Poet in Transition: Philip Larkin's "XX Poems"

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1 The Iow Review Volume 8 Issue 1 Wter Article Poet Trnsition: Philip Lrk's "XX Poems" Roger Bowen Follow this dditionl works t: Prt Cretive Writg Commons Recommended Cittion Bowen, Roger. "Poet Trnsition: Philip Lrk's "XX Poems"." The Iow Review 8.1 (1977): Web. Avilble t: This Contents is brought you for free open ccess Iow Reserch Onle. It hs been ccepted for clusion The Iow Review n uthorized dmistrr Iow Reserch Onle. For more formtion, plese contct

2 CRITICISM / ROGER BOWEN Poet Trnsition: Philip Lrk's XX Poems An pprecition Philip Lrk s development from self-conscious lyricism The North Ship (1945), with its debt "music" Yets, new, spre ne The Less Deceived (1955), where lleginces Hrdy Auden emerge strongly, forms foundtion n cceptnc Lrks contribution post-wr British poetry. In his troduction second edition The North Ship, Lrk cknowledges this chnge ms ter1 mkes it o esy for us respond poet's voice s one which begs error out chrcter 1945, recovers discovers itself 1955 with The Less Deceived, moves on from re, growg uthority from The Whitsun Weddgs (1964) High Wdows (1974). We see second brupt begng rr thn grdul, but still purposeful trnsition. Between Lrks widely known first second volumes lies pri vtely prted XX Poems ( 1951 ),2 only 100 copies which were distributed. XX Poems is Lrk s first collection mrk different set poetic objec tives, suggest different poetic chrcter. In 1948, mnuscript entitled In Grip Light hd filed t six mjor London publishg houses. Three yers lter, tenttively modestly, Lrk tries ressess his tlent. This slim is n pmphlet explortion new possibilities contempltion old but persistent hbits; it is, essence, cutious mnifes. Thirteen se 20 poems were lter dded The Less Deceived,3 16 new poems which mke up tht volume only pursue style he hd begun develop XX Poems, refg expg wht hd proved be most effective elements, more confirmg untic one identity, which on depends controlled use metphor, confidence ironic stnce, reliztion tht "conventionl ws comptible with tl devotion poetry."4 With its smll distribution, this first utternce poet strugglg re pprise style subject mtter ws doomed nonymity. He did w ttention one importnt critic, D. J. Enright, but journl which review ppered, The Month, did not comm wide redership.5 XX Poems hrdly cused ripple yer its publiction. Four yers be fore Mrvell Press lunched The Less Deceived cught s public ttention Lrk hd, noneless, begun sound chnge for his own work tht his genertion. 87 University Iow is collbortg with JSTOR digitize, preserve, extend ccess The Iow Review

