# Non-Classical Logics. Viorica Sofronie-Stokkermans Winter Semester 2012/2013

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1 Non-Classical Logics Viorica Sofronie-Stokkermans Winter Semester 2012/2013 1

2 Non-Classical Logics Alternatives to classical logic Extensions of classical logic 2

3 Non-Classical Logics Alternatives to classical logic Accept or reject certain theorems of classical logic following intuitions arising from significant application areas and/or from human reasoning. 3

4 Non-Classical Logics Alternatives to classical logic Examples: many-valued logics intuitionistic logic substructural logics (accept only some of the structural rules of classical logic) partial logics (sentences do not have to be either true or false; terms do not have to be always defined) free logics (agree with classical logic at propositional level; differ at the predicate logic level) quantum logics (connection with problems in physical systems) 4

5 Non-Classical Logics Extensions of classical logic Extensions of classical logic by means of new operators modal logic dynamic logic temporal logic 5

6 Motivation and History The nature of logic and knowledge has been studied and debated since ancient times. Aristotle Traditionally, in Aristotle s logical calculus, there were only two possible values (i.e., true and false ) for any proposition. He noticed however, that there are sentences (e.g. referring to future events) about which it is difficult to say whether they are true or false, although they can be either true or false (De Interpretatione, ch. IX). Example: Tomorrow there will be a naval battle. Aristotle didn t create a system of non-classical logic to explain this isolated remark. 6

7 Motivation and History The nature of logic and knowledge has been studied and debated since ancient times. Platon Platon postulated that there is a third area between the notions of true and false. deterministic school/non-deterministic school Until the 20th century logicians mainly followed Aristotelian logic, which includes or assumes the law of the excluded middle. 7

8 Motivation and History John Duns Scotus ( ) Reasoned informally in a modal manner, mainly to analyze statements about possibility and necessity. William of Ockham ( ) Wrote down in words the formulae that would later be called De Morgan s Laws, and pondered ternary logic, that is, a logical system with three truth values (distinguishing neutral propositions from true and false ones) a concept that would be taken up again in the mathematical logic of the 20th century. 8

9 Motivation and History George Boole ( ) 1847 Mathematical Analysis of Logic 1854 An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities Boole s approach founded what was first known as the algebra of logic tradition. Boolean algbra (classical logic!) 9

10 Motivation and History Hugh Mac Coll ( ) - first known variant of the propositional calculus, which he called calculus of equivalent statements - Explored the possibilities of modal logic, logic of fiction, connexive logic, many-valued logic and probability logic. Charles Sanders Peirce ( ) - Important contributions to logic and its understanding. - NAND/NOR - predicate logic - Introduces e.g. logic of relatives, relational logic (further developed by Tarski) 10

11 History and Motivation In the 20th century, a systematic study of non-classical logics started. In a tentative of avoiding logical paradoxes in 1939 Bochvar adds one more truth value ( meaningless ) Idea: e.g. in Russell s paradox, declare the crucial sentences involved as meaningless: R = {x (x x)} R R iff (R R) declare R R as meaningless. 11

12 History and Motivation Many-valued logics were introduced to model undefined or vague information: Jan Lukasiewicz began to create systems of many-valued logic in 1920, using a third value possible to deal with Aristotle s paradox of the sea battle. Emil L. Post (1921) introduced the formulation of additional truth degrees with n 2 where n is the number of truth values (starting mainly from algebraic considerations). Later, Jan Lukasiewicz and Alfred Tarski together formulated a logic on n truth values where n 2. Stephen Cole Kleene introduced a 3-valued logic in order to express the fact that some recursive functions might be undefined. In 1932 Hans Reichenbach formulated a logic of many truth values where n =. 12

13 History and Motivation Many-valued logics were introduced to model undefined or vague information: Paul Bernays (1926) used 3-valued logics for proving the independence of a given axiomatic system for classical propositional logic. (this way of proving independence requires a high degree of creativity, since for each special case a suitable many-valued logic must be found) Fuzzy logics; probabilistic logic Lotfi Zadeh (1965) developed the theory of fuzzy sets which led to the study of fuzzy logic. Nils Nilsson (1986) proposes a logic where the truth values of sentences are probabilities (probabilistic logic). 13

14 History and Motivation Constructive mathematics A true: A B true: E xp(x) true: Intuitionistic Logic there exists a proof for A there exists a proof for A or there exists a proof for B hence: A A is not always true; A A is not always true there exists x 0 that can be constructed effectively, and there exists a proof that P(x 0 ) is true. Luitzen Egbertus Jan Brouwer ( ) V. Glivenko (fragment of propositional logic) A.N. Kolmogorov (fragment of predicate logic) Arend Heyting (1928, 1930) Heyting gave the first formal development of intuitionistic logic in order to codify Brouwer s way of doing mathematics. 14

