When Richard Wright s Native Son was first published in 1940, its sensational, violent

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "When Richard Wright s Native Son was first published in 1940, its sensational, violent"

Transcription

1 Rowley 1 Richard Wright s Empathetic Monster in Native Son When Richard Wright s Native Son was first published in 1940, its sensational, violent protagonist generated fervent responses from critics. Most praised Wright for his brutally truthful construction of a tragic black character caught in the stranglehold of American oppression. Others condemned the portrayal saying Wright imbued Bigger with such a monstrous personality and drove him to such unspeakable acts that he became repulsive. To be sure, Wright s depiction of Bigger is multifaceted. In his seminal essay How Bigger Was Born, Wright contends that it was necessary for him to create a volatile protagonist in order to awaken white readers to the effects of subjugation on the black consciousness. In order to achieve this, Wright constructed an empathetic character driven to commit monstrous murders by an oppressive society which made him feel isolated, afraid, ashamed, anxious and paranoid. Only by depicting Bigger s sympathetic, emotional vulnerability in this way could Wright make readers think deeply about what might have caused a character to commit atrocious crimes. One way Wright achieves this is by using an atypical writing style. In the novel, Wright uses the conflicting devices of realism, expressionism and modernism, as well as multiple narrative voices, to create dialectical unity of forms. By combining these unusual practices and presenting multiple sides of Bigger s situation, Wright is able to create a more complete and empathetic look at Bigger s monstrous character, thereby inspiring the kind of complex thought he hoped to invoke.

2 Rowley 2 Wright uses realism in the novel to humanize Bigger s monstrous character and to show how Bigger s environment adversely effects his psyche. Wright talks in Blueprint about his deep commitment to showing a true representation of Bigger s life and the underlying social forces which shape his actions: If the sense of the whole life [the Negro writer] is seeking is vivid and strong in him, then his writing will embrace all those social, political and economic forms under which the life of his people is manifest (46). Wright s commitment to realism is most evident in Book One where he shows how Bigger s everyday life is heavily influenced by the social influences of capitalist society. For example, early on in the novel, Wright shows Bigger watching working men put up a poster for a white politician, State s Attorney Buckley. Bigger looks at the poster and says, I bet that sonofabitch rakes off a million bucks in graft a year. Boy, if I was in his shoes for just one day I d never have to worry again (13). These two lines are an example of Wright s realist representation in Native Son. Wright shows a simple, straightforward portrayal of Bigger s life while at the same time subtly using the poster and dialogue to take this seemingly mundane slice of life and give it significant objective meaning. First, Bigger s use of the word sonofabitch shows his bitterness toward Buckley as a representative of the white race which he perceives to have everything. But, Bigger s words rakes off a million bucks in graft a day show that despite his hatred toward Buckley and his race, he also admires and lusts after Buckley s success and money. Finally, the line I d never have to worry again shows Bigger s frustration with his own lack of money and his wish for the blessed life he believes Buckley to possess. This is an example of the deep, informed and complex consciousness (Blueprint 43) Wright believed was necessary in the Negro writing effort. Presenting Native Son from a realist perspective makes readers think about how the social forces of capitalist society affect and influence the lives of black people in that society. This

3 Rowley 3 realist perspective, in turn, humanizes Bigger s character, making him seem sympathetic and relatable. Wright sets up this empathetic portrayal so that later, when Bigger commits the murders of Mary and Bessie, the audience understands what led him to commit such monstrous acts. But, that is only one side. Wright adds expressionist representation to his primarily realist text to show how Bigger s oppressive environment affects his inner thoughts and emotions. Wright uses expressionist dream imagery to heighten Bigger s explosive emotions, to give Bigger an outlet for those emotions or to give Bigger an escape from emotions he cannot control. This then presents the reader with another side of his monstrous personality and sparks additional debate, forcing the reader to contemplate why Bigger s emotions are so volatile, what situations cause these explosive emotions, whether or not they are justified and what might be the underlying causes of his violent responses. Wright uses expressionist dream-like language and imagery when Bigger is caught in the most angst-inducing situations. For example, when Bigger is driving in the car with Jan and Mary and they are asking him questions that make him feel confused, ashamed and angry, he channels his fury into violent fantasies in his mind: He wanted to seize some heavy object in his hand and grip it with all the strength of his body and in some strange way rise up and stand in naked space above the speeding car and with one final blow blot it out with himself and them in it (Native Son 70). The expressionist language and imagery Wright uses here shows how Bigger escapes into violent fantasies whenever he feels caged in or violated in a situation as a way of expressing the inner anger and unacceptable desires he cannot express outwardly because of societal taboo. Similar to dreams we have while sleeping, which can be interpreted upon waking to reveal our innermost uncensored desires, Wright gives us access to Bigger s interior wishes as a way of further revealing character and as a means of

4 Rowley 4 foreshadowing the upcoming times when Bigger s inner desires are expressed outwardly and result in the violent deaths of Mary and Bessie. In his book The Power of Political Art: The 1930 s Literary Left Reconsidered, Robert Shulman talks about Bigger s fight to keep his inherent violent tendencies at bay: Bigger not only fears whites, moreover, but also the violence of his own reaction, partly because of the retribution it will bring, partly because of his underlying humanity (144). In other words, Bigger is both intrinsically violent and at the same time afraid of that violence within him. Escaping into dream imagery is a coping mechanism, an outlet. Therefore, it only makes sense that Wright would relay this part of Bigger s personality using expressionism, which is by definition a distorted, dream-like form of representation. By inserting these momentary expressionist dream sequences into Wright s otherwise primarily realistic text, Wright forces the reader to contemplate a different and more complex side of Bigger s monstrous persona, thereby creating empathy in the mind of the reader and further complicating the reader s view of the African-American psyche. Once Wright has built audience empathy for Bigger s character using realist and expressionist techniques, he then shows how Bigger s environment and his inner emotions can lead to monstrous acts. He does this using sensational modernism. The most obvious example is when Bigger murders Mary, cuts off her head and burns her in the incinerator. In this scene, Wright shocks readers and shows them a perspective of the volatile nature of the black psyche they never considered before. But, if Wright had not built audience empathy for Bigger s character first using realism and expressionism, he would not have been able to make the statement about oppression that he wanted to make with this scene. Readers would simply have turned away in disgust. Instead, because Wright so expertly sets up Bigger s character and builds audience empathy for his persona, this scene both shocks and disturbs the reader, thereby