3 In his troduction Lrk selection British Poetry Sce 1945, Edwrd Lucie-Smith refers The Less Deceived s providg "signl for Movement beg,"6 but this signl my be noticed from sme poet 1951, yer which sw little sign "movement" from Lrk's col legues who were lter be ssembled Robert Conquest's nthology, New Les (1956). Only John W's Mixed comes Feelgs md from this erly pot fifties, it is fr less significnt ferg thn XX Poems much less ccomplished poetic crftsmn. Two yers lter, Kgsley Amis, Lrk's undergrdute contemporry friend t Oxford, brought out A Frme Md;7 Elizbeth Jenngs published Poems 1953, while D. J. Enright, "Lwrence Durrell Movement," s Lucie Smith styles him, fered The Lughg Hyen sme yer. In 1954, Donld Dvie, Amis, John Hollowy, Lrk ll ppered Fn tsy Poets series,8 Thorn Gunn emerges with Fightg Terms. Amis, Dvie, Gunn, Jenngs, Lrk erned plce G. S. Fr?sers I Fletchers Sprgtime: An Anthology Young Poets ( 1953). Lrk is repre sented "Poems Selected from Set Twenty" (comprisg 'Weddg Wd," VII, XII, 'Wnts," XIX). Aprt from Enright's review this mrks only public recognition XX Poems. Despite Frser's cknowledge ment spce fforded Lrk, nonymity is not entirely dis pelled. In nthology's troduction no direct mention is mde Lrk's two novels, Jill (1946) A Girl Wter (1947). Furrmore, he is s ctegorized "regionlist" mistkenly identified s n Irish poet!9 Hd Lrk obted prestigious publisher 1951 he might well hve hd n erlier more substntil fluence, his ultimte seprtion from Movement might hve been pprecited sooner. As In Hmiln remrks his essy, "The Mkg Movement," "Philip Lrk's poems provide precise model for wht Movement ws supposed be seekg. But hvg noticed his lucidity, his debunkery, his technicl ccomplishment or such 'typicl' 'ttributes,' one would still be left with different deeper tsk describg qulity his peculir genius, tsk tlkg bout poems rr thn postures."10 By focusg ttention on repre senttive pieces from XX Poems we cn witness process his commit ment new more ssured voice, his emergg dependence from flse or pproprite msters. This volume perfectly illustrtes Lrk trnsition germ his "peculir genius." II The title pge, prt from dediction Kgsley Amis, dictes tht poems cluded were ll written between , entirely subse quent, n, The North Ship. The poem which retroduces Philip Lrk reder tht first collection my not fer ny surprises. "Weddg 88

4 Wd," womn spoken celebrtion her ws com weddg night, posed belongs spirit The North Ship, which gusts with symbolic wds twelve its 31 poems.12 This lyric speks us from rurl pst; with clelight, restless horses, chipped pil, chicken run, "thrshg" womn's pron clos on le, imgtion is crried bck world ritul necessity, where humn joy fds its ppoted plce mid strife Nture's forces. The weddg pssion is mtched pssion "high wd." But wht s n begs exercise picrilism, lmost cemtic qulity, with unsophisticted descriptive voice country bride, turns lbored ttempt comprehend unthkble juxposition love mortlity. The womn's untic he cme bck simple-hertedness?"when / He sid horses were restless, I ws sd / Tht ny mn or best tht night should lck / The hppess I hd"?is lost more mture voice, poet's, tkes over, with three rhericl questions: Cn it be borne, this bodyg-f orth wd Of joy my ctions turn on, like thred Crryg beds? Shll I be let sleep Now this perpetul morng shres my bed? Cn even deth dry up These new delighted lkes, conclude Our s kneelg cttle ll-generous wters? In consequence, Lrk leves behd n unblnced poem. The mesured resolve delicte optimism "Whitsun Weddgs," sy, or "Arundel Tomb," re much more s significnt works joy celebrtion, s recog nitions impertives love ceremonies tht surround it, thn blustery, enggg, but ultimtely disstisfyg 'Weddg-Wd." At his best, his "best" covers greter prt his slender output, Lrk never "plys" t poetry. He does so considerble extent The North Ship becuse he hs not yet found n pproprite voice, here t very begng XX Poems he demonstrtes view poetry s exercise, s chllenge verstility for its own ske. In this poem he ssumes seri ous pose, but sbotges effect cross-cuttg descriptive re flective response weddg night, so fished work rems vigorous but confusg. 'Weddg-Wd" is remder kd poetry he hd fered public The North Ship, survivl he still chooses disply; he did, fter ll, clude it g The Less Deceived. In both volumes its open country settg does contrst effectively with clustrophobic urbn sur 89

