Integration, Ambivalence, and Mental Conflict

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Integration, Ambivalence, and Mental Conflict"

Transcription

1 Integration, Ambivalence, and Mental Conflict Luke Brunning CONTENTS 1 The Integration Thesis 2 Value: Singular, Plural and Personal 3 Conflicts of Desire 4 Ambivalent Identities 5 Ambivalent Emotions 6 Fragile Unities 7 New Ideals? 1

2 - Chapter One - The Integration Thesis Philosophers as diverse as Michael Smith and Harry Frankfurt have argued for forms of integration as an ideal of mental structure. This ideal appears throughout the history of philosophical thought about mental life. Because it is such a good focus for many themes of contemporary interest, I draw on the moral psychology of Plato s Republic to outline the integration thesis which describes an ideal of a mind structured by reason under knowledge of what is valuable. Integration can be instantiated in degrees, but more is preferable. The absence of mental conflicts and ambivalence are central to this ideal. Plato s ideally structured mind requires the harmonization of our desires and emotions, both with each other, and with our rational judgments. If our minds are unified, two consequences follow. First, we are better able to act well. Second, our well-being is undiminished. Thus the integration thesis posits a tight relationship between conflicting mental states, the negative phenomenology of conflicts, and the inability to act. From a Platonic perspective, the rationally unified mind is always desirable, and is a form of health. However, the aim of the thesis is to challenge both the Platonic conception of the ideal in particular the purported opposition between integration and conflicts and its desirability. There are three options here: Integration is never desirable; it is desirable but its desirability needs to be balanced against other ideals; it is always most desirable as an superordinate ideal. - Chapter Two - Value: Singular, Plural, and Personal On a Platonic view the integrated mind is structured under a conception of value. Yet how is value structured? Do apparently plural values reduce to one value, or are values plural? If plural, do values conflict tragically or can they be harmonized? Are there pertinent differences between moral and personal values? One might think the attractiveness of the integration ideal depends on how we answer these questions. If value is monistic, then mental integration may not be a distinguishable ideal from that of rational action (so much the better, Plato would think). If values are tragically plural, we may be required to liable to mental conflicts as a way of being sensitive to conflicting sources of value. I argue that value pluralism is likely to be true. However, the ideal of mental integration has appeal both to value monists and to value pluralists. Monists (and non-tragic pluralists) can argue that a prior concern with rationality generates pressure for someone to be integrated. (Exploring these relations helps to qualify the connection between integration and ideals of rational action). Yet both the monist and pluralist can also be interested in how mental integration shapes the manner of our agency, not just the outcomes of our choices. In most situations we want to act effectively and effortlessly. I explore the adverbial contours of 2

3 action, to develop this thought. With reference to the work of Richard Holton, I consider the practical capacities that relate judgement, intention-formation, intention-maintenance, and action. Even if values are tragically plural, the removal of mental conflicts and achievement of integration will seemingly reduce someone s exposure to tragedy. They will act better and not suffer. The value monist can also endorse integration for this reason. Thus both monist and pluralist can be interested in mental integration because achieving it supports our ability to act. Integration appears related to a particular form of stable life, but this can be questioned. We also have to question whether conflicting valuations are problematic for an agent, and if there is a difference between moral and personal values. Thinking about the topology of value helps to clarify the arguments that support the integration thesis, and the argumentative burden borne by opposition to this view. - Chapter Three - Conflicts of Desire In this and the next two chapters I argue that the absence of integration does not necessarily impair agency or diminish well-being. Thus both chapters addressing the strength of the integration thesis instead of claiming that some form of integration is never ideal. Here, I focus on conflicts of desires. We can distinguish between contingent conflicts between desires (e.g. in the absence of time, or money) and non-contingent conflicts where the objects of desire are such that they cannot be jointly satisfied. I explore the dispute between those like Richard Wollheim, who think desire conflicts are ordinary, and those like Michael Smith who think unintegrated desires are subject to rational criticism and display defective rationality. I side with Wollheim. Smith thinks that we are more rational in virtue of how organized our desires are and supports this by analogy with belief. I reconstruct his argument and show it fails for several reasons. First, I draw on the work of Niko Kolodny to argue that a concern with coherence as such is not rational in the case of belief, so even if the analogy with belief holds, it would not lend support to Smith s view of desires. Secondly, it is not clear that there is an end to which desires tend, which is the analogue of truth in the case of belief. Thirdly, and most significantly, it is highly contingen that coherent desires are easier to satisfy. Fourthly, Smith double-counts desires. Finally, the focus on desire structure per se detracts from the more important concern with having desires that are most properly ours; we can have coherent desires yet remain alienated from them. However, notwithstanding the weakness of Smith s general case for integration of desires, some desire conflicts look especially bad. People have brute conflicts of desire, i.e. cyclical desires in stark opposition to each other e.g. someone craves help, only to want to reject it once offered; (there are also clinical examples). These desires are not oriented at satisfaction and they present good candidates for conflicts that undermine action and well-being. However, these cases are not subject to the rational cultivation 3