5 Rowley 5 prompting the kind of complex thought Wright hoped to invoke with his writing. The realism forces the reader to think about Bigger s everyday situation and the social influences that have contributed to it. The sensational modernist scene of Mary s murder and decapitation jolts the reader awake and invites an even deeper line of thought: How could the social influences lead to this kind of violent reaction? By starting the book with a realist representation of Bigger s life, which shows the underlying social forces which shape his actions, readers get a sense of why Bigger is as he is. Then, by adding distorted expressionist dream sequences which show how he reacts to and copes with this life, Wright gives the reader additional insight into Bigger s inner struggle. Finally, by using sensational modernist techniques to show what happens when Bigger finally loses control of these inner tendencies and commits monstrous acts as a result, the reader can start to make connections between all three forms of representation and contemplate how each contributed to Bigger s downfall. In this way, Wright s blend of realism, modernism and expressionism give the most well-rounded and at the same time multi-dimensional representation of Bigger as a person, thereby inspiring the kind of speculation and thought in the reader that Wright hoped to invoke. Another way that Wright uses conflicting devices to create dialectical unity of forms is by using multiple narrative voices. By blending Bigger s outer voice, Bigger s inner thoughts and Wright s interpretations of Bigger s thoughts, Wright is able to give a more fully developed vision of Bigger than one single perspective would have allowed. These multiple perspectives serve to develop audience empathy for Bigger s character, thereby giving richer insight into his monstrous persona. Wright s non-traditional narrative style is necessary to work in contrast to Bigger s outer voice, which he designs to reflect Bigger s angry, volatile personality. Bigger s

6 Rowley 6 outer voice generally relies on short, staccato phrases meant either to intimidate, as in his fight with Gus: You yellow bastard! You yellow! (Native Son 26), to express his elated violent tendencies, as after he kills a rat: I got im By God, I got im, (6), to express his frustration with his mother: Aw, for Chrissakes! (8) or to express his depressed tendencies, as when he responds to his mother s wish that she d never given birth to him: Maybe you oughtn t ve. Maybe you ought to left me where I was (8). By themselves these revelations of character show only Bigger s anger, frustration and self hatred. But Wright s use of a thirdperson narrator with a first-person point of view adds a more intimate look into the rich inner life of Bigger s mind, which Bigger s outer speech cannot reveal. For example, after the initial scene in Bigger s home where Bigger kills a rat and then fights with his mother about getting a job, Wright s intimate narrator shows Bigger s inner reactions: He hated his family because he knew that they were suffering and that he was powerless to help them. He knew that the moment he allowed himself to feel to its fullness how they lived, the shame and misery of their lives, he would be swept out of himself with fear and despair (10). This narrative voice is written to sound as though it is Bigger s thoughts. In this way, Wright s intimate third-person narrator gives the reader access to Bigger s most private feelings and helps the reader to see that he is a more complex individual than his outer persona allows. This builds reader empathy and helps to soften Bigger s monstrous personality. But, Wright is not satisfied to stop at this level of intimacy. He wants to give the reader an even deeper understanding not just of Bigger, but of the reasons for Bigger s atypical personality. Therefore, he interjects his own thoughts about Bigger using a more distant thirdperson point-of-view as though he were Bigger s psychologist: These were the rhythms of his life: indifference and violence; periods of abstract brooding and periods of intense desire;

7 Rowley 7 moments of silence and moments of anger Being this way was a need of his as deep as eating (Native Son 29). Wright in this passage acts as interpreter for Bigger who cannot know these things about himself, but which Wright believes the reader should know and contemplate. Wright talks about his decision to interrupt the narrative flow in this way: I d find it impossible to say what I wanted to say without stepping in and speaking outright on my own (HBWB 458). It is no surprise then that these interjections are written from a more distant point of view and in a different language from the one that conveys Bigger s own thoughts. Wright does this intentionally to make clear to the reader that these portions of the narrative are separate from Bigger s own perceptions. And though these interjections do disrupt the flow of the narrative at times, they also accomplish Wright s overall intention which is to give the reader a richer, more complex and well-rounded view of Bigger s monstrous character and to get the reader to pause and think about the deeper underlying issues contributing to Bigger s multifaceted personality. Wright uses conflicting devices to create a dialectical unity of forms in Native Son as a way to create empathy for Bigger s character and to show in explicit detail the deep and complex consequences of capitalist oppression on the African-American psyche: As I wrote, for some reason or other, one image, symbol, character, scene, mood, feeling evoked its opposite, its parallel, its complementary, and its ironic counterpart (HBWB 460). Wright s use of these oppositions allows him to depict Bigger in a more empathetic light, which in turn, prompts deeper introspection in the minds of readers. Wright uses realism to show the starkly oppressive world in which Bigger lives. He then adds expressionism to show Bigger s volatile inner reactions to his repressive situation. Finally, he uses sensational modernism to show what happens when Bigger loses control of his aggressive emotions and commits monstrous acts. The combination of these three opposing narrative devices allows Wright to depict Bigger in a richer,

8 Rowley 8 more complex light. To further complicate Bigger s character, Wright combines multiple narrative perspectives, including Bigger s stunted outer voice, his complex inner thoughts and Wright s commentary on those thoughts. This allows him to show the influences that have shaped Bigger s monstrous identity and what this stunted sense of self represents on a larger scale in regard to capitalistic oppression and its effects on the individual. Ultimately, therefore, Wright achieves with his blend of opposing narrative forms, a richer forum for empathy, thought and speculation, thereby raising class and racial consciousness to a higher level.