5 roundgs "Deceptions," poem which different kd pssion is explored. Wht follows XX Poems is drmtic diction new prciples, frmed simple brevity "Modesties," lyric which troduces st eng ne, growg circumspection. The first its three qutrs en cpsules poem's modest proposl: Words s s pl hen-birds' Do not lie, Do not over-broider thgs Are o shy. wgs The entire poem, effect, encts its subject. Pl words essentil thoughts re elements poetry he now hs md write. The metphor here is simple direct, but no mens commonplce. The re peted negtives second third les celebrte, prdoxiclly, poetic virtues honesty simplicity. The fourth le, though positive, still hts t wht might be wekness: movement is from n implied condemntion verbl excess n dmission timidity which might it self be form excess. The blnce is delicte one; poet seems t once sure, tken bck, implictions his modest clims. Tht shyness is somethg be proud somethg question. The fl qutr imges his own privte possible chievement, but g with cutious mbiguous negtives: Weeds re not supposed grow, But degrees Some chieve flower, lthough No one sees. The "But" second le cncels "not" first, poem concludes with n imge bloom, despite rr uncomplimentry imge weed. Yet, we re remded tht no one my notice, or per hps underst nture tht flowerg. "Modesties" is poem bout on relyg one's poetic stcts, usg one's own resources, curbg extrvgnce thought lnguge, fd g, hopefully, privte vible form success se observnces. As poem bout poetic method it is Lrk's own "rs po?tic" is deed remiscent McLeish's poem. A comprison proves structive. "Ars Po?tic" is longer more elborte with prescriptions which swell rr thn dimish imge s n poetry unomous terprettion experience: "A poem should not men / But be." Both "poem" "should" re used six times McLeish's 24 le work, while Lrk uses 90

6 neir noun nor uxiliry verb speks himself rr thn n udience. This is rre occsion for Lrk; he hs little time for poems "bout poetry,"13 but "Modesties" is, significntly, bout his poetry, with no himself. ppliction beyond If it is mnifes s poem, I hve it suggested, is, n, very privte mnifes. He tkes heed this mot The Less Deceived fds tht he no longer needs it. It hs not been reprted. Here, XX Poems, or consciously not, it cts s rebuke "Weddg-Wd," poem which it. precedes Its form messge undercut kd brvur confidence exhibited re suggest sted quiet ssuredness which Lrk must cultivte order contend with world which he lives, with ll its deceptions, illusions, flse gods. It pots wy wrd discovery use irony. The remg 18 poems illustrte growth this but t potentil sme time exemplify most cute problem Lrk fces de velopment his crft: tempttion rely on, if not dulge, elbortions metphor. Hvg voiced his commitment "words s s pl hen-birds' wgs," he is noneless reluctnt shed entirely trppgs notion preconceived poetry, with ll its "difficulty," contrived energy, t its most certly willful "Two Portrits Sex," volume's immodest centerfold. Wht he hs lern is tht modest use one metphor, which serves function llows pt illumtion but which flls well short obscurity, best nswers his needs. He does not hve recrete seprte relm experience; he cn describe with imgtion perception world which he lives, his responses it. He cn discover, bove ll, tht this second tsk will s require much "rt." This ten pful lerng process is evident throughout XX Poems, underscores difficulty effort Lrk's trnsition. The third fourth poems, both pperg The Less Deceived s "Next, Plese," "Deceptions," though here untitled, cont essence Lrk's our endurg subject: "bd hbits expectncy" self deception. In first poem, strong sense quotidin relity emerges t begng, with direct ddress reder, mockg our conventionl wisdom. If disrmed this we re pproch n lerted sudden chnge ne texture, n exmple wht becomes one Lrk's prticulr skills, run-on not only from one stnz next but from one level experience nor: o Alwys eger for future, we Pick up bd hbits expectncy. is Somethg lwys pprochg; every dy Till n we sy, 91