4 Smith seems to favour, in which reflection on inconsistencies seems efficacious in changing mental structures; instead, prolonged therapeutic attention may be required. Any ideal of integration would repudiate these conflicts. Thus any critique of mental integration contests the strength of the thesis, instead of arguing conflicts are never bad. Smith s thesis seems to gain strength in thinking about marginal cases. - Chapter Four - Ambivalent Identities Chapter One described the purported opposition between integration and ambivalence, according to which the latter undermines action and causes diminished wellbeing. I contest these claims in this chapter and the next, in focusing on the related work of Harry Frankfurt, Christine Korsgaard, and David Pugmire. I make an initial distinction between ambivalence as an abundance of attitudes towards an object, and ambivalence that evidences that someone is unable to have a stable attitude at all (impoverished ambivalence). I bring these ideas into focus by Frankfurt s theoretical account of examples of how ambivalence affects our volitional life. First, my attention turns to impoverished ambivalence, I argue this negatively impacts on action and cause suffering. Like brute desire conflicts, it is problematic precisely due to its resilience to direct rational address. Second, I examine abundant ambivalence. I focus on our practical identities, our emotions, and our volitional life. Hence I introduce Christine Korsgaard s idea that our practical identities need to be integrated. I critically examine our general attitude towards ambivalence and argue that it s our response to ambivalence, not ambivalence per se, that often impairs action or diminishes well-being. These responses are shaped by factors like social norms, which structure how we think about ambivalence itself. Frankfurt is wrong to think ambivalence is necessarily a form of irrationality or greed. Indeed, ambivalence can be constitutively important to someone s identity or, if values are plural, it can be a form of sensitivity to value. - Chapter Five - Ambivalent Emotions This chapter develops on Chapter Four. I critically engage with David Pugmire s work on emotional ambivalence. Pugmire makes two claims, which I reject; first that an integrated mind is necessary for deep emotions; second, genuine emotions can never be stably configured in ambivalence simpliciter. The first claim relates ambivalence to the integration thesis: if the absence of deep emotions diminishes well-being and are only possible if other aspects of the mind are integrated, to that extent the ideal of integration is affirmed. The second claim would support the integration thesis because ambivalence would necessarily be a form of diminished well-being as it would entail that someone s 4

5 emotions were shallow. Against Pugmire s first claim I argue there can be deep emotions in a compartmentalised mind; the comparison with narrative conflates narrative coherence with narratives of coherence; some transformative emotions are not embedded in the mind; and, deep emotions may rely on disintegration. I argue that Pugmire s second claim fails as the conceptual links between emotions are complex and variable; there is no direct link between specific emotions and actions; and his appeals to the management of emotion can be turned on their head. In general, our emotions are often deep yet ambivalent, but there is no direct link between this and diminished wellbeing or curtailed action. - Chapter Six - Fragile Unities In this chapter I argue that some ways a person can lack conflicts are incompatible with an ideal of integration. Apparent integration can rest on ethically troubling sensitivities. The absence of conflict can indicate something is awry. To show this, I introduce examples of projective identification, the Kleinian name for a process whereby people split off aspects of their mind and respond to them as if they were in the minds of other people. Projective identification leads to the interpersonal relocation of intrapersonal conflicts. This can rid someone s mind of conflict and its phenomenology. I argue that projective identification can be a form of insensitivity, in both ethical and epistemic senses. However, I also chart the meta-norms of sensitivity; we do not always have to be sensitive. That said, I stress the importance of being integrated into reality. Moreover, mechanisms like projective identification can become traits of character (e.g. arrogance and narcissism). This prevents conflicts from arising because such people are generally insensitive. I respond to objections, which consider whether the mind really is rid of conflicts, and whether we have to posit unconscious conflicts. I then argue that because defensive projective identification can lead to the absence of conflict the ideal of integration, of Chapter One, is called into question yet again. Someone can be free of conflicts in a way that cannot be part of an ideal of mental structure. I then expose the dangers of other attempts to seek mental integration. Smith s sense of ordered desires can make mental life less stable, less sensitive. Trying to integrate some of the activities deeply linked to our most valued practical identifies can reify them and alienate us from what we value. Craving the absence of ambivalent emotions can lead to emotional insensitivity, such as arrogance, narcissism, and sentimentality; or naturally ambivalent processes like grieving may be disrupted. Finally, I develop Jonathan Lear s idea of an ersatz unity and focus on the ways that attempts to secure mental integration by rational means can disrupt forms of unconscious unity. 5

6 - Chapter Seven - New Ideals? In this chapter I ask whether some forms of conflict have a wider value in mental life. In turn, this chapter builds on the arguments in Chapter Five and prompts the reconsideration of what mental integration involves. Mental conflicts should not be fetishized but they can have value. Tensions between practical identities prompt the creative reinterpretation of their character, which makes them stable. Ambivalence is connected to better action. Rozsika Parker shows how maternal ambivalence catalyzes creative parenting and maternal individuation. Ambivalence can track salient values. Someone who acts ambivalently can honour values then cannot directly act on. Additionally, abundant ambivalence or conflict promotes careful reasoning. First, in the traffic light sense in which we slow to consider more reasons and in a second, qualitatively different, way as Amelie Rorty argues in recent work that I shall develop. Richard Wollheim urges us to think that emotional ambivalence is importantly related to the experience of emotion in general; what would it be like if we could not be ambivalent? Some aspects of mental life seem constitutionally ambivalent, such as grief. Chapter Five suggested that the search for unity could generate various forms of insensitivity. The ideal of integration should accommodate our resistance to insensitivity. The Kleinian notion of the depressive position a state of mind in which insensitive projective identification is absent, and someone is able to tolerate mixed emotions appears to describe a good ideal of integration, especially if values are tragically plural as I argue in Chapter Two. In this state, various aspects of our mind are integrated into our character. However, I reject this state as the ideal of integration because, as I argue in the previous chapter, projective identification and going to bits are often acceptable or desirable. Being inflexibly integrated and together is not desirable, personally or ethically because it closes someone to unexpected forms of experience, which can have ethical import. Thus an alternative ideal is that of the ability to navigate between various states of mind. This is compatible with thinking that the depressive position also describes an ideal state. There are two related mental ideals. A significant consequence of this, however, is that conflict may be required of us; a conclusion in stark contrast to the conception of the integrated mind I introduced in Chapter One.! 6

ALIGNING WITH THE GOOD

ALIGNING WITH THE GOOD DISCUSSION NOTE BY BENJAMIN MITCHELL-YELLIN JOURNAL OF ETHICS & SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY DISCUSSION NOTE JULY 2015 URL: WWW.JESP.ORG COPYRIGHT BENJAMIN MITCHELL-YELLIN 2015 Aligning with the Good I N CONSTRUCTIVISM,

