treat it as part of the word. You can press Control +1 to select a keyword from the term list of keywords already in your EndNote library, in order to maintain consistency. Adding Notes The Notes field may be used to enter your own comments about a book or article, such as its usefulness or relevance or even the location for your own personal use (Library, your office, your bookshelf at home, under the bed ). A separate field is available for Research notes, if you need it. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 9

10 Adding URLs and links to documents You can link a reference to a URL (web address) or to a document in PDF or other format. To link to a URL, type or paste a valid URL into the URL field. The URL becomes a hyperlink (blue and underlined). To open the link go to References > URL > Open URL to launch a Web browser and take you to the site. If you want to link to the full text of an article, it is worth inserting the DOI (digital object identifier) where one is available. This is a stable URL which will find the text on many electronic journal services. To link to a PDF document in the File Attachments field, go to References > File Attachments > Attach File. In the dialogue box, select a file to link to the reference. The file dialogue includes a check box Copy this file to the default file attachment folder and create a relative link. Select the check box to copy the original file and place the copy in the DATA\PDF folder that is part of your EndNote library; this means that the file is a portable link that moves as part of the library. Deselect the check box for EndNote to use the complete path and filename to look in the original folder for the inserted file. Note: With the latest version of EndNote (X4) you can also import individual and multiple PDF files and automatically attach them to their corresponding reference in your EndNote library using the import function. Note that this feature will only work with reference entries that have an entry in the DOI field and publisher created PDF articles. Only publisher created PDFs have the embedded DOI information that allows Endnote to attach the PDF article to its corresponding reference in an EndNote library. Saving references References can be saved simply by closing the edit screen. Do this by clicking the close button (the lower x in the top right of the screen; make sure you don t close the main screen!), or selecting File > Close Reference. If you close EndNote while reference windows are open, the references are closed and saved automatically. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 10

11 Editing references To edit an existing reference, open the reference and make the necessary changes. You will be prompted to save the changes when you close the reference. Alternatively you can use the Quick Edit Tab in the Tab Pane. Highlight the reference in the list, choose a field then edit or add information. You will be prompted to save the changes when you change to another reference unless you choose to dismiss this option. Deleting references Move the selected references to the Trash group, using one of the following methods: Go to References > Move References to Trash Drag the selected references and drop them on the Trash group. The deleted references will be removed from your active library but can still be reinstated by dragging them back from the Trash group. When you are certain that you want to delete the references that you have moved to Trash, click on the Trash group in the Groups pane on the left of the screen, then go to References > Empty Trash. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 11

12 Exercise 1: Entering a New Reference Enter the following journal article reference, using the fields indicated: Author - Select the following authors from the author term list: Morehouse, S.I. Tung, R.S. Enter your own name as the third author, using this format: Smith, Peter B. Year Title - Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event Journal title - Journal of Paleontology Volume number - 17 Issue number - 2 Pages - numbers Keywords - statistical; extinction; reptiles (separate each keyword from the next with a semicolon) Finally, look through the fields in the Journal Article reference type and see which would be most useful to you. Close the reference; it will automatically be saved (make sure you don t close the main screen!) EndNote X4 - introduction Page 12

13 3. Searching your EndNote library It is important to be able to retrieve your references for future use. The search facilities are similar to those used in most online catalogues. Quick Search Use the Quick Search box on the main toolbar at the top of the screen to quickly search the whole library. Just enter a word or phrase in the search box and press Enter. EndNote will carry out a general search of all fields. Search Tab If you need to carry out a more specific or complicated search, click on the Search tab in the Tabs pane. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 13

14 Enter the search term(s) you want to use in the search box and specify which field to look in. A drop-down box provides a range of options, including author, title, keywords and any field. The default is to find entries which Contain your search terms but this can be altered to Is or a number of other possibilities; similarly Boolean operators allow you to select: And (to search for all selected search terms Or (to find either of your search terms) Not (to exclude a search term) Click on Control +1 to browse the list of terms used in all the main fields (e.g. author, keyword, journal title, etc.). The search results are listed in the Reference List pane; the number of references found is shown in Search results group on the left, and is also displayed in the bottom left of the screen. The whole library will automatically be searched unless you specify otherwise. If you don t want to search all the references in your library, select one of the Custom Groups from the left hand pane. To return to the main list click on All References in the Groups pane. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 14

