Tzovaras, P. (2017); A Journey from the Unconscious to the Cosmos: Rethinking the Symbolic Function of the Ship in the Minoan World

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1 Tzovaras, P. (2017); A Journey from the Unconscious to the Cosmos: Rethinking the Symbolic Function of the Ship in the Minoan World Rosetta 21:

2 A Journey from the Unconscious to the Cosmos: Rethinking the Symbolic Function of the Ship in the Minoan World Panos Tzovaras Everything that is dead quivers. Not only the things of poetry, stars, moon, wood, flowers, but even a white trouser button glittering out of a puddle in the street... Everything has a secret soul, which is silent more often than it speaks. Wassily Kandinsky (Selbstbetrachtungen, Dokumente. Berlin: 1913: 89) 1. Introduction As Wassily Kandinsky succinctly stated, everything has a secret soul which can be identified into every object of our material reality, trying to be externalised through images, artefacts etc. However, since every artefact is a product of ours, a part of ourselves, this secret soul of things can be perceived as our conscious or unconscious desire to project beliefs and thoughts that they have been repressed because they go beyond the logical rigour and cannot be verbally articulated or as thoughts that are considered immoral because they do not comply to the rules of social decorum. The only link between these thoughts and objects is the ability of symbolisation. Inevitably, one of the most important products of our material reality, the ship, apart from its technical acquired a symbolic function as well, something attested by the abundance of its representations in various forms of art, from very early in prehistory. Thus, the ship in the Minoan world could not be an exception owing to its vital role in the formation of the so-called Minoan thalassocracy. The Minoans, perceived the ship not only as a medium of their physical world but as a symbol as well, that transcends reality and connects their world with another reality. Hence, the iconography of Minoan ship, in a religious and funerary context has opened up a window allowing us to comprehend their perception of the cosmos. However, in order to understand how and why the ship acquired such an important meaning, it would be necessary to examine what is a symbol, its social implications 50

3 and the role of the unconscious in symbolisation 1. Afterwards, a reference will be made to ship s physical and no-physical goals. Furthermore, the context into which the Minoan ship emerged during the Early Minoan III (EM) - Late Minoan IB (LM) it will be defined as well as some case studies that prove its significance. Finally, I will attempt to offer an exegesis of ship s symbolic role through a metaphorical journey to cosmos and our unconscious world. 2. What is a symbol after all? 2.1. It is a symbol not a sign: defining the symbol and its multivocality One of the most difficult questions that must be answered is what is a symbol and how we can define it? Undeniably, many scholars, 2 agree that anything we refer to as a symbol can be any object derived from our material culture, whose original function has been changed by the actor, considering always the social parameters. 3 Therefore, albeit different, by being connected with something visible and tangible it acquires a similar function to a sign. 4 However, the role of a sign is to signify a thing of our physical world, by simply replacing it. So, its character is purely univocal. 5 On the other hand, symbols are far more complex and intricate. It is believed that although they are too part of the physical world, they exceed them by denoting and representing something hidden, a different reality, inaccessible and inexpressible due to the inability to be verbally articulated. 6 In order to make it simple, we can imagine a symbol as a bridge, mainly constructed by emotions, that connects the physical with the metaphysical via imagination. This symbolic bridge (as any bridge), that connects two or more opposites, is not only a universal phenomenon, but a particular one as well, 7 so its form (its meaning) can vary, depending on human s perception of reality in an individual and communal level. Thus, a symbol can have a variety of meanings and thereby acquires a multivocal character, only understood in respect to the cultural context into which have been emerged Symbolism and its social implications Implicit in the above, the formation of a symbol is not just a one-man show, but a 1 At this point it should be stated that human palaeopsychology is an obsolete interpretive method of research as well as beyond archaeology. Although we can spot symbolic practices in it, the determination of meaning and intent in many prehistoric contexts is extremely complex and difficult. 2 Facchini 2000: 542, 544; Jaffe 1964: 232; Kobylinski 1995: Jung 1964: 92; Kobylinski 1995: Kobylinski 1995: 9. 5 Jung 1964: 20; Ricoeur 1970: 19, distinguishes between univocal and equivocal symbols. 6 Kobylinski 1995: 9-10; Elliade 1952: ; Jung 1964: 20-21, Diel 1986: Kobylinski 1995: 12-13; Jung 1964:

4 social process profoundly affected by the social norms of each society. Jung, 9 suggests that every symbol came to this world as the individual s projection of their psyche and unconscious world, which has been inevitably affected and adapted (or distorted) to various social (and technological) aspects. 10 So, it is also the society which needs and sustains not only symbols, but a whole system of a symbol formation, because through it, it can communicate to its members ideologies, and render specific values necessary for its proper function, socially accepted. Therefore, symbols are a useful medium through which society gains stability by controlling and directing individuals. 11 Besides, this notion can be underpinned by Bower s 12 theory of the split-brain and how the two cerebral hemispheres which are responsible for different modes of thinking, can dominate one another according to how much different cultures differentially reinforce right-and left-hemisphere-dominated cognitive process. 13 This results in the human thought (and subsequently the ability to form symbols) being culturally determined. 3. A psychoanalytic approach of the symbol formation 3.1. Deciphering the unconscious In order to have a complete view of symbols and their functions, it would be necessary to view this process from a psychoanalytic perspective. We can easily name the study of symbols as the psychology of the unconscious, because what Freud stated about the mythological view of the world they are nothing more but psychology projected into the external world, 14 can be easily associated with symbols. As it has been stated, 15 the symbols are located in our unconscious, and they are nothing more than repressed thoughts that used to be conscious. 16 Additionally, Shnier posits that their repression in our unconscious is the result of what we individually or communally deem as immoral and illicit, but these thoughts never cease to exist, because they remain in our unconscious in an inertial state and the only way to be conscious again is by taking the form of symbol. 3.2a. The therapeutic function of symbolisation Nevertheless, one may ask what is that that stimulate unconscious to disguise a repressed thought into a symbol so as to find its way into their conscious world? At 9 Jung 1964: Facchini 2001: Kobylinski 1995: Bower 1970: Paredes and Hepburn 1976: Freud 1914: Jung 1964: Schnier 1953:

5 this point a parenthesis should be made in order to reject notions clearly affected by cultural evolutionism, such as psychic unity and state that symbols are not inherited archetypal images into our unconscious, as it has been stated by Jung 17 On the other hand, as it is argued by the ability of symbolisation is probably inherited, and is something that answers the aforementioned question. Returning to it, we can infer that there is an esoteric need in creating symbols, because their hidden meaning allows us to endure reality simply by denying it. This esoteric need can be translated into our need for something that will give a wider meaning into our lives and help us find a place into the cosmos. 18 An interesting theory has been proposed by Roheim and widely adopted by other scholars 19 is that an object by acquiring a symbolic function and a wider meaning deriving from our unconscious fantasy, is a cultural phenomenon, a defence system. Hence, this defence system can be quite effective and provide us with protection from the external reality and its emotional burdens. 3.2b. Symbols and the psychology of ego Moreover, we can seek for an answer into the psychoanalytic ego psychology. According to Freud, 20 the ego performs the rational thinking and employs a mechanism of defence so as to be protected by dangerous thoughts. Amongst others, Merkur and Segal 21 identified as parts of this defensive mechanism the process of reaction-formation, repression and projection, which are aspects of symbolisation. To put it simple, the ego turns the irrational into rational by incorporating it into its organisation in the form of a symbol. In other words, it performs an adaptation to the symptom by making the irrational predictable and stabilizing the ego. Pfister 22 believes that because the meaning of the symbols is coherent to the unconscious superego, they acquire a therapeutic function. Thereby, according to Cox, Eggan and Adams 23 an individual can identify themselves into their wider meaning, use it as a personal fantasy and get an insight about their situation. 4. Physical and non-physical functions of an object: The symbolic function of the ship Ineluctably, all these notions lead to the question of how an object with technical function, a vessel whose main goal is aquatic mobility, acquired a symbolic value. 17 Jung 1964: Jung 1964: Arlow 1981: ; Boyer 1981: ; Roheim 1943: Freud 1926: 87-98; Freud 1923: Merkur and Segal 2005: Pfister 1932: Cox 1948:94; Eggan 1955: 447; Adams 1990:

6 According to Wedde 24, it is a common mistake to relate the artefacts of our material world only with the achievement of physical goals and subsequently examining only the construction features, propulsion etc. of a vessel and nothing more. An artefact can perform a number of different functions and thus it is able to achieve nonphysical goals as well. Thereby, artefacts can be classified according to the functions that are assigned to them by their actors and the context within they both interact, into three subclasses of the material culture: technical, social and ideological 25 (or all three at the same time). Their social and ideological function can easily include the symbolic one. Furthermore, according to Kobylinski the distortion of the pragmatics of a vessel that causes this shift in the function, can be found in the importance of the ship in any religion. 26 The ability of every artefact to attract and accumulate emotions that can later acquire a religious form, can be observed much more in ships and therefore, they become an almost universal symbol. 27 In that way, actual ships or in a miniature form can be spotted as gifts in burials, as images that decorate artefacts charged with cultic meaning, 28 or accompanied by ritual symbols that they change their meaning etc. 5. The ship as symbol in the Minoan World 5.1. The classification of the symbolic ship in Minoan iconography and its ambiguity Similarly, the ship in the Minoan world had a very prominent role and meaning not only as a means of transportation that connects and allows trade or as a manifestation of social status, but in the perception of the spiritual world and cosmos too. This explains why it became a key aspect in various rites and a constant trait in Minoan iconography. According to Wedde it can be classified as a religious image when has an explicit relation with religion, as a cultic when its use is related with the communication with the deities, ritual when its involvement is explicit in the act of communication and finally both cultic and ritual as a medium that transcends the existence reality. 29 Again, this multivocality of symbols and the ambiguity of the Minoan art in general, 30 it is more than obvious, so we ought to be very careful when we try to provide an exegesis into a very different perception of reality which for the cultures of the past used to be a sort of natural part of their lives, 31 and always take into consideration their ideology and their mentalité. 24 Wedde 2000: Binford 1962: 219; Crilly 2010: Kobylinski 1995: Schnier 1953: Kobylinski 1995: Wedde 2000: Koehl 2016: Henderson 1964:

7 5.2. Aspects of religion: demarcating the religious context into which ship s symbolism emerged There are various examples that prove the ship s importance as a medium which goes beyond the worldly existence and its role in the perception of the cosmos during the EM III to LM IB, but before we examine them more specifically, it would be vital to demarcate some of the basic aspects of the Minoan religious system and its external influences. To begin with, it is difficult to talk about the formation of the Aegean religion in general, but it is widely accepted that to some extent share many similarities with these of the Near East cultures owing to the similar agrarian background that they derived from, which gave rise to supernatural unexplained phenomena, related to fertility, death etc., controlled by a deity or deities somehow needed to be appeased. 32 During the first and second Palatial period the raise of the palaces, which Marinatos 33 accurately named as the backbones of the religious system and proposed that these gave rise to a sacerdotal class whose responsibilities exceeded the religion matters with a surging desire in the depiction of ritual activities and epiphanies of a deity through iconography, propagating an official ideology. Additionally, it can be easily inferred that the augmentation of contacts with Egypt and especially that of the 18 th Dynasty, had an impact in the Minoan religion. This, can be noticed in the similarities between the Egyptian solar cult and the Minoan Great goddess who gives life to everything, and embodies all the aspects of the cosmos as well as in the emphasis in fertility, death, regeneration, the after-death voyage to the Isles of the Blessed via a watercraft etc The ship combined with other symbols Having meticulously examined what a symbol is and its various facets as well as the classification of the ship as a symbol in the Minoan iconography and the context into which emerged, it is time to delve into the various pictorial examples during the EM III to LM IB. However, the depiction of the ship alone may mean nothing, thus we should analyse them in correlation with the contexts within which they are found as well as with the various symbols that were accompanied with and together formed a very special meaning. The ship and the floating objects There are many depictions of ships, accompanied by objects that they do not stand on the ground but floating above them. Some of the most characteristic examples are two gold signet rings, the Kandia (LM I) and the Minos ring (LM IA) (figure 1; 32 Dickinson 1994: Marinatos 1993: ; 34 Marinatos 1933: , 242; Marinatos 2015: , 149; Marinatos 2016: 3; Nilson 1950: ; Vermuele 1979:

8 figure 2). Above the ship, a floating person with an extended arm has been identified. A similar floating person has been identified on the New Poros and Isopata ring (figure 3a- b) and although there is no ship, which according to Kyriakidis, they have the same form and direction. 35 Furthermore, in his work Unidentified Floating Objects on Minoan Seals Kyriakidis identified more floating objects above ships such as arrows, double axes, wheat, rayed objects, spirals (figure 4a - d) etc. Nilson 36, concluded that the floating persons represent epiphanies. Of course, we could not argue against that, but a more convincing explanation is again this of Kyriakidis 37 that they represent constellations because Nilson s suggestion does not explain the similarity in form, their stable relative position and direction, as well as the rest of the floating objects with which they share the same attributes. The ship and the tree A more complex combination is the ship accompanied by a tree. There are various examples, such as a gold signet ring found in a burial at Mokchlos (figure 5) with a tree growing onto a shrine or a planter (LM IB), 38 a seal from Makrygialos (LM I) with a tree at the place where the mast would have been, according to Wedde, 39 next to an ikrion or a shrine (figure 6), the Ring of Minos with a tree onto a similar construction, but not into the ship (figure 2; figure 7) etc. So, was the tree so important? The answer is yes. Apart from the existence of tree sanctuaries, according to Evans in Minoan iconography the tree marks the presence of the deity, 40 or according to Nilson the tree represents the embodiment of the goddess. 41 Furthermore, Marinatos suggests that those devises on the boat were used so as to transport the sacred tree and then to be placed onto a shrine inferring that the tree within the ship demonstrates the arrival of the goddess and together a period of regeneration and fertility. 42 The ship and the deities The previous linkage between tree and ship, inevitably leads to the association of the ship with temples and ensuingly as sites of epiphanies and a medium that transports the deity. 43 Therefore the indirect presence of the goddess into a ship via the sacred trees, the pose of figures as on Mokchlos ring (figure 5), the emblems of the solar goddess with which the ships of the Theran miniature freeze (LM IA) are decorated 35 Kyriakidis 2005: Nilson 1950: Kyriakidis 2005: 146, Marinatos 1993: Wedde 2000: Evans 1901: Nilson 1950: 262, Marinatos 1993: , Griffith 2002: ; Marinatos 1993:

9 with (figure 8), 44 signifying that the ships are under divine protection (through the presence?) of the goddess, 45 can be suggested or direct where the deity is being transported by a ship as on the Ring of Minos (figure 2), the ring from Mokchlos (figure 5), on a seal from AgiaTriada (figure 9), etc. Moreover, according to Griffith the notion of the ship as a temple can be consolidated by the fact that the proto- Greek word naswos (νηός in ancient Greek, which means temple) has as a verbal reflex the word nas-jo, which means to dwell, and its root is similar to the genitive νηός (ship) that derives from the proto-greek nawos. 46 Finally, we can spot a similarity with the Egyptian religion, which according to it many deities arrived by a boat. 6. Exegesis 6.1. A journey to the cosmos So far, we can identify three basic features of the ship, one in regard to constellations (that gives you the ability to transcend), the ship where the goddess dwell (the ship as a temple) and the ship that transports the goddess (connected with renewal). Here, we can add its use in a funerary context, implicitly linked with the transcendence of the soul to the Isles of Blessed ἐς Ἠλύσιον πεδίον καὶ πείρατα γαίης (Hom. Od., 4, 563), In this case I would like to use some more examples. The first one is the depictions of ships, connected with the transportation of the soul to the world of the afterlife. This is implied by a Middle Minoan III (MM) seal from Anemospilia (figure 10), found in the wrist of a man. 47 On it, a figure is depicted that uses the polling as a mode of propulsion, which can be associated with the myth of Charon, who transports the souls of the dead. 48 Of similar significance is the ring of Minos (figure 2) which Wedde, 49 compares with some of the scenes of the book of the Dead, where Horemheb is depicted polling a bow. Two more examples are the ship on the larnax from Gazi (LM IIIB) (figure 11), implying the death as a journey through the ocean to another existence, or the presentation scene from the sarcophagus of AgiaTriada (LM IIIA) (figure 12), where a boat is offered to the deceased, and has been regarded as a funerary barque. 50 Finally, we should mention the ships onto the so-called frying pans (Early Cycladic II) (figure 13), discovered in the Khalandriani cemetery of Syros and the fact that they have been found in such a context can possibly link them with a funerary ritual. Nevertheless, the most important trait of these ships is that they are accompanied by another 44 Marinatos 2015: 156; Marinatos 2016: Televantou 1994: , Griffith 2002: Sakellarakis and Sapouna-Sakelaraki 1981: Wedde 2000: Wedde 1997, 2000: Marinatos 1933:

10 important symbol, the spirals. Although sometimes in Minoan iconography their role was decorative, 51 in Egypt, one of their meanings is that they represent the depth of the nocturnal sky and its constellations, 52 or according to Cirlot, 53 the cosmic forces in motion, which at the same time are related with the water and its ability to transit, regenerate and dissolve. This is in line with the cosmogony of the pre-socratic philosopher Thales, that the water is the source of everything. This ability to dissolve is what secures the transition of the soul to the world of beyond. 54 Therefore, there is the ship, a medium that can be navigated by and through constellations. This medium is used by the goddess who transports her from a metaphysical to a physical world in order to appear as an epiphany to the people and regenerate the whole nature or as a medium that helps souls to transcend into a different existence which can be associated with their rebirth. So, the ship is the linkage between the existence reality and the one that goes beyond it and vice versa and can be used by the Goddess or the dead ones. In other words, the ship is able to be navigated into the havoc of the celestial ocean and reach to its destination, which can be double: the physical and the metaphysical world and thus securing a constant connection and interaction between these two. In that way, the symbolism of the ship is related to its inherited ability to transport, transcend as well as connect and played a prominent role in the cosmology of the Minoans. It is this iconography and symbolism that this new sacerdotal class exploited so as to propagate the belief that their authority had a divine origin, and the ship due to its prominent role in every island civilisation could not been absent from this equation A journey to the unconscious At this point it would be interesting to briefly examine the deep meaning of the disguised unconscious thoughts that find their way into the consciousness and normality through the symbol of the ship and can be understood only through our unconscious mind. Having in mind the Freudian Oedipal complex and that most of our ability to form symbols is connected with the child-mother relationship, 55 we can presume that the ship, unconsciously becomes the symbol of mother s womb. As Schnier 56 notices, the shape, its relation with the water and its rhythmic movement and the tendency to attach to it a female identity, consolidates this notion. Therefore, onto some of the frying pans from Khalandriani above the two handles and bellow the ship there is a depiction of female genitalia (figure 13, figure 14), 57 which allows us to connect the death as a journey through labour s water to mother s womb, a 51 Marinatos 2016: Marinatos 2015: 117; Marinatos 2016: Cirlot 2001: 305, Kobylinski 1995: Roheim 1950: Schnier 1973: Wachsmann 1998:

11 feature that has been attributed to the symbol of ship by many scholars 58. According to the theory of Primary Return-to-Womb Craving, 59 every human since birth craves returning to this state of complete happiness and protection that the mother offered them when they were embryos, a desire connected with our need in creating the same conditions during stressful periods: loneliness, darkness, a warmth bath etc. 60 Thus, unconsciously the ship on the frying pans is related to the trauma of birth, and symbolises the medium that will fulfil human s desire to return back to the place of their birth. 7. Conclusion All in all, the ability to form symbols and the tendency to give symbolic functions into objects can be understood as our innate need to communicate and externalise deeper feelings and thoughts. It is true that this ability has a therapeutic quality because it can fill the emptiness of our lives by offering a disguised rational explanation of the cosmos and by removing the feeling of anxiety that stems from the vanity of loneliness. Minoan s perception of the cosmos fulfilled exactly this need, which can be seen through their art. For them, there was a unity in the cosmos and a constant communication between the physical and the metaphysical world, something that provided them with a security they yarned for. However, there was only one way that this linkage could be made possible, and this was the journey by a ship. A ship that connects opposites such as land with sea, life with death, physical with metaphysical. A ship with a secret soul that embarks from our unconsciousness and transcends consciousness into the unexplored oceans of cosmos. 58 Kobylinski 1995: 13; Schnier 1953: Bowlby 1958: Schnier 1953:

12 List of Figures Figure 1. Gold signet ring from Kandia(LMI). Floating person. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1938 no Figure 2. The ring of Minos. Gold signet ring from Knossos (LM IA). Floating person. (Copy of the original, which has been lost or destroyed). 60

13 Figure. 3. a) The New Poros ring (LM). Floating person. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion no b) The Isopata ring from Isopata grave, Knossos (LM). Floating person.archaeological Museum of Herakleion, no a b c d Figure 4. a) Flat-ended prism-shaped clay lamp with seal impression from Malia (MM II). Double axe and arrow. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, no b) Clay seal impression from Knossos (MM III). Wheats Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, no. 206a c) Oval impression on clay lamp. Palace of Phaistos, Room 25 (MM IB-IIA). Rayed object. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. d) Three-sited steatite prism (MM I). Spirals. Oxford Ashmolean Museum 1925 no

14 Figure 5. Gold signet ring from Mokchlos (LM IB). Tree onto a shrine or planter (stolen). Figure 6. Seal from Makrygialos (LM I). Tree next to a shrine or ikrion. Archaeological Museum of Agios Nikolaos, no Figure 7. The ring of Minos (detail). Gold signet ring from Knossos (LM IA). A tree onto a shrine (Copy of the original, which has been lost or destroyed). 62

15 Figure 8. South wall, West House Room 5, Akrotiri, Thera (LM IA) (detail). National Archaeological Museum of Athens, Thera Room, BE Figure 9. Clay seal impression from AgiaTriada (LM I). Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. 63

16 Figure 10. Four-sided cylindrical agate seal from Anemospilia (MM III) (detail). Archaeological Museum of Herakleion no Figure 11. Painted clay larnax from Skaphidara near Gazi. (LM IIIB) The one side which is covered with a ship. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion no

17 Figure 12. Clay larnax with painted scenes from AgiaTriada (LM IIIA). Presentation scene. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. Figure 13. Clay frying pan with incised and impressed decoration from Chalandriani cemetery, Syros. A typical Cycladic paddled longboat with a fish effigy and a tassel, surrounded by running spirals. Athens, National Archaeological Museum

18 Figure 14. Clay frying pans from Khalandriani, Syros (ECyc II, Keros-Syros culture) (detail). The female genitalia on the frying pans.. List of Images Figure 1. Gold signet ring from Kandia(LMI). Floating person. Oxford, Ashmolean Museum 1938 no Source: Kyriakidis 2005: Fig. 2c. Figure 2. The ring of Minos. Gold signet ring from Knossos (LM IA). Floating person. (Copy of the original, which has been lost or destroyed). Source: Retrieved from Figure 3. a) The New Poros ring (LM). Floating person. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion no Source: Kyriakidis 2005: Fig. 2a. Figure 3. b) The Isopata ring from Isopata grave, Knossos (LM). Floating person. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, no Source: Kyriakidis 2005: Fig. 2b. Figure 4. a) Flat-ended prism-shaped clay lamp with seal impression from Malia (MM II). Double axe and arrow. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, no Source: Wedde 2000: Fig.829. Figure 4. b) Clay seal impression from Knossos (MM III). Wheats Archaeological Museum of Herakleion, no. 206a. Source: Wedde 2000: Fig Figure 4. c) Oval impression on clay lamp. Palace of Phaistos, Room 25 (MM IB-IIA). Rayed object. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. Source: Wedde 2000: Fig