More information

On Recanati s Mental Files

On Recanati s Mental Files November 18, 2013. Penultimate version. Final version forthcoming in Inquiry. On Recanati s Mental Files Dilip Ninan dilip.ninan@tufts.edu 1 Frege (1892) introduced us to the notion of a sense or a mode

More information

International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 11, November ISSN

International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 11, November ISSN International Journal of Advancements in Research & Technology, Volume 4, Issue 11, November -2015 58 ETHICS FROM ARISTOTLE & PLATO & DEWEY PERSPECTIVE Mohmmad Allazzam International Journal of Advancements

More information

Kant: Notes on the Critique of Judgment

Kant: Notes on the Critique of Judgment Kant: Notes on the Critique of Judgment First Moment: The Judgement of Taste is Disinterested. The Aesthetic Aspect Kant begins the first moment 1 of the Analytic of Aesthetic Judgment with the claim that

More information

Resemblance Nominalism: A Solution to the Problem of Universals. GONZALO RODRIGUEZ-PEREYRA. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Pp. xii, 238.

Resemblance Nominalism: A Solution to the Problem of Universals. GONZALO RODRIGUEZ-PEREYRA. Oxford: Clarendon Press, Pp. xii, 238. The final chapter of the book is devoted to the question of the epistemological status of holistic pragmatism itself. White thinks of it as a thesis, a statement that may have been originally a very generalized

More information

Review of David Woodruff Smith and Amie L. Thomasson, eds., Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Mind, 2005, Oxford University Press.

Review of David Woodruff Smith and Amie L. Thomasson, eds., Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Mind, 2005, Oxford University Press. Review of David Woodruff Smith and Amie L. Thomasson, eds., Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Mind, 2005, Oxford University Press. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (4) 640-642, December 2006 Michael

More information

PHI 3240: Philosophy of Art

PHI 3240: Philosophy of Art PHI 3240: Philosophy of Art Session 5 September 16 th, 2015 Malevich, Kasimir. (1916) Suprematist Composition. Gaut on Identifying Art Last class, we considered Noël Carroll s narrative approach to identifying

More information

Dawn M. Phillips The real challenge for an aesthetics of photography

Dawn M. Phillips The real challenge for an aesthetics of photography Dawn M. Phillips 1 Introduction In his 1983 article, Photography and Representation, Roger Scruton presented a powerful and provocative sceptical position. For most people interested in the aesthetics

More information

What is Postmodernism? What is Postmodernism?

What is Postmodernism? What is Postmodernism? What is Postmodernism? Perhaps the clearest and most certain thing that can be said about postmodernism is that it is a very unclear and very much contested concept Richard Shusterman in Aesthetics and

More information

personality, that is, the mental and moral qualities of a figure, as when we say what X s character is

personality, that is, the mental and moral qualities of a figure, as when we say what X s character is There are some definitions of character according to the writer. Barnet (1983:71) says, Character, of course, has two meanings: (1) a figure in literary work, such as; Hamlet and (2) personality, that

More information

The Question of Equilibrium in Human Action and the Everyday Paradox of Rationality

The Question of Equilibrium in Human Action and the Everyday Paradox of Rationality The Review of Austrian Economics, 14:2/3, 173 180, 2001. c 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Manufactured in The Netherlands. The Question of Equilibrium in Human Action and the Everyday Paradox of Rationality

More information

Architecture is epistemologically

Architecture is epistemologically The need for theoretical knowledge in architectural practice Lars Marcus Architecture is epistemologically a complex field and there is not a common understanding of its nature, not even among people working

More information

Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education

Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education Action, Criticism & Theory for Music Education The refereed journal of the Volume 9, No. 1 January 2010 Wayne Bowman Editor Electronic Article Shusterman, Merleau-Ponty, and Dewey: The Role of Pragmatism

More information

THE EVOLUTIONARY VIEW OF SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS Dragoş Bîgu dragos_bigu@yahoo.com Abstract: In this article I have examined how Kuhn uses the evolutionary analogy to analyze the problem of scientific progress.

More information

Theory or Theories? Based on: R.T. Craig (1999), Communication Theory as a field, Communication Theory, n. 2, May,

Theory or Theories? Based on: R.T. Craig (1999), Communication Theory as a field, Communication Theory, n. 2, May, Theory or Theories? Based on: R.T. Craig (1999), Communication Theory as a field, Communication Theory, n. 2, May, 119-161. 1 To begin. n Is it possible to identify a Theory of communication field? n There

More information

LeBar s Flaccidity: Is there Cause for Concern?

LeBar s Flaccidity: Is there Cause for Concern? LeBar s Flaccidity: Is there Cause for Concern? Commentary on Mark LeBar s Rigidity and Response Dependence Pacific Division Meeting, American Philosophical Association San Francisco, CA, March 30, 2003

More information

M. Chirimuuta s Adverbialism About Color. Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh. I. Color Adverbialism

M. Chirimuuta s Adverbialism About Color. Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh. I. Color Adverbialism M. Chirimuuta s Adverbialism About Color Anil Gupta University of Pittsburgh M. Chirimuuta s Outside Color is a rich and lovely book. I enjoyed reading it and benefitted from reflecting on its provocative

More information

What is Character? David Braun. University of Rochester. In "Demonstratives", David Kaplan argues that indexicals and other expressions have a

What is Character? David Braun. University of Rochester. In Demonstratives, David Kaplan argues that indexicals and other expressions have a Appeared in Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (1995), pp. 227-240. What is Character? David Braun University of Rochester In "Demonstratives", David Kaplan argues that indexicals and other expressions