15 Exercise 2: Searching an EndNote library Click on the All References group, then click on the Search tab in the Tabs pane. 1. Leaving the field as Any Field, search for the term Fossils. How many references have you found? 2. How many references are there with Billoski as author, and with the keyword dinosaurs? 3. How many references were published in 1999 and later? [TIP: Select Year and Is greater than or equal to] 4. Leaving the fields as Any Field, find out how many references to dinosaur do not mention extinction. [TIP: Use the Boolean operator Not] 5. How many references with paleontology in Any Field were published in 2004? EndNote X4 - introduction Page 15

16 4. Importing references from online databases There are several ways to enter references into Endnote, other than by manually typing them; this can save a great deal of time if you find a lot of useful references. If you have completed a search using an online database such as ISI Web of Knowledge, it is often possible to export your references directly into Endnote. This option is not available in all databases. Some databases require text files or filters. These will be treated later on. For an example of Direct Export from a database go to the next page. Databases which allow direct export into EndNote include: EEBO (Early English Books Online) Historical Abstracts House of Commons Parliamentary Papers IBSS (International Bibliography of the Social Sciences) ISI Proceedings ISI Web of Knowledge ISI Web of Science LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts) PsycINFO (psychology and related disciplines) and these Electronic journals services: Annual Reviews Inc. (sciences) Business Source Premier (business, economics, management) Cambridge University Press EBSCO EJS (the main link to electronic journals) IngentaConnect JSTOR (archive of full text journals in all disciplines) Oxford Journals Online Project Muse (humanities and social sciences) PsycARTICLES (American Psychological Association journals) ScienceDirect SpringerLink EndNote X4 - introduction Page 16

17 5. Using Direct Import from an online database This section describes the basic steps required to import references from the online databases and electronic journals that support direct import into EndNote. NOTE: these steps may differ slightly in each database; exercise 3 will allow you to practise the method employed in ISI Web of Knowledge. Directly importing references into EndNote With your EndNote library open, open an Internet browser, and log on to the Electronic Library from the Academic Services home page at: Choose Online databases or Electronic journals and scroll down to the database you want to use. As an example, select Business Source Premier and enter "sustainable tourism" as your search terms. Select a few references and click on Add to Folder underneath each entry Click on Folder view on the right of the screen, or the Folder link at the top of the screen, reselect the entries you want to save and click on the export icon: Choose the option Direct Export to EndNote, ProCite, CITAVI, or Reference Manager and click on Save. Choose EndNote from the popup window, though if EndNote is the only reference management software you have installed, it may skip this and automatically open EndNote. Select the Endnote library you would like the references to be added to (use sample_library.enl unless you have already set up your own file). Note that if you already have EndNote open, the references will be imported straight into the library that you used last. Initially, only your imported references will be shown in the Reference List pane. NOTE: this procedure varies between databases. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 17

18 Adding keywords and notes to a batch of references You may wish to take this opportunity to add keywords or notes for future reference or searching (e.g. the date and the source where you found the references) to your imported references, before merging them into your EndNote library. By using the Change and Move Fields option, you can add notes as a batch, rather than individually. Ensure that only the references you want to change are showing in the Library window. These may be newly imported references or the results of a search that you have carried out. Go to Tools > Change and Move Fields. Choose the field, e.g. keywords, that you want to modify and choose one of the Change options. For example, Insert after field s text will add your text to any that is already in that field. Type the text to be added in the text box. It may be useful to tick the Include a space before the new text box, to include a space between the new and existing text. TIP use a semi-colon (;) to separate keyword entries, and start your entries with a semi-colon too, so your first term will be separated from any others already in the field. Remember that this global update operation cannot be undone in a single process, although each reference can be changed individually. You will therefore be asked to confirm before continuing. If you are in any doubt it may be worth making a backup version of your Library before proceeding. To view the whole library again, click on All References in the Groups pane. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 18

19 Exercise 3: Using Direct Import from an online database For this example, the citation database ISI Web of Knowledge will be used. With your EndNote library open, open an Internet browser, and log on to the Electronic Library from the Academic Services home page at: Choose Resource type... Databases and click on Find resources. Select ISI Web of Knowledge from the alphabetical list of results. Enter your search terms and click the Search button A list of results will be displayed. Mark the references you wish to export by ticking the boxes beside them Click the Add to Marked List button EndNote X4 - introduction Page 19