19 Figure 4. d) Three-sited steatite prism (MM I). Spirals. Oxford Ashmolean Museum 1925 no 57. Source: Wedde 2000: Fig Figure 5. Gold signet ring from Mokchlos (LM IB). Tree onto a shrine or planter. (Stolen). Source: Wedde 2000: Fig Figure 6. Seal from Makrygialos (LM I). Tree next to a shrine or ikrion. Archaeological Museum of Agios Nikolaos, no Source: Wedde 2000: Fig Figure 7. The ring of Minos (detail). Gold signet ring from Knossos (LM IA). A tree onto a shrine (Copy of the original, which has been lost or destroyed). Source: Retrieved from: Figure 8. South wall, West House Room 5, Akrotiri, Thera (LM IA) (detail). National Archaeological Museum of Athens, Thera Room, BE Source: Televantou 1994: Table 58. Figure 9. Clay seal impression from AgiaTriada (LM I). Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. Source: Wedde 2000: Fig Figure 10. Four-sided cylindrical agate seal from Anemospilia (MM III) (detail). Archaeological Museum of Herakleion no Source: Wedde 2000: Fig Figure 11. Painted clay larnax from Skaphidara near Gazi. (LM IIIB) The one side which is covered with a ship. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion no Source: Wedde 2000: Fig.608. Figure 12. Clay larnax with painted scenes from AgiaTriada (LM IIIA). Presentation scene. Archaeological Museum of Herakleion. Source: Spathari 1995: Fig. 28. Figure 13. Clay frying pan with incised and impressed decoration from Chalandriani cemetery, Syros. A typical Cycladic paddled longboat with a fish effigy and a tassel, surrounded by running spirals. Athens, National Archaeological Museum Source: Photograph taken by author. Figure 14. Clay frying pans from Khalandriani, Syros (Early Cycladic II, Keros- Syros culture) (detail). The female genitalia on the frying pans. Source: Coleman 1985: Ill

20 Bibliography Primary Sources Homer, Odyssey, trans. A. T. Murray [Loeb Classical Library] (Harvard, 1995). Kandinsky, W Selbstbetrachtungen, Dokumente. Berlin. Secondary Literature Adams, L The myth of Athena and Arachne: some oedipal and pre-oedipal aspects of creative challenge in women and their implications for the interpretation of Las Meninas by Velazquez, International journal of Psycho-analysis: 71 (4) Arlow, J. A Discussion of "Apache lore of the bat", in Muensterberger and Boyer (eds.), The Psychoanalytic study of society, New York: Psychohistory Press, Binford, L. R Archaeology as anthropology, American Antiquity 28 (2), Bower, G. H Analysis of a mnemonic device, American Scientist 58 (5), Bowlby, J The nature of the child s tie to his mother, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 39 (5), Boyer, R. M. and Boyer, L. B Apache lore of the bat, in Muensterberger and Boyer (eds.), The Psychoanalytic study of society, New York: Psychohistory Press, Cirlot, J. E A dictionary of symbols (trans. J. Sage). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. Coleman, J. E Frying pans of the Early Bronze Age Aegean, American Journal of Archaeology 89 (2), Cox, H.L The place of mythology in the study of culture, American Imago 5 (2), Crilly, N The roles that artefacts play: technical, social and aesthetic functions Design Studies 31(4), Dickinson, O [1994]. Αιγαίο Εποχή του Χαλκού (trans. T. Xenos). Athens: Ινστιτούτο του βιβλίου Α. Καρδαμίτσα. Diel, P [1975]. Symbolism in the Bible: The Universality of Symbolic Language and its Psychological Significance (N. Marans, Trans.). San Francisco: Harper & Row. Eggan, D The personal use of myth in dreams, The Journal of American Folklore 68 (270), Elliade, M Images et symboles. Essais sur le symbolisme magico-religieux, Revue des Sciences Religieuses 30 (2), Evans, A. J., Sir Mycenaean tree and pillar cult and its Mediterranean relations The Journal of Hellenic Studies 21, Facchini, F Symbolism in prehistoric man, Collegium Antropologicum 24 (2),