More information

Emotion, an Organ of Happiness. Ruey-Yuan Wu National Tsing-Hua University

Emotion, an Organ of Happiness. Ruey-Yuan Wu National Tsing-Hua University Emotion, an Organ of Happiness Ruey-Yuan Wu National Tsing-Hua University Introduction: How did it all begin? In view of the success of modern sciences, philosophers have been trying to come up with a

More information

Goldie on the Virtues of Art

Goldie on the Virtues of Art Goldie on the Virtues of Art Anil Gomes Peter Goldie has argued for a virtue theory of art, analogous to a virtue theory of ethics, one in which the skills and dispositions involved in the production and

More information

The Teaching Method of Creative Education

The Teaching Method of Creative Education Creative Education 2013. Vol.4, No.8A, 25-30 Published Online August 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ce) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ce.2013.48a006 The Teaching Method of Creative Education

More information

Thomas Reid's Notion of Exertion

Thomas Reid's Notion of Exertion Thomas Reid's Notion of Exertion Hoffman, Paul David, 1952- Journal of the History of Philosophy, Volume 44, Number 3, July 2006, pp. 431-447 (Article) Published by The Johns Hopkins University Press DOI:

More information

HISTORY ADMISSIONS TEST. Marking Scheme for the 2015 paper

HISTORY ADMISSIONS TEST. Marking Scheme for the 2015 paper HISTORY ADMISSIONS TEST Marking Scheme for the 2015 paper QUESTION ONE (a) According to the author s argument in the first paragraph, what was the importance of women in royal palaces? Criteria assessed

More information

WHAT S LEFT OF HUMAN NATURE? A POST-ESSENTIALIST, PLURALIST AND INTERACTIVE ACCOUNT OF A CONTESTED CONCEPT. Maria Kronfeldner

WHAT S LEFT OF HUMAN NATURE? A POST-ESSENTIALIST, PLURALIST AND INTERACTIVE ACCOUNT OF A CONTESTED CONCEPT. Maria Kronfeldner WHAT S LEFT OF HUMAN NATURE? A POST-ESSENTIALIST, PLURALIST AND INTERACTIVE ACCOUNT OF A CONTESTED CONCEPT Maria Kronfeldner Forthcoming 2018 MIT Press Book Synopsis February 2018 For non-commercial, personal

More information

Having the World in View: Essays on Kant, Hegel, and Sellars

Having the World in View: Essays on Kant, Hegel, and Sellars Having the World in View: Essays on Kant, Hegel, and Sellars Having the World in View: Essays on Kant, Hegel, and Sellars By John Henry McDowell Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England: Harvard University

More information

Introduction and Overview

Introduction and Overview 1 Introduction and Overview Invention has always been central to rhetorical theory and practice. As Richard Young and Alton Becker put it in Toward a Modern Theory of Rhetoric, The strength and worth of

More information

The Riddle of Aesthetic Principles

The Riddle of Aesthetic Principles This is an UNCORRECTED PROOF - it is not for quotation!!! VOJKO STRAHOVNIK University of Ljubljana The Riddle of Aesthetic Principles The problem of aesthetic principles and that of the nature of aesthetic

More information

KANT S TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC

KANT S TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC KANT S TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC This part of the book deals with the conditions under which judgments can express truths about objects. Here Kant tries to explain how thought about objects given in space and

More information

Krisis. Journal for contemporary philosophy

Krisis. Journal for contemporary philosophy TITUS STAHL CRITICIZING SOCIAL REALITY FROM WITHIN HASLANGER ON RACE, GENDER, AND IDEOLOGY Krisis 2014, Issue 1 www.krisis.eu 1. Introduction Any kind of socially progressive critique of social practices

More information

Feminist Research and Paradigm Shift in Anthropology

Feminist Research and Paradigm Shift in Anthropology Terence Rajivan Edward / Feminist Research and Paradigm Shift in Anthropology META: RESEARCH IN HERMENEUTICS, PHENOMENOLOGY, AND PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY VOL. IV, NO. 2 / DECEMBER 2012: 343-362, ISSN 2067-3655,

More information

REPOSITIONING THE POSITION: REVISITING PIEPER S ARGUMENT FOR A LEISURE ETHIC Mary G. Parr, Kent State University

REPOSITIONING THE POSITION: REVISITING PIEPER S ARGUMENT FOR A LEISURE ETHIC Mary G. Parr, Kent State University REPOSITIONING THE POSITION: REVISITING PIEPER S ARGUMENT FOR A LEISURE ETHIC Mary G. Parr, Kent State University What good is leisure? Answers to this question have been proposed and debated throughout

More information

Always More Than One Art: Jean-Luc Nancy's <em>the Muses</em>

Always More Than One Art: Jean-Luc Nancy's <em>the Muses</em> bepress From the SelectedWorks of Ann Connolly 2006 Always More Than One Art: Jean-Luc Nancy's the Muses Ann Taylor, bepress Available at: https://works.bepress.com/ann_taylor/15/ Ann Taylor IAPL

More information

that would join theoretical philosophy (metaphysics) and practical philosophy (ethics)?

that would join theoretical philosophy (metaphysics) and practical philosophy (ethics)? Kant s Critique of Judgment 1 Critique of judgment Kant s Critique of Judgment (1790) generally regarded as foundational treatise in modern philosophical aesthetics no integration of aesthetic theory into

More information

Moral Judgment and Emotions

Moral Judgment and Emotions The Journal of Value Inquiry (2004) 38: 375 381 DOI: 10.1007/s10790-005-1636-z C Springer 2005 Moral Judgment and Emotions KYLE SWAN Department of Philosophy, National University of Singapore, 3 Arts Link,

More information

Varieties of Nominalism Predicate Nominalism The Nature of Classes Class Membership Determines Type Testing For Adequacy