20 A new Marked List link will appear near the top of the screen. Click this to see more options for exporting your references. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 20

21 Choose the fields you want to export by ticking the boxes in Step 1. Click on the Save to EndNote, RefMan, ProCite button. Choose Endnote from the popup box, and click on Export. Select the destination library (Sample_Library.enl).- Note that if EndNote is the only reference management software you have installed, it may skip this and automatically open EndNote, importing the references into the library that you used last. N.B. These instructions were created using Internet Explorer. If you use Firefox, you may be prompted to download a file instead you will need to import that using the instructions in section 7 EndNote X4 - introduction Page 21

22 Exercise 4: Adding notes to a batch of references Your imported references will initially be displayed by themselves (as below). Before you merge them into your Library, you may wish to add keywords or notes to identify them in the future (so that you can search and retrieve them from within Endnote easily, without having to run your Web of Knowledge search again). Click Tools > Change and Move Fields Select Keywords from the In drop-down list, and enter your keywords in the box. Your keywords could be your search terms, project name, date etc. TIP: To prevent your new keywords from linking to any existing keywords, it is a good idea either to precede them with a semi-colon ; or forward slash / e.g. ; dinosaurs; Devon. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 22

23 If you want to record research notes, such as the databases or libraries you have used, or locations of the material, you can use the Research Notes field, e.g. Web of Science; Victorian project; May 06 Before EndNote attaches the keywords to your records you will be asked to confirm To see all the references together in your Endnote library, select All References in the Groups pane EndNote X4 - introduction Page 23

24 6. Importing text files into EndNote Some databases do not have a Direct Export facility. In these cases you will need to save your references as a text file in a tagged format and then import them into EndNote using the appropriate import filter. The import filter translates the tags so the data in the text file goes into the correct fields (author, title, date, etc.) in EndNote. Most online databases have a save text file or download file option so that selected references can be saved into a text file. To find out how to save the text file, look for information in the database s help section, e.g. search for saving citations as a text file. There are two things you need to know in order to import text file: In the database, you need to know the correct output format to use to create the text file so the right tags are used to describe each field e.g. AU=Author, TI=Title Before importing the file into your EndNote library, you will need to know which of EndNote s import filters corresponds to the output format used. These databases available from the Electronic Library are compatible with EndNote in this way: Cochrane Library (healthcare) FIAF International Film Archive Database - Webspirs IoP Journals (Institute of Physics) Medline (PubMed) (medical) (US National Library of Medicine) ZETOC (Electronic Table of Contents from the British Library) None of the major legal databases, including LexisNexis and Westlaw, are designed to work directly with EndNote, although it is possible that this may change. However, The Oxford Standard for Citation Of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) has produced a downloadable kit for legal researchers, OSCOLA-lite for EndNote, which contains templates for formatting citations of all kinds EndNote X4 - introduction Page 24

25 Google Scholar Google Scholar can also be customised to work with EndNote:. You will need to configure Google Scholar to send references to EndNote. Then you will be able to send references to EndNote by clicking on the "Import into EndNote" link. Follow these steps to configure Google Scholar to send references to EndNote: 1. Go to the Google Scholar home page at 2. Click on the "Scholar Preferences" link. 3. Under "Bibliography Manager" select the option "Show links to import citations into" and choose "EndNote" in the drop down box. 4. Click on the "Save Preferences" button. Follow these steps to import search results into EndNote: 1. After performing a search on Google Scholar click on the "Import into EndNote" link for the reference you want to import. 2. If you are presented with a window asking if you want to "Open" or "Save" the file, choose to open the file. 3. A "Select a Reference Library" window will appear, use this window to select the EndNote library you want the reference imported into. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 25

26 Exercise 5: Creating a text file and importing it into a library With your EndNote library open, open an Internet browser, and log on to the Electronic Library from the Academic Services home page at: Choose subject area Medicine and Resource type Databases, then click on Find resources. Select Medline (PubMed) from the alphabetical list. Enter "asthma and childhood" as your search terms (or choose your own). Select a few references and tick in the box to the left of the entry. Click on Send to. Under Choose Destination select File. A new part of the drop-down window then appears; under Format choose MEDLINE from the drop-down list Click on the Create File button (some browsers may initially block the file and ask for you to confirm that you wish to receive it check the line at the top of the browser window) Click on Save this will save the file as pubmed_result.txt Save the file in My Documents Return to EndNote and select the library you would like the references to be added to (use Sample_Library.enl unless you have already set up your own file) EndNote X4 - introduction Page 26