Honors English 9: Literary Elements

Honors English 9: Literary Elements Honors English 9: Literary Elements Name "Structure" includes all the elements in a story. The final objective is to see the story as a whole and to become aware of how the parts are put together to produce

More information

In Daniel Defoe s adventure novel, Robinson Crusoe, the topic of violence

In Daniel Defoe s adventure novel, Robinson Crusoe, the topic of violence In Daniel Defoe s adventure novel, Robinson Crusoe, the topic of violence plays an interesting role. Violence in this novel is used for action and suspense, and it also poses dilemmas for the protagonist,

More information

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Jonathon Edwards

Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God. Jonathon Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Jonathon Edwards Silly Quiz #4 In Edward s sermon, what emotional state is God in? Comparison Compare the language used in Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God to the

More information

New Hollywood. Scorsese & Mean Streets

New Hollywood. Scorsese & Mean Streets New Hollywood Scorsese & Mean Streets http://www.afi.com/100years/handv.aspx Metteurs-en-scene Martin Scorsese: Author of Mean Streets? Film as collaborative process? Andre Bazin Jean Luc Godard

More information

Answer the following questions: 1) What reasons can you think of as to why Macbeth is first introduced to us through the witches?

Answer the following questions: 1) What reasons can you think of as to why Macbeth is first introduced to us through the witches? Macbeth Study Questions ACT ONE, scenes 1-3 In the first three scenes of Act One, rather than meeting Macbeth immediately, we are presented with others' reactions to him. Scene one begins with the witches,

More information

The Virtues of the Short Story in Literature

The Virtues of the Short Story in Literature The Virtues of the Short Story in Literature Literature, and the short story in particular, are able to reveal aspects of our lives with more versatility and range than other forms of art and media. For

More information

Extract study: Section 1 (a)

Extract study: Section 1 (a) Extract study: Section 1 (a) OVERVIEW : We are introduced to the main characters of George and Lennie. 1. Read the first paragraph in the extract. How does Steinbeck strike an immediate contrast between

More information

Hamlet Essay Prompts

Hamlet Essay Prompts Hamlet Essay Prompts 2003: Prompt #1 According to critic Northrop Frye, "Tragic heroes are so much the highest points in their human landscape that they seem the inevitable conductors of the power about

More information

Chopin s Artistry in The Story of an Hour. To be in conflict with traditional society s beliefs is difficult for many to do; however, author

Chopin s Artistry in The Story of an Hour. To be in conflict with traditional society s beliefs is difficult for many to do; however, author Tonya Flowers ENG 101 Prof. S. Lindsay Literary Analysis Paper 29 October 2006 Chopin s Artistry in The Story of an Hour To be in conflict with traditional society s beliefs is difficult for many to do;

More information

10 th Grade CP SUMMER READING ASSIGNMENTS

10 th Grade CP SUMMER READING ASSIGNMENTS CP ENGLISH 10 10 th Grade CP SUMMER READING ASSIGNMENTS You will be working on 1 summer reading assignment. Before returning to school next school year, you will need to read The House on Mango Street

More information

WHAT ARE THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF SHORT STORIES?

WHAT ARE THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF SHORT STORIES? WHAT ARE THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF SHORT STORIES? 1. They are short: While this point is obvious, it needs to be emphasised. Short stories can usually be read at a single sitting. This means that writers

More information

NO COLOR IS MY KIND: THE LIFE OF ELDREWEY STEARNS AND THE INTEGRATION OF HOUSTON BY THOMAS R. COLE

NO COLOR IS MY KIND: THE LIFE OF ELDREWEY STEARNS AND THE INTEGRATION OF HOUSTON BY THOMAS R. COLE Read Online and Download Ebook NO COLOR IS MY KIND: THE LIFE OF ELDREWEY STEARNS AND THE INTEGRATION OF HOUSTON BY THOMAS R. COLE DOWNLOAD EBOOK : NO COLOR IS MY KIND: THE LIFE OF ELDREWEY STEARNS AND

More information

The Literary. Essay. Comparison/Contrast: Assignment: For Your Information: How to Write a Literary Comparison/Contrast. Essay.

The Literary. Essay. Comparison/Contrast: Assignment: For Your Information: How to Write a Literary Comparison/Contrast. Essay. The Literary Point of View Essay Word Choice Literary Devices Theme Author Comparison/Contrast: Assignment: Comparison/Contrast - The process of examining two or more things in order to establish their

More information

Name: #: Hour: FEVER 1793, Laurie Halse Anderson Discussion Questions

Name: #: Hour: FEVER 1793, Laurie Halse Anderson Discussion Questions Name: #: Hour: FEVER 1793, Laurie Halse Anderson Discussion Questions CHAPTERS 1-4 1. Why is Mother angry as she tries to awaken her daughter Matilda? 2. Why does Eliza like living in Philadelphia? 3.

More information

The Classical Narrative Model. vs. The Art film (Modernist) Model

The Classical Narrative Model. vs. The Art film (Modernist) Model The Classical Narrative Model vs. The Art film (Modernist) Model Classical vs. Modernist Narrative Strategies Key Film Esthetics Concepts Realism Formalism Montage Mise-en-scene Modernism REALISM Style

More information

I am a Family Guy: Becoming Friends with TV and Film Characters

I am a Family Guy: Becoming Friends with TV and Film Characters 1 Travis Reilly April 23, 2015 I am a Family Guy: Becoming Friends with TV and Film Characters Introduction: Keenen Ivory Wayans. Scary Movie 2. 2001. This short scene is something I would repeat to myself

More information

Fighting Back Depression

Fighting Back Depression A CLINICIAN S GUIDE TO THINK GOOD FEEL GOOD THINK GOOD FEEL GOOD Fighting Back Depression There are times when everyone feels down, fed-up or unhappy. Most of the time these feelings come and go, but sometimes

More information

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain 2 nd Quarter Novel Unit AP English Language & Composition

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain 2 nd Quarter Novel Unit AP English Language & Composition The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain 2 nd Quarter Novel Unit AP English Language & Composition The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is considered one of the first significant and truly American