Varieties of Nominalism Predicate Nominalism The Nature of Classes Class Membership Determines Type Testing For Adequacy METAPHYSICS UNIVERSALS - NOMINALISM LECTURE PROFESSOR JULIE YOO Varieties of Nominalism Predicate Nominalism The Nature of Classes Class Membership Determines Type Testing For Adequacy Primitivism Primitivist

More information

PHL 317K 1 Fall 2017 Overview of Weeks 1 5

PHL 317K 1 Fall 2017 Overview of Weeks 1 5 PHL 317K 1 Fall 2017 Overview of Weeks 1 5 We officially started the class by discussing the fact/opinion distinction and reviewing some important philosophical tools. A critical look at the fact/opinion

More information

Mixed Methods: In Search of a Paradigm

Mixed Methods: In Search of a Paradigm Mixed Methods: In Search of a Paradigm Ralph Hall The University of New South Wales ABSTRACT The growth of mixed methods research has been accompanied by a debate over the rationale for combining what

More information

UPHEAVALS OF THOUGHT The Intelligence of Emotions

UPHEAVALS OF THOUGHT The Intelligence of Emotions UPHEAVALS OF THOUGHT The Intelligence of Emotions MARTHA C. NUSSBAUM The University of Chicago CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Introduction page 1 PART I: NEED AND RECOGNITION Emotions as Judgments of Value

More information

The View of Practice of Marx and Its Realistic Significance

The View of Practice of Marx and Its Realistic Significance American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences Vo1. 1, No, 2, 2013, 74-79 DOI: 10.11634/232907811301307 The View of Practice of Marx and Its Realistic Significance Xiaorong Mi * and Mao Lin Institute

More information

Bas C. van Fraassen, Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective, Oxford University Press, 2008.

Bas C. van Fraassen, Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective, Oxford University Press, 2008. Bas C. van Fraassen, Scientific Representation: Paradoxes of Perspective, Oxford University Press, 2008. Reviewed by Christopher Pincock, Purdue University (pincock@purdue.edu) June 11, 2010 2556 words

More information

Remorse and Reparation: A Philosophical Analysis

Remorse and Reparation: A Philosophical Analysis 1 Remorse and Reparation: A Philosophical Analysis Dr Alan Thomas Department of Philosophy University of Kent at Canterbury Canterbury Kent CT2 7NF E-mail: a.p.thomas@kent.ac.uk URL: http://www.logical-operator.com

More information

By Rahel Jaeggi Suhrkamp, 2014, pbk 20, ISBN , 451pp. by Hans Arentshorst

By Rahel Jaeggi Suhrkamp, 2014, pbk 20, ISBN , 451pp. by Hans Arentshorst 271 Kritik von Lebensformen By Rahel Jaeggi Suhrkamp, 2014, pbk 20, ISBN 9783518295878, 451pp by Hans Arentshorst Does contemporary philosophy need to concern itself with the question of the good life?

More information

Normative and Positive Economics

Normative and Positive Economics Marquette University e-publications@marquette Economics Faculty Research and Publications Business Administration, College of 1-1-1998 Normative and Positive Economics John B. Davis Marquette University,

More information

Virtues o f Authenticity: Essays on Plato and Socrates Republic Symposium Republic Phaedrus Phaedrus), Theaetetus

Virtues o f Authenticity: Essays on Plato and Socrates Republic Symposium Republic Phaedrus Phaedrus), Theaetetus ALEXANDER NEHAMAS, Virtues o f Authenticity: Essays on Plato and Socrates (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998); xxxvi plus 372; hardback: ISBN 0691 001774, $US 75.00/ 52.00; paper: ISBN 0691 001782,

More information

Ridgeview Publishing Company

Ridgeview Publishing Company Ridgeview Publishing Company Externalism, Naturalism and Method Author(s): Kirk A. Ludwig Source: Philosophical Issues, Vol. 4, Naturalism and Normativity (1993), pp. 250-264 Published by: Ridgeview Publishing

More information

KINDS (NATURAL KINDS VS. HUMAN KINDS)

KINDS (NATURAL KINDS VS. HUMAN KINDS) KINDS (NATURAL KINDS VS. HUMAN KINDS) Both the natural and the social sciences posit taxonomies or classification schemes that divide their objects of study into various categories. Many philosophers hold

More information

Reply to Stalnaker. Timothy Williamson. In Models and Reality, Robert Stalnaker responds to the tensions discerned in Modal Logic

Reply to Stalnaker. Timothy Williamson. In Models and Reality, Robert Stalnaker responds to the tensions discerned in Modal Logic 1 Reply to Stalnaker Timothy Williamson In Models and Reality, Robert Stalnaker responds to the tensions discerned in Modal Logic as Metaphysics between contingentism in modal metaphysics and the use of

More information

Truth and Method in Unification Thought: A Preparatory Analysis

Truth and Method in Unification Thought: A Preparatory Analysis Truth and Method in Unification Thought: A Preparatory Analysis Keisuke Noda Ph.D. Associate Professor of Philosophy Unification Theological Seminary New York, USA Abstract This essay gives a preparatory

More information

SECTION I: MARX READINGS

SECTION I: MARX READINGS SECTION I: MARX READINGS part 1 Marx s Vision of History: Historical Materialism This part focuses on the broader conceptual framework, or overall view of history and human nature, that informed Marx

More information

Chaïm Perelman s New Rhetoric. Chaïm Perelman was a prominent rhetorician of the twentieth century. He was born in

Chaïm Perelman s New Rhetoric. Chaïm Perelman was a prominent rhetorician of the twentieth century. He was born in Cheema 1 Mahwish Cheema Rhetorician Paper Chaïm Perelman s New Rhetoric Chaïm Perelman was a prominent rhetorician of the twentieth century. He was born in 1912 in Poland, however he spent the majority