7 Wtchg Sprklg from bluff ty, cler, rmd promises drw ner. Therefter, this "rmd" susts its meng with figurtive power tht mtches literl bluntness openg. The fl stnz remds us logicl extension our "bd hbits," forgettg deth, which comes unbidden. The poem works two wys; it brgs bck some deth-ship horror from "The North Ship" but prefces se more trditionl poetic imges with noticebly modern voice dmittg fmilir humn filg. The title given poem four yers lter dds colloquil weight. In this stnce poet mnges extent metphor, controls it, demonstrtes kd priority he should be seekg. Poem IV represents furr importnt dvnce for Lrk rems one most significnt se 20 pieces. Above ll, progrm sug gested "Modesties," simplicity cution, is here worked out its fullest potentil, poet's honest disclimers?"i would not dre / Con sole you if I could. Wht cn be sid, / Except tht is exct. sufferg..."?only prove ctul dimensions his sensibility He understtes his wy truths never before so clerly rticulted. Lrk is tryg extend his sympthies over spn hisry discoverg evitble limittions this ttempt. He cn "tste" grief girl who lost her honor her future while "bridl London" looked or wy, but brrier time, "slums, yers, hve buried you," prevents him from recognizg full ct consoltion. He knows tht one's own perceptions cn one seprte from, s well s connect one with, someone else's exper ience. He sees, with colorg his own growg pprehension physicl pssion its spiritul emptess, wht he knows she would not hve been wre, tht she ws "less deceived" thn her cruel clumsy seducer, "stumblg up brethless stir / To burst fulfilment's desolte ttic." He begs, n, his exmtion extent sympthy with n dmission wht he cn respond, over pssge yers, ends with confession wht cnnot be climed. We move from stnz one, where is empthy outled, second stnz where he denies lstg consoltion. The entire poem is blnced between wht he "will not dre" s presume, poet, wht he cn fct chieve even when he drws se limits bout him. A creful disciple underlies poem; les, imges ll work purpose. There is shrp, crudely physicl pprehension grief "he mde you gulp"; wek presence sun, n difference Nture mtched difference o busy metropolis; blnkness light, "unnswerble tll wide," which prefigures "deep blue ir, tht shows / Nothg, 92

8 is nowhere, is endless," from "High Wdows," identifies itself s erly Lrk's fvored imge for tht "solvg emptess / Tht lies just under ll we do" ("Ambulnces," The Whitsun Weddgs); lmost Plthlike p her md "open like drwer knives," stunng sptil imge which concludes poem with picture his desoltion rr thn girl's, leves reder on uncomfortbly edge, fced with or considertions. Tht "desolte ttic" is t once plce where girl ws violted metphor expressg circumscribed empti ness pssion. The lst le hs effect undercuttg ny belief we my hve slvged from poem; re is sudden disturbg identi fiction with seducer. A poem which hs its source documenttion from Myhew's London Lbour London Poor reverbertes with contemporry significnce for poet reder. One thgs Lrk hs estblish for himself s he trnscends n ide poetry fds his own defition rt, is legitimcy his own response experience contemporry world. A poem from Whitsun which Weddgs registers well such n cceptnce is "Mr. Bleney." It exmes sense rrivl new over n room plce, tkg empty from n old lodger someone replcg else's loneless with one's own. In "Arrivl," one few titled pieces XX Poems, cold relity "Mr. is Bleney" foreshdowed, element ubiogrphy used directly for first time. The poem begs with strong sense present time plce: Morng, glss door, flshes Gold nmes f new city, Whose white shelves domes trvel The slow sky ll dy. I l sty here; And wdows flock open And curts fly out Uke doves And pst dries wd. "Arrivl" contends with one those unrel terludes, where con tuity we re used, perhps dred, this constnt movement from pst future, is momentrily suspended. It is suspended here becuse poet hs rrived new wn live hs yet engge with this new stge his life. The "pst dries wd" future is form less; fct, s he dictes second stnz, he wishes keep it t by: "Now let me lie down, under / A wide-brnched difference... And let cluttered-up houses / Keep ir thick lives mselves." The knowledge tht wn is unwre its new citizen gives him momentry 93