21 Freud, S [1901]. The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (trans. A. A. Brill). New York: The Macmillan Company. Freud, S Das Ich und das Es. Leipzig, Wien, Zurich: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag. Freud, S Inhibitions, symptoms and anxiety (trans. A. Strachey). London: Hogarth. Griffith, R. D Temple as Ship in Odyssey The American Journal of Philology 123 (4), Henderson, J. L Ancient myths and modern man in Jung and von Franz (eds.), Man and his symbols. New York: Anchor Press, Jaffe, A Symbolism in the visual arts, in Jung von Franz (eds.), Man and his symbols. New York: Anchor Press, Jung, C. G Approaching the unconscious in Jung and von Franz (eds.), Man and his symbols. New York: Anchor Press, Kobylinski, Z Ships, society, symbols and archaeologists in Crumlin- Pedersen and Thye (eds.), The ship as a symbol in prehistoric and medieval Scandinavia. Papers from an international research seminar at the Danish National Museum, Copenhagen, 5 th -7 th May Copenhagen: The National Museum, Koehl, R. B The Ambiguity of the Minoan Mind in Alram-Stern, Blakolmer, Deger-Jalcolzy, Laffineur, and Weilhartner, (eds.), Metaphysis: Ritual, myth and symbolism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Aegeum 39. Proceedings of the 15th International Aegean Conference, Vienna, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Aegean and Anatolia Department, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Institute of Classical Archaeology, University of Vienna, April Liège: Peeters Leuven, Kyriakidis, E Unidentified Floating Objects on Minoan Seals, American Journal of Archaeology 109 (2), Marinatos, N Minoan religion: Ritual, image and symbol. South Carolina: University of South Carolina. Marinatos, N Akrotiri Thera and the East Mediterranean. Athens: TROIA EKDOTIKI EMPORIKI S.A. Marinatos, N Myth, ritual, symbolism and the Solar Goddess in Thera, in Alram-Stern, Blakolmer, Deger-Jalcolzy, Laffineur, and Weilhartner (eds.) Metaphysis: Ritual, myth and symbolism in the Aegean Bronze Age. Aegeum 39. Proceedings of the 15th International Aegean Conference, Vienna, Institute for Oriental and European Archaeology, Aegean and Anatolia Department, Austrian Academy of Sciences and Institute of Classical Archaeology, University of Vienna, April Liège: Peeters Leuven, Marinatos, S La marine créto-mycénienne Bulletin de correspondence hellénique 57 (1), Mercur, D. and Segal, R. A Theorists of Myth: Psychoanalytic Approaches to Myth. New York and London: Routledge. Nilson, M. P [1927]. The Minoan-Mycenaean religion and its survival in Greek religion. Lund: Biblo & Tannen Publishers. 69

22 Paredes, J. A The Split Brain and the Culture-and-Cognition Paradox, Current Anthropology 17 (1), Pfister, O Instinctive psychoanalysis among the Navahos, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 76 (3), Ricoeur, P [1965]. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation (trans. D. Savage). New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Roheim, G The origin and function of culture. New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Monographs. Roheim, G Psychoanalysis and Anthropology: Culture, personality and the unconscious. New York: International University Press. Sakellarakis, I. A. And Sapouna-Sakelaraki, E Drama of death in a Minoan temple, National Geographic 159 (2), Schnier, J Art Symbolism and the Unconscious, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 12 (1), Special issue on symbolism and creative imagination, Spathari, E Αρμενίζοντας στο Χρόνο. Το πλοίο στην ελληνική τέχνη. Αθήνα: Εκδόσεις Καπόν. Televantou, C. A Ακρωτήρι Θήρας. Οι τοιχογραφίες της Δυτικής Οικίας. Αθήναι: Βιβλιοθήκη της εν Αθήναις Αρχαιολογικής Εταιρείας. Vermuele, E Aspects of death in early Greek art and pottery. Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Wachsmann, S Seagoing ships and seamanship in the Bronze Age Levant. London: Chatham Publishing. Wedde, M The intellectual stowaway: on the movement of ideas within exchange systems A Minoan case study, in Laffineur and Betancourt (eds.), TEXNH. Craftsmen, Craftswomen and Craftsmanship in the Aegean Bronze Age / Artisanat et artisans en Égée à l'âge du Bronze. Aegeum 16. Proceedings of the 6th International Aegean Conference / 6e Rencontre égéenne internationale, Philadelphia, Temple University, April Liège/ Austin: Université de Liège, Histoire de l' art et archéologie de la Grèce antique/university of Texas at Austin, Program in Aegean Scripts and Prehistory, Wedde, M Towards a hermeneutics of Aegean Bronze Age ship imagery. Manheim and Möhnesee: Bibliopolis. 70

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