More information

Ithaque : Revue de philosophie de l'université de Montréal

Ithaque : Revue de philosophie de l'université de Montréal Cet article a été téléchargé sur le site de la revue Ithaque : www.revueithaque.org Ithaque : Revue de philosophie de l'université de Montréal Pour plus de détails sur les dates de parution et comment

More information

Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space Book Review/173 Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space BONGRAE SEOK Alvernia University, Reading, Pennsylvania, USA (bongrae.seok@alvernia.edu) Owen Flanagan, The Geography of Morals,

More information

Gender, the Family and 'The German Ideology'

Gender, the Family and 'The German Ideology' Gender, the Family and 'The German Ideology' Wed, 06/03/2009-21:18 Anonymous By Heather Tomanovsky The German Ideology (1845), often seen as the most materialistic of Marx s early writings, has been taken

More information

Moral Relativism. Entry for the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. By Max Kölbel

Moral Relativism. Entry for the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. By Max Kölbel 1 Moral Relativism Entry for the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy By Max Kölbel In philosophical discussions, the term moral relativism is primarily used to denote the metaethical thesis that the correctness

More information

C/ Fernando Poo 5 Madrid (Metro Delicias o Embajadores).

C/ Fernando Poo 5 Madrid (Metro Delicias o Embajadores). SELECTIVIDAD JUNIO 2017 MADRID INGLÉS OPCIÓN A EXAMEN RESUELTO An End to Tedious Conversations Have you ever worried that your conversations might be boring? Well, help could be at hand from a watch that

More information

Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition (review)

Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition (review) Zhu Xi's Reading of the Analects: Canon, Commentary, and the Classical Tradition (review) Suck Choi China Review International, Volume 11, Number 1, Spring 2004, pp. 87-91 (Review) Published by University

More information

The Human Intellect: Aristotle s Conception of Νοῦς in his De Anima. Caleb Cohoe

The Human Intellect: Aristotle s Conception of Νοῦς in his De Anima. Caleb Cohoe The Human Intellect: Aristotle s Conception of Νοῦς in his De Anima Caleb Cohoe Caleb Cohoe 2 I. Introduction What is it to truly understand something? What do the activities of understanding that we engage

More information

Moralistic Criticism. Post Modern Moral Criticism asks how the work in question affects the reader.

Moralistic Criticism. Post Modern Moral Criticism asks how the work in question affects the reader. Literary Criticism Moralistic Criticism Plato argues that literature (and art) is capable of corrupting or influencing people to act or behave in various ways. Sometimes these themes, subject matter, or

More information

Harris Wiseman, The Myth of the Moral Brain: The Limits of Moral Enhancement (Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press, 2016), 340 pp.

Harris Wiseman, The Myth of the Moral Brain: The Limits of Moral Enhancement (Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press, 2016), 340 pp. 227 Harris Wiseman, The Myth of the Moral Brain: The Limits of Moral Enhancement (Cambridge, MA and London: The MIT Press, 2016), 340 pp. The aspiration for understanding the nature of morality and promoting

More information

3. The knower s perspective is essential in the pursuit of knowledge. To what extent do you agree?

3. The knower s perspective is essential in the pursuit of knowledge. To what extent do you agree? 3. The knower s perspective is essential in the pursuit of knowledge. To what extent do you agree? Nature of the Title The essay requires several key terms to be unpacked. However, the most important is

More information

HYBRID THEORIES * Christopher Woodard. In many areas of philosophy we may be tempted to think that some opposing views

HYBRID THEORIES * Christopher Woodard. In many areas of philosophy we may be tempted to think that some opposing views HYBRID THEORIES * Christopher Woodard In many areas of philosophy we may be tempted to think that some opposing views each capture part of the truth. When this happens, we may try to make progress by combining

More information

Second Nature in Kant's Theory of Artistic Creativity

Second Nature in Kant's Theory of Artistic Creativity University of Wisconsin Milwaukee UWM Digital Commons Theses and Dissertations May 2013 Second Nature in Kant's Theory of Artistic Creativity Adam Blazej University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Follow this and

More information

Foucault's Archaeological method

Foucault's Archaeological method Foucault's Archaeological method In discussing Schein, Checkland and Maturana, we have identified a 'backcloth' against which these individuals operated. In each case, this backcloth has become more explicit,

More information

music, singing and wellbeing

music, singing and wellbeing SUPPORTING ANALYSIS NOVEMBER 2016 Culture, Sport and Wellbeing Evidence Programme: Social Diversity and Context Matters Assessing the relationships between engagement in music and subjective wellbeing.

More information

Chudnoff on the Awareness of Abstract Objects 1

Chudnoff on the Awareness of Abstract Objects 1 Florida Philosophical Society Volume XVI, Issue 1, Winter 2016 105 Chudnoff on the Awareness of Abstract Objects 1 D. Gene Witmer, University of Florida Elijah Chudnoff s Intuition is a rich and systematic

More information

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND HEGELIAN JUSTIFICATION

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND HEGELIAN JUSTIFICATION 359 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND HEGELIAN JUSTIFICATION Kanu Priya * Property is a contingent fact within our world. It is neither ordained by nature nor is necessary for human survival. So the development

More information

Narrating the Self: Parergonality, Closure and. by Holly Franking. hermeneutics focus attention on the transactional aspect of the aesthetic

Narrating the Self: Parergonality, Closure and. by Holly Franking. hermeneutics focus attention on the transactional aspect of the aesthetic Narrating the Self: Parergonality, Closure and by Holly Franking Many recent literary theories, such as deconstruction, reader-response, and hermeneutics focus attention on the transactional aspect of

More information

Why Take Confucian Ethics Seriously?