9 plesure pece, but this mood is dulled wreness lrger wht surrounds this vulnerble prdise, recognition tht hbit not novelty governs our lives, no mtter how ten one moves on, no mtter how much time : psses For this ignornce me Seems kd nicence. Fst enough I shll wound Let me bre till n Its milk-ired Eden, Till my own life impound Slow-fllg; grey-veil-hung; A style dyg only. it: it? ft, His own life will "impound" this precious stillness tht fered con tuity will beg g. This life, wherever it my be lived, is " style dyg only." Tht sme we "style" witness lter poem bout Mr. Bleney, it is confronted re mnner even more direct blek. For both men it is discovery tht "how we live mesures our own nture." With poem VII we move from n observtion nchored, first stnce, sense plce specific time one which is s just cler but which relies more upon n pprehension generlized experience. This poem seems hve been written with prescriptions "Mod esties" md. Those re prciples set work devsttgly concise reveltion bout difficulties termtg reltionship. It is rev eltion which never becomes n vowl; it is n nmy rr thn confession, echoes Donne's syllogistic method: Sce mjority me Rejects Debtg Divide mjority you, ends forthwith, we The rgument begs with confident ssertion bout rejection di vision, decided upon, plnned executed. The process is clicl?re re pportioned "dys" "disfected" s new regime seprtion tkes over?but is rendered flly lnguge which suggests wekeng resolve p cused n rbitrry curtilment desire need. "Unshred friends" "unwlked wys," dictted this cuttg f furr "debte," focus on loss rr thn decision. The poet's pres ence poem chnges, o, from public declrtive voice?though he is, fct, ddressg womn? lonely disillusionment, s he becomes 94

10 wre "silence" which proves s s "eloquent" origl decision "divide." It is "silence morities / Tht... return / Ech night with cncelled promises / They wnt renewed. never They lern." Tht fl sentence, with its us colloquil shrug, pulls from n erly seventeenth century poetic design context rhythm our own speech. Though it concludes poem, it concludes nothg. The poem is bout bsence conclusion? "morities... return / Ech night" u never lern" Lrk (my emphsis)?which, sees, is bidg condition humn reltionship. Our "mjor" decisions re constntly beset so clled "mor" doubts. The trusive power "silent morities" our lives becomes more more subject Lrk's verse. So mny his lter poems on rely process defltion, undercuttg. Here, with wry economy, he moves from strength confidence n wreness vulnerbility ll our decisions volvg those with whom we re ti mte. There is lso, movement from ppropritely, dy night, recll g repeted convention The North Ship, mn solitry lone t night, fter frequently deprture guest, tryg drive shd ows bck, "confront / The stntneous grief beg lone."14 In poem VII this confronttion is less melncholy ffir; condition is more clerly recognized better endured. In some wys this exctg poem is refed version poem XXIV The North Ship, which begs, g, with echoes lte Elizbethn or erly Jcoben mode, "Love we must now: prt do not let it be / Clm ius bitter," concludes with imge two tll ships prtg on different courses t mouth n estury. "Alwys, re is regret." But Poem VII (XX Poems) this presence is subsumed eloquent silence. Furrmore, re is no metphoricl illustrtion, simply debte demonstrtion. Lrk is clerly serchg for wy present personl or experience, observtions bsed on it; he is contempltg relince on metphor, or on formlised rrngement s poem nmy. Seprtion, denil, loss re subjects, o, poem XIII XX Poems, here Lrk decides on rely metphor, utilisg wht is n virtully llegoricl lscpe, with bricked-up gtes, plnted trees, 'leves... unswept,"... "grss unmown." It is useful compre VII with XIII becuse re y both bout n greement let reltionship "fll disuse," problems ttendnt upon such decision. The first poem reches pot wreness which is concise honest, with uch wry humor tht fl sentence. Becuse this poem chrcter poet pper less self-regrdg. There is clrity le In thought. XIII, which ws be clled "No Rod" four yers lter, sentiments re cluttered poem ends on note self-c?nscious nlysis which comes close self pity: 95