More information

from the journal of a disappointed man andrew motion

from the journal of a disappointed man andrew motion from the journal of a disappointed man andrew motion My poems are the product of a relationship between a side of my mind which is conscious, alert, educated and manipulative, and a side which is as murky

More information

Article On the Nature of & Relation between Formless God & Form: Part 2: The Identification of the Formless God with Lesser Form

Article On the Nature of & Relation between Formless God & Form: Part 2: The Identification of the Formless God with Lesser Form 392 Article On the Nature of & Relation between Formless God & Form: Part 2: The Identification of the Formless God Steven E. Kaufman * ABSTRACT What is described in the second part of this work is what

More information

Analysing prose extracts. Learning Objective. To know what the examiner wants in a passage based question

Analysing prose extracts. Learning Objective. To know what the examiner wants in a passage based question Learning Objective To know what the examiner wants in a passage based question The Mark Scheme The mark scheme focuses on your ability to explain how the writer's choice of language, structure and form

More information

2 Unified Reality Theory

2 Unified Reality Theory INTRODUCTION In 1859, Charles Darwin published a book titled On the Origin of Species. In that book, Darwin proposed a theory of natural selection or survival of the fittest to explain how organisms evolve

More information

The Invaders by Jack Ritchie

The Invaders by Jack Ritchie Assessment Practice Assessment Practice RL 3 Analyze how dialogue or incidents in a story propel the action. RL 4 Analyze the impact of word choices on tone. RL 5 Analyze how the structure of text contributes

More information

Why I Chose This Poem. and Ken 101" in class. The reason it sparked my interest so much was because it seemed

Why I Chose This Poem. and Ken 101 in class. The reason it sparked my interest so much was because it seemed A.D.D. by Rafael Casal Nicole Bennett Why I Chose This Poem I found myself trying to listen to all of Rafael Casal's poetry online after watching "Barbie and Ken 101" in class. The reason it sparked my

More information

Unified Reality Theory in a Nutshell

Unified Reality Theory in a Nutshell Unified Reality Theory in a Nutshell 200 Article Steven E. Kaufman * ABSTRACT Unified Reality Theory describes how all reality evolves from an absolute existence. It also demonstrates that this absolute

More information

Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing

Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing Literature: An Introduction to Reading and Writing by Roberts and Jacobs English Composition III Mary F. Clifford, Instructor What Is Literature and Why Do We Study It? Literature is Composition that tells

More information

THE PAY TELEVISION CODE

THE PAY TELEVISION CODE THE PAY TELEVISION CODE 42 Broadcasting Standards Authority 43 / The following standards apply to all pay television programmes broadcast in New Zealand. Pay means television that is for a fee (ie, viewers

More information

AP English Literature and Composition

AP English Literature and Composition 2017 AP English Literature and Composition Sample Student Responses and Scoring Commentary Inside: RR Free Response Question 1 RR Scoring Guideline RR Student Samples RR Scoring Commentary 2017 The College

More information

THE RADIO CODE. The Radio Code. Broadcasting Standards in New Zealand Codebook

THE RADIO CODE. The Radio Code. Broadcasting Standards in New Zealand Codebook 22 THE The Radio Code RADIO CODE Broadcasting Standards in New Zealand Codebook Broadcasting Standards Authority 23 / The following standards apply to all radio programmes broadcast in New Zealand. Freedom

More information

DETERMINING HOW PEOPLE FEEL DURING MOVIES Kennedy Byrd Cary Academy ABSTRACT

DETERMINING HOW PEOPLE FEEL DURING MOVIES Kennedy Byrd Cary Academy ABSTRACT DETERMINING HOW PEOPLE FEEL DURING MOVIES Kennedy Byrd Cary Academy ABSTRACT Six volunteers were tested to see how their body felt after watching a series of different categories of movies. It was hypothesized

More information

idea or concept to another, from one sentence or paragraph to another. ie. It means arranging ideas in a logical order and showing the relationship

idea or concept to another, from one sentence or paragraph to another. ie. It means arranging ideas in a logical order and showing the relationship Essay notes Coherence The smooth and effective transition from one idea or concept to another, from one sentence or paragraph to another. ie. It means arranging ideas in a logical order and showing the

More information

READING Overview The Reading Comprehension section of ACCUPLACER contains 20 multiple choice questions that fall into two categories:

READING Overview The Reading Comprehension section of ACCUPLACER contains 20 multiple choice questions that fall into two categories: READING Overview The Reading Comprehension section of ACCUPLACER contains 20 multiple choice questions that fall into two categories: 1. A reading passage followed by a question based on the text. Both

More information

Name Date. Wallflower someone who feels shy and awkward, particularly at a party or dance. Pre-Reading 1) What is the title of our new book?

Name Date. Wallflower someone who feels shy and awkward, particularly at a party or dance. Pre-Reading 1) What is the title of our new book? Name Date The Perks of Being a Wallflower By Stephen Chbosky Do Now: Write about a time you were scared to be somewhere new and different? Where was it? What made you scared? What happened when you finally

More information

An Academic Odyssey: A Teacher s Search for The Artistic Impact of the Vietnam. Conflict on the Music of Jazz and Motown. Ben T.

An Academic Odyssey: A Teacher s Search for The Artistic Impact of the Vietnam. Conflict on the Music of Jazz and Motown. Ben T. An Academic Odyssey: A Teacher s Search for The Artistic Impact of the Vietnam Conflict on the Music of Jazz and Motown Ben T. Gracey Original Intent When I began my research on the impact of the Vietnam

More information

What are the key preoccupations of the Romantic poet and how are these evinced in Keats letters and poems, and in Shelley s Skylark

What are the key preoccupations of the Romantic poet and how are these evinced in Keats letters and poems, and in Shelley s Skylark What are the key preoccupations of the Romantic poet and how are these evinced in Keats letters and poems, and in Shelley s Skylark One of the main preoccupations of the Romantic poet is that of a longing

More information

May 21, Act 1.notebook. Romeo and Juliet. Act 1, scene i

May 21, Act 1.notebook. Romeo and Juliet. Act 1, scene i Romeo and Juliet Act 1, scene i Throughout Romeo and Juliet, I would like for you to keep somewhat of a "writer's notebook" where you will write responses, thoughts etc. over the next couple of weeks.