27 Click File...Import Choose the file (pubmed_result.txt). Select the appropriate import filter from the Import Option drop-down list. This will tell EndNote how to translate the tags, so the filter you choose should match the source of your data file. To find the right filter, you need to know the supplier of the data (Information Provider) as well as the name of the database. In this case you will need PubMed (NLM). If you cannot see the appropriate filter in the Import Option list, select Other Filters...from the Import Options menu and look through the list that appears to try to find the correct one. Note: EndNote s import filters are frequently updated and new ones added. A full list of import filters is available from As with the direct download, initially, only your imported references will be shown. You may wish to take this opportunity to add keywords or research notes before merging them into your Endnote library (e.g. the date and the source in which you found the references). Instructions on how to do this are available in Section 5. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 27

28 7. Checking for duplicate references When downloading references from databases you will often find the same references. As EndNote makes it easy to check for duplicates, it is always a good idea to check regularly, especially after downloading a number of new references. To show how this works, repeat the download procedure from your last search on the previous screen, then: Click on All References in the Groups pane (or click on Control+M). Now choose References > Find Duplicates. The Find duplicates box opens displaying the duplicate items side by side, inviting you to select which one to keep. At the bottom of the box it tells you when each reference was added to the library and when it was last updated. For the item you want to keep, click on Keep this Record. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 28

29 N.B. It s important that only your most recently downloaded duplicates are deleted as this will prevent you from removing any references that you have already linked to Word documents. If you want to delete all duplicates at once rather than individually, close the Find Duplicates box and any duplicates found will be highlighted in the Reference List pane. Highlight the references shown to confirm that you want to delete them. To delete duplicates go to References > Move References to Trash. To see how duplicates are detected use Edit > Preferences > Duplicates. This also allows you to change the settings, if necessary. Entries are not finally deleted until the end of your session: they can still be retrieved from the Trash folder at the top of the Groups pane. When you log out you will be asked to confirm that you want to empty this folder. Editing References while Checking Duplicates When you have selected the References>Find Duplicates command, and you are viewing duplicate references side by side, you can now use standard editing functions. For example, you can copy text from the reference that you do not want to keep, and paste it into the reference that you plan to retain. Similarly, you can correct errors in the reference that you plan to retain. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 29

30 8. Cite While You Write (CWYW) EndNote works with Microsoft Word to help you cite references easily and quickly as you write, and to produce a paper with properly formatted citations, a bibliography, figures, and tables. This useful feature is referred to as Cite While You Write (CWYW). This guide is based on EndNote version X4 and Word The Cite While You Write function gives you access to EndNote references and formatting commands via the EndNote tab in Word 2007: When you choose an option from the Endnote tab, the EndNote program starts (if not already running) and a Cite While You Write submenu becomes active on the Tools menu in EndNote, displaying some of the same EndNote commands available in Word: EndNote X4 - introduction Page 30

31 In addition, the Insert Citation, Format Bibliography and Return to Word Processor buttons are always available on the EndNote toolbar: Inserting citations A citation is the brief bibliographic information (typically displayed in brackets) in the body of a paper that refers the reader to a complete reference in the bibliography. There are two methods to insert citations: Method 1: Using Find Citation in Microsoft Word Open the EndNote library that contains the references you wish to cite. Start Microsoft Word and open the paper you are writing. Position the cursor in the text where you wish to place the citation. On the EndNote tab, in the Citations group, click Insert Citation > Find Citation The EndNote Find & Insert My References dialogue box appears: EndNote X4 - introduction Page 31

32 Type enough search terms in the Find box to enable EndNote to retrieve the appropriate reference (this could be an author s last name, a year, a keyword, or any other combination of terms found in the reference), and click on Search. From the resulting list of matching references, identify and highlight the reference(s) you require, and click Insert. The reference(s) will be inserted in the text of your Word document, and your bibliography will automatically be generated at the end of your document. The citations and bibliography will be formatted using the current output style. This happens because by default Instant Formatting is enabled the first time you use the EndNote tab. NOTE: Output styles and formatting are covered in a later section. Method 2: Using Insert selected Citation(s) in Microsoft Word Open the EndNote library that contains the references you wish to cite, and highlight the reference(s) you want to insert in your text. Start Microsoft Word and open the paper you are writing. Position the cursor in the text where you wish to place the citation. On the EndNote tab, in the Citations group, click Insert Citation > Insert Selected Citation(s) The reference(s) will be inserted in the text of your Word document, and your bibliography will automatically be generated at the end of your document. Inserting citations in footnotes You can cite references in footnotes just as you cite them in the body of the document. In Word, place the cursor at the place in the text where you wish to refer to a footnote. In the References tab, click on Insert Footnote. Position the cursor in the footnote or where you would like the citation(s) to appear. Insert the citation using either of the methods described above. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 32