15 History and Motivation Kurt Gödel (in 1932) showed that intuitionistic logic is not a finitely-many valued logic, and defined a system of Gödel logics intermediate between classical and intuitionistic logic; such logics are known as intermediate logics. 15

16 History and Motivation Alternatives to classical logics Study properties of implication, logical entailment or premise combination. Relevant logic X A holds: X must be relevant for A It may happen that X A holds and X,Y A does not hold. Linear logic Premises are seen as resources which must be used and cannot be reused. Lambek calculus Premise combination: combination of linguistic units (both the number and the order of the premises are important) 16

17 History and Motivation Extensions of classical logic by means of new logical operators Modal logic - modal operators, meaning of A A is necessarily true An agent believes A A is always true A should be the case A is provable meaning of A A is possibly true An agent thinks A is possible A is sometimes true A is allowed A is not contradictory 17

18 History and Motivation Logics related to modal logic Dynamic logic of programs Operators: α A: A holds after every run of the (non-deterministic) process α α A: A holds after some run of the (non-deterministic) process α 18

19 History and Motivation Logics related to modal logic Temporal logic A: A: A: A until B A holds always (in the future) A holds at some point (in the future) A holds at the next time point (in the future) A must remain true at all following time points until B becomes true 19

20 History and Motivation Extensions of classical logic: Modal logic and related logics Very rich history: Antiquity and middle ages (John Duns Scotus, Willian of Ockham) C. I. Lewis founded modern modal logic in his 1910 Harvard thesis. Ruth C. Barcan (later Ruth Barcan Marcus) developed the first axiomatic systems of quantified modal logic. In 1959, Saul Kripke (then a 19-year-old Harvard student) introduced the possible-worlds semantics for modal logics. A. N. Prior created modern temporal logic in 1957 Vaughan Pratt introduced dynamic logic in In 1977, Amir Pnueli proposed using temporal logic to formalise the behaviour of continually operating concurrent programs. 20

21 Structure of this course Classical logic (reminder) Many-valued logic Modal logic and related logics (e.g. dynamic logic and description logics) Temporal logic 21

22 Classical logic Propositional logic (Syntax, Semantics) First-order logic (Syntax, Semantics) Proof methods (resolution, tableaux) 22

23 Many-valued logic Introduction Many-valued logics 3-valued logic finitely-valued logic fuzzy logic Reduction to classical logic 23

24 Modal logic Introduction, history Introduction to propositional modal logic Syntax and semantics Correspondence theory Completeness, canonical models Decidability Introduction to first-order modal logics Reduction to first-order logic Description logics Dynamic logic 24

25 Temporal logic Linear temporal logic Branching temporal logic Model checking 25

26 Literature Peter Schmitt s lecture notes on non-classical logics (in German, linked from the website of the lecture) 26

27 Literature Additional literature: Modal, temporal and dynamic logic Bull and Segerberg Basic modal logic. In Handbook of Philosophical Logic, Fitting, M. Basic modal logic. In Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Vol 1: Logical Foundations Fitting, M. Proof methods for modal and intuitionistic logics, Kluwer, Fitting, M. and Mendelsohn, R. First-order modal logic, Kluwer, 1998 Goldblatt, R. Logics of time and computation, CSLI Series, 1987 Hughes, G.E. and Cresswell, M.J. - A new introduction to modal logic, 1st ed., Routledge, A companion to modal logic, Methuen, Introduction to modal logic (repr. 1990), Routledge, Huth, M. and Ryan, M. Logic in Computer Science: Modelling and reasoning about systems, Cambridge University Press,

28 Literature Additional literature: Modal and temporal logic Stirling, C. Modal and temporal logics. In Handbook of Logics in Computer Science, Vol 2: Background: Computational Structures (Gabbay, D. and Abramski, S. and Maibaum, T.S.E. eds), pages , Clarendon Press, Stirling, C. Modal and temporal properties of processes, Springer Texts in computer science, Emerson, E.A. Temporal and modal logic. Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, Kroeger, F. Temporal logic of programs, EATCS monographs on theoretical computer science, Springer, Clarke, E.N., Emerson, E.A., Sistla, A.P.: Automatic verification of finite-state concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications. ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems (TOPLAS) 8(2):

29 Literature Additional literature: Modal and dynamic logic Harel, D., Kozen, D. and Tiuryn, J. Dynamic logic, MIT Press, 2000 Semesterapparat at the library 29

30 Organization Organization 3h Lecture + 1h Exercises Time: Wednesday: Lecture 16:00 s.t.-18:00, Room G 210 Thursday: Lecture/Exercise: 10:00 c.t.-12:00, Room E 016 any changes necessary? website: sofronie/lecture-non-classical-ws-2012/ Homework - will be avaliable online after the lecture on Wednesday (at latest on Thursday evening); due on next Monday at 17:00. 30

31 Exam Exam: form (oral/written): to be decided 31

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