More information

Multiple Critical Perspectives. Teaching George Orwell's. Animal Farm. from. Multiple Critical Perspectives. Eva Richardson

Multiple Critical Perspectives. Teaching George Orwell's. Animal Farm. from. Multiple Critical Perspectives. Eva Richardson Teaching George Orwell's Animal Farm from by Eva Richardson Animal Farm General Introduction to the Work Introduction to Animal Farm n i m a l Farm is an allegorical novel that uses elements of the fable

More information

If you think sleeping rough's just a matter of finding a dry spot where the fuzz won't

If you think sleeping rough's just a matter of finding a dry spot where the fuzz won't 2 Homelessness Extract 1 Stone Cold Narrative fiction The following extract has been taken from a novel titled Stone Cold by Robert Swindells. The story follows the fortunes of Link, a 16-year-old boy

More information

The Jungle Social Messages in Literature

The Jungle Social Messages in Literature Lesson Plan Grade Level: 9-12 Curriculum Focus: Literature Lesson Duration: One class period Student Objectives Materials Make a list of books that convey strong social messages. Discuss the literary strengths

More information

EMOTIONS IN CONCERT: PERFORMERS EXPERIENCED EMOTIONS ON STAGE

EMOTIONS IN CONCERT: PERFORMERS EXPERIENCED EMOTIONS ON STAGE EMOTIONS IN CONCERT: PERFORMERS EXPERIENCED EMOTIONS ON STAGE Anemone G. W. Van Zijl *, John A. Sloboda * Department of Music, University of Jyväskylä, Finland Guildhall School of Music and Drama, United

More information

Hamletmachine: The Objective Real and the Subjective Fantasy. Heiner Mueller s play Hamletmachine focuses on Shakespeare s Hamlet,

Hamletmachine: The Objective Real and the Subjective Fantasy. Heiner Mueller s play Hamletmachine focuses on Shakespeare s Hamlet, Tom Wendt Copywrite 2011 Hamletmachine: The Objective Real and the Subjective Fantasy Heiner Mueller s play Hamletmachine focuses on Shakespeare s Hamlet, especially on Hamlet s relationship to the women

More information

"Does Beethoven Have to Roll Over? Not If We Flip Him! paper for session: Who s Afraid of High Culture?

Does Beethoven Have to Roll Over? Not If We Flip Him! paper for session: Who s Afraid of High Culture? Loyola University Chicago Loyola ecommons History: Faculty Publications and Other Works Faculty Publications 9-19-2014 "Does Beethoven Have to Roll Over? Not If We Flip Him! paper for session: Who s Afraid

More information

LITERARY ELEMENTS NOTES

LITERARY ELEMENTS NOTES Name: Date: #: English Period: LITERARY ELEMENTS NOTES -Literary elements are elements that make up a (characters, characterization, conflict, setting, theme, symbolism, point of view, mood, tone, and

More information

LESSON 21 Expressing Empathy and Understanding for Others

LESSON 21 Expressing Empathy and Understanding for Others UNIT 6: SOCIAL SKILLS FOR BULLIES LESSON 21 Expressing Empathy and Understanding for Others OBJECTIVE To help students recognize that when they express empathy and understanding for others, it helps develop

More information

LITERARY DEVICES & ELEMENTS KNIFFEN-SHORT STORY UNIT

LITERARY DEVICES & ELEMENTS KNIFFEN-SHORT STORY UNIT LITERARY DEVICES & ELEMENTS KNIFFEN-SHORT STORY UNIT Alliteration The repetition of an initial consonant sound. This literary term is often used in poetry. Consider Carrie Underwood's use of alliteration

More information

AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF E. E CUMMINGS POEM "BUFFALO BILL'S" ABSTRACT. Keywords: Style, stylistics, semantics, graphology, phonology, innovator.

AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF E. E CUMMINGS POEM BUFFALO BILL'S ABSTRACT. Keywords: Style, stylistics, semantics, graphology, phonology, innovator. AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF E. E CUMMINGS POEM "BUFFALO BILL'S" Anser Mehmood, Ghazala Saddique & Summara Raffique Department of English, University of Lahore Sargodha Campus, Sargodha, PAKISTAN ABSTRACT Stylistics

More information

ARE YOU UNDER SURVEILLANCE?

ARE YOU UNDER SURVEILLANCE? ARE YOU UNDER SURVEILLANCE? This movie contains scenes of violence and gore Memory is fragile. It disappears or subtly changes as time goes by. Perhaps, therefore, we preserve it on the image. Trying to

More information

THE RISE OF DISCO ESSENTIAL QUESTION. How did Disco relate to the sentiments and social movements of the 1970s? OVERVIEW

THE RISE OF DISCO ESSENTIAL QUESTION. How did Disco relate to the sentiments and social movements of the 1970s? OVERVIEW OVERVIEW ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did Disco relate to the sentiments and social movements of the 1970s? OVERVIEW The rise of Disco in the 1970s had an enormous cultural impact on the American audience. It

More information

Romeo and Juliet - Comprehension Questions

Romeo and Juliet - Comprehension Questions An 22411 Romeo and Juliet - Comprehension Questions Prologue 1) a) Define the term prologue. b) Why is a prologue at the beginning of a play so important? c) What important information does Shakespeare

More information

The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. W. I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki

The Polish Peasant in Europe and America. W. I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki 1 The Polish Peasant in Europe and America W. I. Thomas and Florian Znaniecki Now there are two fundamental practical problems which have constituted the center of attention of reflective social practice

More information

In his book, One-Dimensional Man, Herbert Marcuse addresses the annihilation of

In his book, One-Dimensional Man, Herbert Marcuse addresses the annihilation of In his book, One-Dimensional Man, Herbert Marcuse addresses the annihilation of individual transcendence that results from Western technological totalitarianism. This totalitarianism in modern societies

More information

KS4> Prose > Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck > A comprehensive pack

KS4> Prose > Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck > A comprehensive pack tweakit resource guide Resource title KS4> Prose > Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck > A comprehensive pack How it works Try this! Or this! Or this! Or this! Exactly as it says on the tin 18 pages of questions

More information

Futility Uselessness due to having no practical outcome.