33 Editing and deleting citations Once you have inserted a citation you should not edit or delete it manually, as this will affect the formatting of the document. Click on the citation you wish to change. On the EndNote tab, in the Citations group, click Edit & Manage Citation(s). This dialogue box appears: All of the cited references in the document are listed at the top of the dialogue box. You can see how often a reference has been cited in the document and you can see which library it came from. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 33

34 The drop down menu from the Edit Reference button gives you the following options: o Edit Library Reference: this allows you to edit the corresponding reference in your Endnote library. o Remove Citation: to remove a citation completely click Remove and then OK o Insert Citation: this allows you to quickly insert a new citation. o Update from My Library: this enables you to replace the citation in your document with a different reference from your Endnote library. In the lower pane of the Edit & Manage Citations window, there is an Edit Citation and a Reference tab. Highlight the citation you wish to edit. You can make the following changes to the highlighted citation using the Edit Citation tab o Exclude Author: Select this to omit the author name from the citation. o Exclude Year: Select this to omit the date from the citation. o Prefix: Enter any text you want to precede the citation. o Suffix: Enter any text you want to follow the citation. If you want page numbers displayed after the citation, no matter which referencing style you are using, enter them here. o Pages: Enter page numbers here if you want them to be included in accordance with the reference style that you are using: i.e. if your reference style doesn t use cited pages in the citation template, then the page numbers will not appear. Note that the pp. will be included automatically if you use the pages field. o for more information on citation templates (including editing), see the EndNote manual. Click OK to implement the change(s) to the citation. NOTE: as this process edits the in-text citation of a reference, rather than the content of the reference as it appears in the EndNote library, each cited occurrence of a reference must be edited individually as required. The Reference tab allows you to view full details of a reference you have highlighted in the upper pane. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 34

35 Exercise 6: Cite while you write (CWYW) In this exercise, you will create the following text with in-text citations and a bibliography: So the debate on dinosaur extinction has continued (Moorhouse 1993) and duck-billed dinosaurs have proved particularly helpful (Billoski 1993; Whiting 1987). Billoski, T. V. (1993). "Debate II." Science 77: 5-6. Morehouse, S. I. and R. S. Tung (1993). "Statistical evidence for early extinction of reptiles due to the K/T event." Journal of Paleontology 17(2): Whiting, J. R., T. V. Billoski, et al. (1987). "Herding instincts of cretaceous duck-billed dinosaurs." Journal of Paleontology 75: Start Microsoft Word and type in the following text: So the debate on dinosaur extinction has continued, and duck-billed dinosaurs have proved particularly helpful. Position the cursor in the text after the word continued. On the EndNote tab, in the Citations group, click Insert Citation > Find Citation The EndNote Find & Insert My References dialogue box appears. In the Find box, enter the word dinosaur, and click on Search. From the resulting list of matching references, identify and highlight the reference whose author is Moorhouse, and click Insert. Go to the EndNote library and select the reference with the author Billoski (1993) and the reference with the author Whiting. TIP: to select both references, highlight the first reference, scroll to the second, hold down the Control key and highlight the second reference. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 35

36 Return to your Word document, and position the cursor in the text after the word helpful. On the EndNote tab, in the Citations group, click Insert Citation > Insert Selected Citation(s). This will insert the Billoski and Whiting citations. Delete the Moorhouse citation o Click on it o Go to Edit & Manage Citation(s) o Click on arrow next to Edit Reference o Click on Remove Citation o Click OK. Click on the Whiting citation, and add page numbers: o Go to Edit & Manage Citation(s) o Add page numbers in the Suffix box. o Click on OK. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 36