11 To wtch tht world come up like cold sun, Rewrdg ors, is my liberty. Not prevent it is my will's fulfilment. Willg it, my ilment. There is disturbg clm bout completeness Lrk's terpret tion this prticulr loss. His "sense n endg" becomes one his mjor chievements, but here pce is o contrived; poem predicts itself. Though filure is perhps Lrk's predomnt me,15 his rt usully triumphs with such skill tht despir is rrely mood spired his reders. In "No Rod" it my well be. Lrk rems trpped side metphor seprtion he builds here. In VII re is no such structure, but sted demonstrtion rendered flly humn terms. The effect tht fl never "They lern" is ssert humn experience; those "prom ises" clmorg for "renewl" become us s we struggle with doubt disstisfction. The emphsis poem XIII is on "rt/ ilment," poem never tkes us beyond tht condition; reder is shut out those lst les. At his most effective, Lrk cludes us, uncompromisgly, givg his own experience enough dimension so tht we my recognize condition everyone hs contend with, whtever degree success or filure my result. 'Wild Ots" The Whitsun Weddgs tkes wht my be sme experience, n boned reltionship, builds round it sted n ctul world "cdrl cities," "two snps" wllet, "bosomy English rose," "friend specs." Lrk is ld ltter tht he is "o selfish, withdrwn, / And esily bored love," decides tht it is "useful get tht lernt." This is sme ilment cknowledged "No Rod" but this cse renderg experience triumphs with some novel rrestg sights. Wht Lrk lerns is tht o much relince on metphor, elborte crefullly structured kd tht domtes XIII, is end form evsion, it produces stleness effect. Poem XV illustrtes sme difficulty, though terse troducry question exposg power once self-deception g hs cert technicl power: "Who clled love conquerg, / When its sweet flower / So esily dries mong sour / Lnes livg?" The entire lyric com n prises llegoricl tbleu, with flower love smored weeds life deprived life-givg power sun. The only uches which suggest poet's potentil for more origl per susive hlg well-worn me re exctness quotidin flower's demise " three o'clock" "dire clok drk" which "stiffens wn," n ironic llusion sexul energy which will forever 96

12 lie dormnt. Orwise, poem dulges itself romntic melncholy, no pursug new terprettion experience. Metphor nor more obscure chrcter is criticl issue "Two Portrits Sex," plced side side t centre volume. These two poems, subtitled "Oils" "Etchg"? ltter survives s "Dry Pot" The Less Deceived?ttempt plumb orig such s experiences loss seprtion, which deed domte so mny poems this volume. The culprit is identfied s sexul impertive, tht "time-honoured irritnt." "Dry Pot" is better known, even s n nthology piece,, thnks George stute Hrtley's expliction, is better undersod: "Directly ddressed personifiction sex, poems this volume. The culprit is identified s sexul impertive, me impossibility rechg ny kd fulfilment through sexul love."16 The sexul is impulse "Bestil, tent, rel," tht 'Imre sunscrubbed room, /... tht pdlocked cube light" is plnic relm experience sex beyond from which we re forever excluded. Hrtley's terprettion mkes good del more sense when "oil" is plced next "etchg," we cn see tht Lrk mde some ttempt mke himself cler ltter poem; meng is etched deep but re be discovered. "Oils" is nor mtter: Sun. Tree. Begng. God thicket. Crown. Never-bdictg constelltion. Blood. Brn-clutch life. Trigger future. Mgic weed docr shkes dnce. Mny rs mny rivers, one mkg river. Pssword. Instlltion. Root ngues. In n ttempt isolte drmtize primitive stct which is s old s begng time, Lrk, this first stnz, dubs his wy fre neticlly bout n unlikely cnvs, his brupt words phrses rgg emptily effectully. Wht rems impressive, sheer weight repetition if for no or reson, is series negtives third fl stnz where poet's helplessness fce life's guidg prciple is relentlessly exposed: No one cn migrte cross your boundries. No one cn exist without hbit for you. No one cn ter your thred out himself. No one cn tie you down or set you free. Aprt from your tribe, re is only ded, And even m you grip beg use. 97