Futility Uselessness due to having no practical outcome. Futility Uselessness due to having no practical outcome. A futile act is doing something that will have no effect, no practical outcome. Can you think of any futile acts? Futility Objective: To understand

More information

Name. Vocabulary. incentive horizons recreation unfettered. Finish each sentence using the vocabulary word provided.

Name. Vocabulary. incentive horizons recreation unfettered. Finish each sentence using the vocabulary word provided. Vocabulary incentive horizons recreation unfettered Finish each sentence using the vocabulary word provided. 1. (unfettered) I let my dog out of its cage. 2. (incentive) My mother said she would take me

More information

Here in Katmandu by Donald Justice (August 2007 English 10 Provincial Examination)

Here in Katmandu by Donald Justice (August 2007 English 10 Provincial Examination) Here in Katmandu by Donald Justice (August 2007 English 10 Provincial Examination) Here in Katmandu by Donald Justice We have climbed the mountain. There's nothing more to do. It is terrible to come down

More information

H. R. GIGER'S NECRONOMICON II BY H. R. GIGER DOWNLOAD EBOOK : H. R. GIGER'S NECRONOMICON II BY H. R. GIGER PDF

H. R. GIGER'S NECRONOMICON II BY H. R. GIGER DOWNLOAD EBOOK : H. R. GIGER'S NECRONOMICON II BY H. R. GIGER PDF Read Online and Download Ebook H. R. GIGER'S NECRONOMICON II BY H. R. GIGER DOWNLOAD EBOOK : H. R. GIGER'S NECRONOMICON II BY H. R. GIGER PDF Click link bellow and free register to download ebook: H. R.

More information

Side By Side. The Laureate. Robert MacInnis Western Michigan University. Volume 2 Article 15. June 2014

Side By Side. The Laureate. Robert MacInnis Western Michigan University. Volume 2 Article 15. June 2014 The Laureate Volume 2 Article 15 June 2014 Side By Side Robert MacInnis Western Michigan University Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/laureate Part of the Fiction Commons

More information

LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Volume 11 : 5 May 2011 ISSN

LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Volume 11 : 5 May 2011 ISSN LANGUAGE IN INDIA Strength for Today and Bright Hope for Tomorrow Volume ISSN 1930-2940 Managing Editor: M. S. Thirumalai, Ph.D. Editors: B. Mallikarjun, Ph.D. Sam Mohanlal, Ph.D. B. A. Sharada, Ph.D.

More information

Unit Four: Psychological Development. Marshall High School Mr. Cline Psychology Unit Four AC

Unit Four: Psychological Development. Marshall High School Mr. Cline Psychology Unit Four AC Unit Four: Psychological Development Marshall High School Mr. Cline Psychology Unit Four AC The Ego Now, what the ego does is pretty related to the id and the superego. The id and the superego as you can

More information

Literacy Strategies: Writing to think about concepts Representing learning with graphic organizers and presentations

Literacy Strategies: Writing to think about concepts Representing learning with graphic organizers and presentations Unit Title/Topic: Romeo and Juliet Subject: Yearlong English 9 Target Grade Level: 9 Lessons 1-3 Estimated Time per Lesson: 70 minutes Standards: 9-10.RL.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and

More information

The Art World of Mark Jenkins Introduction, Setting, & Analysis A Field Guide, by Bea Ogden December 1 st, 2013

The Art World of Mark Jenkins Introduction, Setting, & Analysis A Field Guide, by Bea Ogden December 1 st, 2013 The Art World of Mark Jenkins Introduction, Setting, & Analysis A Field Guide, by Bea Ogden December 1 st, 2013 This field guide, The Art World of Mark Jenkins, was created over the past two months and

More information

Short story definition. Brief work of fiction

Short story definition. Brief work of fiction Short story definition Brief work of fiction Elements of A Short Story Character Plot Setting Theme Point of View Plot The sequence of events in a literary work. Plot elements Plot is built on five main

More information

PHL 317K 1 Fall 2017 Overview of Weeks 1 5

PHL 317K 1 Fall 2017 Overview of Weeks 1 5 PHL 317K 1 Fall 2017 Overview of Weeks 1 5 We officially started the class by discussing the fact/opinion distinction and reviewing some important philosophical tools. A critical look at the fact/opinion

More information

Marx, Gender, and Human Emancipation

Marx, Gender, and Human Emancipation The U.S. Marxist-Humanists organization, grounded in Marx s Marxism and Raya Dunayevskaya s ideas, aims to develop a viable vision of a truly new human society that can give direction to today s many freedom

More information

The prose prompt will always be an excerpt from a short story or novel.

The prose prompt will always be an excerpt from a short story or novel. AP Lit & Comp 3/1 17 1. Under the Feet of Jesus and Where are you Going? 2. AP Essay Tips & What AP Readers Look For 3. Prose prompt timed writing: 40 minutes Prose Prompts The prose prompt will always

More information

DRAMA LESSONS BASED ON CLIL Created by Lykogiannaki Styliani

DRAMA LESSONS BASED ON CLIL Created by Lykogiannaki Styliani DRAMA LESSONS BASED ON CLIL Created by Lykogiannaki Styliani Content Subjects involved: 1. Introductory lesson to Ancient Greek. 2. Literature with focus on Drama. 3. Art painting. English Level: at least

More information

Curriculum Guides. Elementary Art. Weld County School District 6 Learning Services th Avenue Greeley, CO /