37 9. Output styles Output (or referencing or bibliographic) styles control the appearance of your in-text citations and bibliographies. They contain instructions that tell EndNote how to arrange the information in your references to create citations and bibliographies in the appropriate layout (i.e. which fields to include, in what order, and what punctuation to use). You can change output styles to suit any of the major referencing systems (Harvard, MLA, MHRA, etc.) and over 3,000 house styles for academic journals. These are stored as individual files under Styles in your EndNote folder. The name of the style refers to the journal or organization which defined the bibliographic format. Previewing output styles You can preview different output styles in EndNote: Highlight any reference showing in the library window. Go to Edit > Output Styles. Three standard bibliographic styles appear by default in the menu: Annotated generates an Author-Date style bibliography with abstracts. Author-Date generates a bibliography with authors in alphabetical order and in-text citations with Author and Year. Numbered generates a numbered bibliography with corresponding numbered in-text citations. To see the full list of available styles, click on Open Style Manager. Any styles you select from here will automatically be added to your list of output styles in the Edit > Output Styles list. Click on any style to see a preview of your highlighted reference in the tab pane at the bottom of the library window: EndNote X4 - introduction Page 37

38 For another way to preview output styles, choose Select Another Style from the drop-down output style list on the left of the toolbar. The Choose A Style dialogue box appears. Type the name of the style you want in the Quick Search box and press Enter. If you click on the column headings you can sort the styles by Name (e.g. Harvard) or Category (e.g. religion). Click on the Find By... button to find styles by Category. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 38

39 When a style is highlighted, click on the Style Info/Preview button for comments about the style or to preview its appearance, at the bottom of the dialogue box. When you find the style you want, click Choose to see a preview of your highlighted reference in that style in the tab pane at the bottom of the library window. By clicking on Choose you will also add the chosen style to the drop-down output style list. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 39

40 Changing output styles You can change the output style of any in-text citations and bibliography you have included in your Word document. In the EndNote tab of your Word document, click the bottom corner arrow of the Bibliography group: The Format Bibliography dialogue box appears: On the Format Bibliography tab, select the output style you require from the dropdown With output style list. If the style you want does not appear in the list, click the Browse button to select from the full list of output styles. With your chosen style in the With output style box, click OK. Your citations and bibliography will be re-formatted to your chosen style. If you wish to add a title at the top of your bibliography, or to alter the font and size of the text, use the Layout tab and change the settings to meet your personal preferences. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 40

41 The Style Manager The Style Manager lists all the styles available in EndNote, and allows you to edit them, or select them as favourites for quick access from the drop-down output style list on the EndNote toolbar. To open the Style Manager, go to Edit > Output Styles > Open Style Manager Editing styles Although EndNote supplies over 3,000 styles, more are constantly being added. If you can t find the style for a particular journal check the homepage and see if it can be downloaded from the EndNote website at: You may also find that the preferred house style for your School is not the current version (e.g Harvard) so you may wish to customise the version available on EndNote. It is always better to use one of the styles in the program or to customise from the one closest to your needs: In the Style Manager, click the Style Info/Preview button until you can see an example of a reference at the bottom of the screen. Scroll through the list of available styles to see if you can find one that is similar to what you need. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 41

42 Having found a similar style, select it and click the Edit button. The Style window opens: Go to File > Save As, give this copy of the style a new name (e.g. one that corresponds to the same of the journal you want to use it for), and click Save. This will leave the original style unchanged, in the event that you need to use it later. The new Style window remains open for you to edit it as you need. All the options for editing a style are listed on the left side of the Style window. The first four options (About This Style, Anonymous Works, Page Numbers, and Journal Names) apply to citations, bibliographies, and citations in footnotes. The other options are grouped under four headings: o Citations: items listed here apply only to citations in the body of the text. o Bibliographies: items listed here apply to the bibliography that EndNote creates when you format a paper. o Footnotes: items listed here apply to citations that have been inserted into footnotes or endnotes. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 42

43 o Figures and Tables: items listed here apply to EndNote figures and tables that that have been inserted into a Word document. Click on an item under the headings to view the associated panel. You may switch between panels as needed while editing the file. No changes are saved in any of the panels, however, until you choose Save or Save As from the File menu. Templates are the major component of styles. They include the field names and punctuation organised in the way that EndNote will use to format the references for that particular style. There are many options for modifying an output style. For example, you can change the way your bibliography is sorted, as shown here: EndNote X4 - introduction Page 43