Why Take Confucian Ethics Seriously? Why Take Confucian Ethics Seriously? Kam-por Yu Julia Tao Philip J. Ivanhoe Many though surely not all people who have lived in Confucian societies have taken Confucian ethics seriously for hundreds of

More information

Moral Relativism in Context

Moral Relativism in Context NOÛS 44:4 (2010) 691 724 Moral Relativism in Context JAMES R. BEEBE SUNY, Buffalo Consider the following facts about the average, philosophically untrained moral relativist: (1.1) The average moral relativist

More information

Heideggerian Ontology: A Philosophic Base for Arts and Humanties Education

Heideggerian Ontology: A Philosophic Base for Arts and Humanties Education Marilyn Zurmuehlen Working Papers in Art Education ISSN: 2326-7070 (Print) ISSN: 2326-7062 (Online) Volume 2 Issue 1 (1983) pps. 56-60 Heideggerian Ontology: A Philosophic Base for Arts and Humanties Education

More information

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. RESEARCH BACKGROUND America is a country where the culture is so diverse. A nation composed of people whose origin can be traced back to every races and ethnics around the world.

More information

Week 25 Deconstruction

Week 25 Deconstruction Theoretical & Critical Perspectives Week 25 Key Questions What is deconstruction? Where does it come from? How does deconstruction conceptualise language? How does deconstruction see literature and history?

More information

WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE RELATIONAL THEORY OF CHANGE? Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra Hertford College, Oxford

WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE RELATIONAL THEORY OF CHANGE? Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra Hertford College, Oxford Published in in Real Metaphysics, ed. by H. Lillehammer and G. Rodriguez-Pereyra, Routledge, 2003, pp. 184-195. WHAT IS WRONG WITH THE RELATIONAL THEORY OF CHANGE? Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra Hertford College,

More information

MAURICE MANDELBAUM HISTORY, MAN, & REASON A STUDY IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY THOUGHT THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS: BALTIMORE AND LONDON

MAURICE MANDELBAUM HISTORY, MAN, & REASON A STUDY IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY THOUGHT THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS: BALTIMORE AND LONDON MAURICE MANDELBAUM HISTORY, MAN, & REASON A STUDY IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY THOUGHT THE JOHNS HOPKINS PRESS: BALTIMORE AND LONDON Copyright 1971 by The Johns Hopkins Press All rights reserved Manufactured

More information

Cultural Values as a Basis for Well-Being: the Logic of the Relationship and Importance of the Institute of Expert Examination Interpretation

Cultural Values as a Basis for Well-Being: the Logic of the Relationship and Importance of the Institute of Expert Examination Interpretation WELLSO 2015 - II International Scientific Symposium on Lifelong Wellbeing in the World Cultural Values as a Basis for Well-Being: the Logic of the Relationship and Importance of the Institute of Expert

More information

Art, Vision, and the Necessity of a Post-Analytic Phenomenology

Art, Vision, and the Necessity of a Post-Analytic Phenomenology BOOK REVIEWS META: RESEARCH IN HERMENEUTICS, PHENOMENOLOGY, AND PRACTICAL PHILOSOPHY VOL. V, NO. 1 /JUNE 2013: 233-238, ISSN 2067-3655, www.metajournal.org Art, Vision, and the Necessity of a Post-Analytic

More information

REVIEW ARTICLE IDEAL EMBODIMENT: KANT S THEORY OF SENSIBILITY

REVIEW ARTICLE IDEAL EMBODIMENT: KANT S THEORY OF SENSIBILITY Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy, vol. 7, no. 2, 2011 REVIEW ARTICLE IDEAL EMBODIMENT: KANT S THEORY OF SENSIBILITY Karin de Boer Angelica Nuzzo, Ideal Embodiment: Kant

More information

Aristotle The Master of those who know The Philosopher The Foal

Aristotle The Master of those who know The Philosopher The Foal Aristotle 384-322 The Master of those who know The Philosopher The Foal Pupil of Plato, Preceptor of Alexander 150 books, 1/5 known Stagira 367-347 Academy 347 Atarneus 343-335 Mieza 335-322 Lyceum Chalcis

More information

CHAPTER TWO. A brief explanation of the Berger and Luckmann s theory that will be used in this thesis.

CHAPTER TWO. A brief explanation of the Berger and Luckmann s theory that will be used in this thesis. CHAPTER TWO A brief explanation of the Berger and Luckmann s theory that will be used in this thesis. 2.1 Introduction The intention of this chapter is twofold. First, to discuss briefly Berger and Luckmann

More information

The Environment and Organizational Effort in an Ensemble

The Environment and Organizational Effort in an Ensemble Rehearsal Philosophy and Techniques for Aspiring Chamber Music Groups Effective Chamber Music rehearsal is a uniquely democratic group effort requiring a delicate balance of shared values. In a high functioning

More information

BOOK REVIEW: JOHN DEWEY BETWEEN PRAGMATISM RECONSTRUCTING DEMOCRACY, RECONTEXTUALIZING DEWEY: PRAGMATISM AND INTERACTIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM

BOOK REVIEW: JOHN DEWEY BETWEEN PRAGMATISM RECONSTRUCTING DEMOCRACY, RECONTEXTUALIZING DEWEY: PRAGMATISM AND INTERACTIVE CONSTRUCTIVISM BOOK REVIEW: JOHN DEWEY BETWEEN PRAGMATISM AND CONSTRUCTIVISM. (Edited by Larry A. Hickman, Stefan Neubert, Kersten Reich. New York: Fordham University Press, 2009.) RECONSTRUCTING DEMOCRACY, RECONTEXTUALIZING

More information

Summary of the Transcendental Ideas

Summary of the Transcendental Ideas Summary of the Transcendental Ideas I. Rational Physics The General Idea Unity in the synthesis of appearances. Quantity (Axioms of Intuition) Theoretical Standpoint As regards their intuition, all appearances

More information

Environmental Ethics and Species: To be or not to be?