Curriculum Guides. Elementary Art. Weld County School District 6 Learning Services th Avenue Greeley, CO / 2015-2016 Curriculum Guides Elementary Art Weld County School District 6 Learning Services 1025 9 th Avenue Greeley, CO 80631 970/348-6000 Kindergarten Kindergarten Art Curriculum Guide PART A (Standards

More information

Excerpt: Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

Excerpt: Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts Excerpt: Karl Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/epm/1st.htm We shall start out from a present-day economic fact. The worker becomes poorer the

More information

Your Grade: Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence. Produce a selection of crafted. Produce a selection of crafted

Your Grade: Achievement Achievement with Merit Achievement with Excellence. Produce a selection of crafted. Produce a selection of crafted Class Feedback Letter Dark Knight Literature Essay for Achievement Standard 91101 2.4 Produce a selection of crafted and controlled writing Submitted on 15 April 2016 Student: Your Grade: Achievement Achievement

More information

A2 Art Share Supporting Materials

A2 Art Share Supporting Materials A2 Art Share Supporting Materials Contents: Oral Presentation Outline 1 Oral Presentation Content 1 Exhibit Experience 4 Speaking Engagements 4 New City Review 5 Reading Analysis Worksheet 5 A2 Art Share

More information

Castle of Otranto Companion: Adaptations

Castle of Otranto Companion: Adaptations Danielle Zimmer Gothic Novel March 17, 2014 Castle of Otranto Companion: Adaptations The emergence of the Gothic genre had a substantial impact on society. A critical aspect to understanding the significance

More information

PEAK PERFORMANCE UNDER PRESSURE

PEAK PERFORMANCE UNDER PRESSURE ! JEFF JUSTICE SEMINARS Proudly Presents PEAK PERFORMANCE UNDER PRESSURE by Anita Paul Johnston CSR-CCR-CRR-CRI-CPE-CBC-CCP-CSP Three Essential Strategies For Mastery Under Stress 1. Amazing and effective

More information

Max Klinger s Nature: Human Evolution in A Life and Dramas. Kiona Hagen Niehaus. Professor Jensen MSCI-361P

Max Klinger s Nature: Human Evolution in A Life and Dramas. Kiona Hagen Niehaus. Professor Jensen MSCI-361P Max Klinger s Nature: Human Evolution in A Life and Dramas Kiona Hagen Niehaus Professor Jensen MSCI-361P 8 March 2011 Hagen Niehaus 2 The etching series A Life and Dramas, by German printmaker Max Klinger,

More information

Romeo and Juliet By William Shakespeare. 1 st Prologue 1. The prologue is a, a popular form of verse when the play was written in 1595.

Romeo and Juliet By William Shakespeare. 1 st Prologue 1. The prologue is a, a popular form of verse when the play was written in 1595. Name English I- Period Date Romeo and Juliet By William Shakespeare 1 st Prologue 1. The prologue is a, a popular form of verse when the play was written in 1595. 2. It was performed by the which plays

More information

Literary and non literary aspects

Literary and non literary aspects THE PLAYWRIGHT The playwright -most central and most peripheral figure in the theatrical event -provides point of origin for production (the script) -in earlier periods playwrights acted as directors -today

More information

Definition the person or thing working against the main character Synonyms competitor, foe Antonyms friend, helper Sentence The bear was Brian s

Definition the person or thing working against the main character Synonyms competitor, foe Antonyms friend, helper Sentence The bear was Brian s Antagonist Definition the person or thing working against the main character Synonyms competitor, foe Antonyms friend, helper Sentence The bear was Brian s antagonist. Etymology - 1575 Author s purpose

More information

Romeo and Juliet in Bosnia

Romeo and Juliet in Bosnia Romeo and Juliet in Bosnia Reading Skill: Have you ever read a story that seemed familiar? Maybe it reminded you of another story. Or maybe it even reminded you of a personal experience. When you ask yourself

More information

Beautiful, Ugly, and Painful On the Early Plays of Jon Fosse

Beautiful, Ugly, and Painful On the Early Plays of Jon Fosse Zsófia Domsa Zsámbékiné Beautiful, Ugly, and Painful On the Early Plays of Jon Fosse Abstract of PhD thesis Eötvös Lóránd University, 2009 supervisor: Dr. Péter Mádl The topic and the method of the research

More information

Rhetoric - The Basics

Rhetoric - The Basics Name AP Language, period Ms. Lockwood Rhetoric - The Basics Style analysis asks you to separate the content you are taking in from the methods used to successfully convey that content. This is a skill

More information

Standing in a Character s Shoes: Deeper Meaning Through Monologues

Standing in a Character s Shoes: Deeper Meaning Through Monologues A Professional Development Opportunity for Teachers Standing in a Character s Shoes: Deeper Meaning Through Monologues Part One For Teachers of Grades 4 12 Written and Presented by Mary Hall Surface 2011

More information

The Nature and Importance of Art Criticism and Its Educational Applications for k-12 Teachers

The Nature and Importance of Art Criticism and Its Educational Applications for k-12 Teachers University of Central Florida HIM 1990-2015 Open Access The Nature and Importance of Art Criticism and Its Educational Applications for k-12 Teachers 2015 Tia Blackmon University of Central Florida, tiablackmon@gmail.com

More information

Idioms Expressing Emotion

Idioms Expressing Emotion Idioms Expressing Emotion Page 1 The following lesson is designed for upper intermediate to advanced learners. Below is vocabulary which actually consists of the idioms themselves. With each idiom you

More information

American Identity Tour Irving Penn Irving Penn: Beyond Beauty

American Identity Tour Irving Penn Irving Penn: Beyond Beauty : Beyond Beauty Intro (in Great Hall) Welcome to the Wichita Art Museum! Each group: Introduce yourself and go over expectations. Address Basic Needs: make sure students/chaperones know where restrooms

More information

Test of Self-Conscious Affect, Version 3 (TOSCA-3S)*

Test of Self-Conscious Affect, Version 3 (TOSCA-3S)* Test of Self-Conscious Affect, Version 3 (TOSCA-3S)* TOSCA-3S is to be handed out at the end of session 1. Below are situations that people are likely to encounter in day-to-day life, followed by several