13 In "Resons for Attendnce" (The Less Deceived) Lrk sks, 'Wht is Sex?" does not fd n nswer. The context tht poem especilly provoctive: question rems drmtic, Of Surely, hppess thk lion s shre is found couples?sheer Inccurcy, s fr s I'm concerned. But this question is rhericl, rest poem benefits from Lrks decision not mke it orwise. He does not pursue vest igtion here or elsewhere becuse his terest, tht is, outside 'Two Por trits," is humn socil consequences such drives. He never g visits this lmost Drwin ren, but fct tht he once did plced se two poems t center XX Poems is still trigug. These centerpieces revel survivg tempttion, dtg from dys when his Celtic fever ws fr from bted, follow life its roots?this word ppers twice "Oils"? it depict elementl mytho terms. logicl The rom desperte energy "Oils," energy con trived illustrte energy, is remiscent Ted Hughes, third stnz especilly method lmost prefigures Crow, lst le em one ployg most Hughes's used verbs, grip, his whole vocbulry In "Oils" sex pr?dtion. "Etchg" is seen s ultimte enemy, source filure love, but it is only se poems tht Lrk turns bck identifies source. In fl les even Deth is depicted s victim, gripped used mdless power. Deth, however, progressively ltter hlf XX Poems, course, Lrk's lter volumes, becomes most thg fered. The seven tenth, eighteenth, neteenth poems confront deth different wys: first sees deth s our governg prciple throughout lives; second common suggests wish for deth, "desire for oblivion," lst cknowledges fer unknown. The first, "The Dedicted," concerns itself with mster-servnt mn reltionship; follows life rules biddg "ngel," deth himself, obeys every com m lst. The poem moves with kd religious dignity, bsence protest refusl struggle. Deth is visir be ex pected for: prepred Some must employ scy Upon grsses. Tht wlks be smooth For feet ngel. 98

14 Some keep repir The locks, tht visir Unhdered psses To nermost chmber. There is no "willgness" this life's preprtion, n wreness only wht Lrk clls second three stnzs, "eternl requirgs." Noneless, shift is emphsis recognizble with poem. Lrk begs with "Some must...," suggestg compulsion, he ends with more pssive, "wit," sense resigntion. The scy deth is us employed "upon grsses," upon our own lives; it embodies our knowledge comg visittion, necessrily governs our pprehension experience, until time comes when tht scy is ngel's hs. The only respite possible is neir nor sought tken tensely: And if y hve leve To pry, it is for contentment If feet dove Perch on scy's hle, Perch once, n deprt Their knowledge... In end it is simply mtter witg upon " colder dvent, / The quenchg cles." Without imges terror or mystery? "grss," "smooth wlks," "ngel," "chmber," "dove"?lrk por trys life s wy deth, s bird will use its wgs "fly fowler's compss." Our greement with "ngel" is our first lst reltionship. There is cohesion order poem, yet, t sme time, n sense underlyg uncertty. To describe life s dediction deth is pose or more serchg questions. The difficulty such susted dediction deth is explored lter poems, strk relity deth is frequently stressed more contemporry settg, lscpe not s llegoricl it is "The Dedicted" but identifibly ours;, for exmple, "Ambulnces" (The Whitsun Weddgs) "clen-sliced cliff" which is "The Buildg" (High Wdows). There re hts this contemporry world much shorter lyric tht follows, with its telegrphed suggestions dily ritul, "vittion crds," "prted directions sex," fmily phogrph, "life surnce," which cnnot counterct our own "desire for oblivion." 'Wnts," eighteenth poem, trnsltes more ccessible terms true spirit our dediction dy. We still obey those "eternl requirgs" but we do so from our own will, not s servnts some higher comm, but s 99