Environmental Ethics and Species: To be or not to be? Environmental Ethics and Species: To be or not to be? Darren L. Weber Copyright c 1993 Written in November, 1993 Philosophy: Environmental Ethics Environmental Ethics and Species 1 1 Environmental Ethics

More information

The Nature of Time. Humberto R. Maturana. November 27, 1995.

The Nature of Time. Humberto R. Maturana. November 27, 1995. The Nature of Time Humberto R. Maturana November 27, 1995. I do not wish to deal with all the domains in which the word time enters as if it were referring to an obvious aspect of the world or worlds that

More information

In his essay "Of the Standard of Taste," Hume describes an apparent conflict between two

In his essay Of the Standard of Taste, Hume describes an apparent conflict between two Aesthetic Judgment and Perceptual Normativity HANNAH GINSBORG University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. Abstract: I draw a connection between the question, raised by Hume and Kant, of how aesthetic judgments

More information

Terminology. - Semantics: Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata, or meaning

Terminology. - Semantics: Relation between signs and the things to which they refer; their denotata, or meaning Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or semiology, is the study of cultural sign processes (semiosis), analogy, metaphor, signification and communication, signs and symbols. Semiotics is closely related

More information

II. Aristotle or Nietzsche? III. MacIntyre s History, In Brief. IV. MacIntyre s Three-Stage Account of Virtue

II. Aristotle or Nietzsche? III. MacIntyre s History, In Brief. IV. MacIntyre s Three-Stage Account of Virtue MacIntyre on Virtue Work and the Human Condition: Spring 2009 I. Review of After Virtue II. Aristotle or Nietzsche? III. MacIntyre s History, In Brief IV. MacIntyre s Three-Stage Account of Virtue Overview

More information

Plato and Aristotle:

Plato and Aristotle: Plato and Aristotle: Mimesis, Catharsis, and the Functions of Art Some Background: Technē Redux In the Western tradition, technē has usually been understood to be a kind of knowledge and activity distinctive

More information

On Criticisms of Art: Subjective Interest as a Link between Ethics and

On Criticisms of Art: Subjective Interest as a Link between Ethics and On Criticisms of Art: Subjective Interest as a Link between Ethics and Aesthetics Kévin O. Irakóze Abstract Based on Kant s discussion of aesthetic judgment, this paper explores the conflict between ethics

More information

Misc Fiction Irony Point of view Plot time place social environment

Misc Fiction Irony Point of view Plot time place social environment Misc Fiction 1. is the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. Setting, tone, and events can affect the mood. In this usage, mood is similar to tone and atmosphere. 2. is the choice and use

More information

Pierre Hadot on Philosophy as a Way of Life. Pierre Hadot ( ) was a French philosopher and historian of ancient philosophy,

Pierre Hadot on Philosophy as a Way of Life. Pierre Hadot ( ) was a French philosopher and historian of ancient philosophy, Adam Robbert Philosophical Inquiry as Spiritual Exercise: Ancient and Modern Perspectives California Institute of Integral Studies San Francisco, CA Thursday, April 19, 2018 Pierre Hadot on Philosophy

More information

MacIntyre, Virtue, and Liberalism: a Response to Schneewind. A thesis presented to. the faculty of

MacIntyre, Virtue, and Liberalism: a Response to Schneewind. A thesis presented to. the faculty of MacIntyre, Virtue, and Liberalism: a Response to Schneewind A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Arts and Sciences of Ohio University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree

More information

Collaboration in the choral context: The contribution of conductor and choir to collective confidence

Collaboration in the choral context: The contribution of conductor and choir to collective confidence International Symposium on Performance Science ISBN 978-2-9601378-0-4 The Author 2013, Published by the AEC All rights reserved Collaboration in the choral context: The contribution of conductor and choir

More information

PHD THESIS SUMMARY: Phenomenology and economics PETR ŠPECIÁN

PHD THESIS SUMMARY: Phenomenology and economics PETR ŠPECIÁN Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, Volume 7, Issue 1, Spring 2014, pp. 161-165. http://ejpe.org/pdf/7-1-ts-2.pdf PHD THESIS SUMMARY: Phenomenology and economics PETR ŠPECIÁN PhD in economic

More information

Mixing Metaphors. Mark G. Lee and John A. Barnden

Mixing Metaphors. Mark G. Lee and John A. Barnden Mixing Metaphors Mark G. Lee and John A. Barnden School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham Birmingham, B15 2TT United Kingdom mgl@cs.bham.ac.uk jab@cs.bham.ac.uk Abstract Mixed metaphors have

More information

Texturalism and Performance Adorno's Theory of Truth

Texturalism and Performance Adorno's Theory of Truth Texturalism and Performance Adorno's Theory of Truth Owen James Hulatt PhD University of York Department of Philosophy August 2011 Abstract This thesis establishes a new reading of Adorno s theory of truth.

More information

Practical Intuition and Rhetorical Example. Paul Schollmeier

Practical Intuition and Rhetorical Example. Paul Schollmeier Practical Intuition and Rhetorical Example Paul Schollmeier I Let us assume with the classical philosophers that we have a faculty of theoretical intuition, through which we intuit theoretical principles,

More information

Personal Intervention

Personal Intervention 2017 E-Colors in Education is a public charity that is committed to delivering valuable, authentic and mindful coaching, as well as personal and professional development to every school in every nation

More information

Hume's Theory of Mental Representation David Landy Hume Studies Volume 38, Number 1 (2012), 23-54. Your use of the HUME STUDIES archive indicates your acceptance of HUME STUDIES Terms and Conditions of

More information

CRITICAL CONTEXTUAL EMPIRICISM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

CRITICAL CONTEXTUAL EMPIRICISM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS 48 Proceedings of episteme 4, India CRITICAL CONTEXTUAL EMPIRICISM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE EDUCATION Sreejith K.K. Department of Philosophy, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India sreejith997@gmail.com

More information