More information

Pentadic Ratios in Burke s Theory of Dramatism. Dramatism. Kenneth Burke (1945) introduced his theory of dramatism in his book A Grammar of

Pentadic Ratios in Burke s Theory of Dramatism. Dramatism. Kenneth Burke (1945) introduced his theory of dramatism in his book A Grammar of Ross 1 Pentadic Ratios in Burke s Theory of Dramatism Dramatism Kenneth Burke (1945) introduced his theory of dramatism in his book A Grammar of Motives, saying, [I]t invites one to consider the matter

More information

timer Essay A coherent piece of writing that gives your thoughts about, and educated analysis of, a subject

timer Essay A coherent piece of writing that gives your thoughts about, and educated analysis of, a subject Essay A coherent piece of writing that gives your thoughts about, and educated analysis of, a subject Jane Schaffer Formulaic Writing Method A method for teaching basic essay writing A method of writing

More information

Summer Reading Assignment: Honors British Literature and Language I

Summer Reading Assignment: Honors British Literature and Language I Summer Reading Assignment: Honors British Literature and Language I 1984 by George Orwell DIRECTIONS Please purchase a copy of the novel. As you read, make notes in the margins of anything that is interesting

More information

ENGL 201: Introduction to Literature. Lecture notes for week 1. What is Literature & Some ways of Studying Literature

ENGL 201: Introduction to Literature. Lecture notes for week 1. What is Literature & Some ways of Studying Literature ENGL 201: Introduction to Literature Lecture notes for week 1 What is Literature & Some ways of Studying Literature This week: Definitions of literature The role of language in literature Characteristics

More information

A Summary and Analysis of Three Academic Journal Articles. Alfred Hitchcock - Psycho. Gina Marie Scafoglio. Texas Tech University

A Summary and Analysis of Three Academic Journal Articles. Alfred Hitchcock - Psycho. Gina Marie Scafoglio. Texas Tech University ANALYZING ALFRED HITCHCOCKS S FILM PSYCHO 1 A Summary and Analysis of Three Academic Journal Articles Alfred Hitchcock - Psycho Gina Marie Scafoglio Texas Tech University ANALYZING ALFRED HITCHCOCKS S

More information

Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photographs And Museums As Their Sanctuary

Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photographs And Museums As Their Sanctuary Without Sanctuary: Lynching Photographs And Museums As Their Sanctuary by Soo Hee Kwon Images contain a sense of omniscience, having the power to humanize and dehumanize at the same time. Recently, there

More information

Feeling Your Feels, or the Psychoanalysis of Group Critiques

Feeling Your Feels, or the Psychoanalysis of Group Critiques OLIVE BLACKBURN Feeling Your Feels, or the Psychoanalysis of Group Critiques In recent years, I have become fascinated by the scenes and spaces of cultural criticism the post-performance Q&A, the group

More information

Title Author Illustrator Date Published: Directions:

Title Author Illustrator Date Published: Directions: Picture Book Analysis Guide From fineprint.edublogs.organd The Children s Picture Book Project by Junius Wright Quotations from Literature and the Child by Lee Galda, Bernice Clluinan, and Lawrence Sipe,

More information

Before you SMILE, make sure you

Before you SMILE, make sure you When you approach an unseen poem, you need to look for a bit more than just what it is about, and not just state your first thoughts. If you remember to SMILE, you will have more confidence with the comments

More information

that would join theoretical philosophy (metaphysics) and practical philosophy (ethics)?

that would join theoretical philosophy (metaphysics) and practical philosophy (ethics)? Kant s Critique of Judgment 1 Critique of judgment Kant s Critique of Judgment (1790) generally regarded as foundational treatise in modern philosophical aesthetics no integration of aesthetic theory into

More information

Image Theatre ~ Forum Theatre ~ Invisible Theatre FORMS OF THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED

Image Theatre ~ Forum Theatre ~ Invisible Theatre FORMS OF THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED Image Theatre ~ Forum Theatre ~ Invisible Theatre FORMS OF THEATRE OF THE OPPRESSED WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW: The purpose of all forms of Theatre of the Oppressed for: The spect-actor The actor HSC Drama -

More information

Types of Poems: Ekphrastic poetry - describe specific works of art

Types of Poems: Ekphrastic poetry - describe specific works of art Types of Poems: Occasional poetry - its purpose is to commemorate, respond to and interpret a specific historical event or occasion - not only to assert its importance but also to make us think about just

More information

GAGOSIAN GALLERY. Gregory Crewdson

GAGOSIAN GALLERY. Gregory Crewdson Vogue Italia January 8, 2016 GAGOSIAN GALLERY Gregory Crewdson An interview by Alessia Glaviano with Gregory Crewdson on show at Gagosian from January 28th with the new series Cathedral of the Pines Alessia

More information

Four skits on. Getting Along. By Kathy Applebee

Four skits on. Getting Along. By Kathy Applebee 1 Four skits on Getting Along By Kathy Applebee These 4 skits are part of the Kempsville Church of Christ character education program. 2 Dog Hats CHARACTERS: A and B as dogs. A and B should ham it up,

More information

Re-Branding The Presentation Category to The Performance Category

Re-Branding The Presentation Category to The Performance Category DRAFT Re-Branding The Presentation Category to The Performance Category Date: September 6, 2015 Review Team : David Leeder - djleeder@gmail.com Joe Hunter - JHunna1@aol.com Marty Lovick - martylovick@shaw.ca

More information

A NEW ENGLAND NUN BY MARY WILKINS FREEEMAN. Presenter Danielle Reites

A NEW ENGLAND NUN BY MARY WILKINS FREEEMAN. Presenter Danielle Reites A NEW ENGLAND NUN BY MARY WILKINS FREEEMAN Presenter Danielle Reites ABOUT THE AUTHOR Mary Wilkins Freeman, 1852-1930 Born in Randolph, MA The constraints of religious belief, and the effect of these constraints

More information