44 Exercise 7: changing the output style In this exercise, you can experiment with different output styles. In the EndNote tab of your Word document, click the bottom corner arrow of the Bibliography group: The Format Bibliography dialogue box appears: On the Format Bibliography tab, click the Browse button to select a style from the full list of output styles. With your chosen style in the With output style box, click OK. Your citations and bibliography will be re-formatted to your chosen style. Try this with a number of different styles to see how the format of your citations and bibliography changes. On the Layout tab, add a title to your bibliography, and alter its text font and size. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 44

45 10. Unformatting citations Instant Formatting is automatically turned on when you first use the EndNote tab in Word. This allows formatting to be done as you insert citations in your document. However, it is possible to unformat your citations. Unformatting your citations removes the link to the EndNote library, which is useful if you are working on a computer which doesn t have EndNote installed. It removes the bibliography, and leaves the unformatted citations in place (typically Author s surname, year and EndNote record number), allowing you to see what citations you have used, for example: {Alvarez, 1994 #8} When you have access to EndNote again you can reconnect to the library. Unformatting citations Select the citations you want to unformat: o To unformat a particular citation, highlight only that citation. o If it is part of a multiple citation, highlight the multiple citation. All citations in the multiple citation will be unformatted. o To unformat a section of the document, highlight that section. o To unformat the entire document, either select nothing or highlight the entire document. On the EndNote tab, click Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Unformatted Citations: If you are unformatting the entire document, this unformats all of the in-text citations and removes the bibliography. The unformatted citations appear in the temporary citation format, e.g. {Smith, 1999 #25} EndNote X4 - introduction Page 45

46 When you unformat citations, Instant Formatting is disabled. To format your document again, on the EndNote tab click the corner arrow of the Bibliography group. In the Format Bibliography dialogue box, click the Instant Formatting tab, and click the Turn On button. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 46

47 11. The Traveling Library Each formatted citation in your Word document is saved with field codes that embed data in the document about the corresponding EndNote reference. These codes allow EndNote to format, unformat, and reformat citations within Word. The reference data saved with each citation includes all fields except Notes, Abstract, and Figure. This facility is known as the Traveling Library, because it enables data from the EndNote library to travel within the document. If you have your EndNote library open when you are working on your Word document, EndNote looks in this library to find the corresponding references when you format and reformat citations. However, if the library is not available on the computer on which you are working, or is not open, EndNote uses the Traveling Library for reference information. This enables you to use your document on computers on which EndNote is not available, and to share your document and its associated citations with colleagues without each author having the same EndNote library. Exporting the Traveling Library to an EndNote library There may be occasions when you want to copy all the references used in a Word document to an EndNote library, e.g. when you receive a formatted Word document from a colleague who has inserted citations from their own EndNote library, and you wish to export their references (their Traveling Library) to your EndNote library. Open the document in Word. On the EndNote tab, in the Tools group, click Export to EndNote > Export Traveling Library: EndNote X4 - introduction Page 47

48 The Export Traveling Library dialogue box appears. Select the library that you want to import to, either: o An existing EndNote library: select a library from the drop-down list of available libraries, or click Browse to locate a library. o A new EndNote library: you will be prompted to name and Save the new library. An alternative way to export a Traveling library to an EndNote library is as follows: Open both the Word document that contains the Traveling Library, and the EndNote library. In EndNote, go to Tools > Cite While You Write [CWYW] > Import Traveling Library The Import Traveling Library dialogue box appears. Select the library that you want to import to, either: o An existing EndNote library: select a library from the drop-down list of available libraries, or click Browse to locate a library. o A new EndNote library: you will be prompted to name and Save the new library. EndNote X4 - introduction Page 48

49 12. Removing field codes Many publishers require you to submit an electronic copy of your paper. Because the field codes in your document may be incompatible with the publishing software, you may be asked to submit a copy of your paper without field codes. You should also remove the field codes if you want to open your paper in different versions of Word. Open your formatted Word document. On the EndNote tab, in the Bibliography group, click Convert Citations and Bibliography > Convert to Plain Text: This dialogue box appears: Because EndNote cannot unformat or reformat your paper once field codes are removed, the Convert to Plain Text command makes a copy of your document without codes. The original formatted document containing field codes is retained, so that you can later insert or delete citations if you wish (e.g. if the publisher requires amendments). A copy of the document, without field codes, appears in a new document window, Click the Office icon document). and then Save (with a different name from the original EndNote X4 - introduction Page 49

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