15 dividuls crvg pece fl solitude. The cntry qulity, "Beyond ll this, wish be lone,", "Beneth it ll, desire ob livion runs," les which, respectively, beg end first second stnzs, is remiscent Dyln Thoms's rhericl method "And Deth Shll Hve No Domion" "Do Not Go Gentle tht Good Night." Lrk, however, replces "hwyl" gr gestured chllenge Thoms's les with his own ironic dmission common deth wish. Poem XIX, clled "Gog" The Less Deceived, closes with tht very "oblivion" its depicts pproch llegoriclly, yet ketic mnner. The "quenchg cles," tht "colder dvent," is met hed on; witg turns growg pprehension not somethg quite expected. There is n sense cresg pnic fce deth, guise fllg dusk, which dvnces cross poet's vision, "silken... t distnce," but like wdg sheet, no brgg comfort. At moment truth, n, tht desire turns fer. Lrk, one compct sentence, exposes simplest meng deth, s bsence life, miss g essence: 'Where hs tree gone, tht locked / Erth sky?" The poem concludes with two more questions: Wht is under my hs, Tht I cnnot feel? Wht lods my hs down? Despite this metphoricl tretment deth's cpture life, its relentless negtg vsion ll tht gives meng, fl stress is on physicl senstion, or rr new terrible deprivtion norml sensory experience. The desttion ("Wht is under my hs?") is not known force responsible ("Wht lods my hs down?") is not under sod. The poem is bout comg ultimte bldness; questions re sked with such despertion becuse poet cn no longer see. Deth rems n entrnce n comprehensible oblivion. Though questions sked "Gog" go unnswered lso Lrk's subsequent poems bout deth, experience re is seen more rel istic specific terms. For exmple, "The Old Fools" (High Wdows) Lrk elbortes on process dyg which is old ge. In fl stnz re re four serchg questions which end this time with curt response: "Well, / We shll fd out." It is enough know tht "noth g contrvenes / The comg drk" ("The Buildg," High Wdows). XX Poems does not end on such note, however. From XX Poems High Wdows ll concludg poems fer sense clm ffirm tion: The Whitsun Weddgs it is "Arundel Tomb" with its poignnt 100

16 ssertion, "Wht will survive us is love," High Wdows, it is vision ded col mer "The Explosion" still "showg eggs unbroken." XX Poems, Fntsy Press pmphlet, The Less Deceived ll end with "At Grss."17 With this lst poem Lrk steps bck from struggle tme met once phor?t wish be liberted from it s well s desire control it? from rhericl confronttions with lrger humn mes love, loss, deth. He concentrtes sted on perceived world, world prticulrly English psrl its flvor, group re tired rcehorses restg field. Prdoxiclly, Lrk is ble reconnect himself, us, with those lrger questions, but he does so with less rhe ricl urgency, more detchment. "At Grss" is still "bout" with drwl from dems imposed responsibilities life, desire for pece rest, chnce st "nonymous g." But re is ffirmtion record n ctive life?" strtg-gtes, crowds, cries"? fct tht "ir nmes live," tht re survives ir wng some cre dys compnionship: "Only groom, groom's boy, / With bridles eveng come." The eye which "cn hrdly pick m out" t begng poem belongs ob server who is concerned bout se questions futurity, scene depicted, rcehorses shelterg "cold shde," helps formulte n ide bout twilight life, tlent, whtever one's rison d?tre. There is one only question poem, "Do memories plgue ir ers like flies?" it sits comfortbly t begng penultimte stnz, is furr neutrlized ptic fllcy which follows: "They shke ir heds." We cnnot tell perhps it does not mtter. The poem returns quickly comprison between specifics ir lives n, welcome quiet ir lives now, uncomplicted or unpressured fieldglss spwtch. The horses re ultimtely left mselves, s Lrk decides void furr specultion which my hve relevnce for him. The "eveng" which comes poem XX, contrst tht which slips upon us XIX, is welcomed rr thn fered; sombre perspectives desired oblivion re muted. Deth, fl nonymity, is yet be countennced. The impulse wrd nostlgi is strong here, true, but it flls fr short weknesses s frequently socited with tht mood. The pst, present, future coexist ssuredly this techniclly ssured poem. This sme level technicl chievement, sme ffirmtive mergg time, my be witnessed poem XII, which rnks with "Decep tions" "At Grss" s one most effective ffectg exmples verse lyric XX Poems. The subject first sentence is n light, imge which hs plyed significnt prt Lrk's poetry from "The 101

17 North Ship" "High Wdows." Here it is "chill yellow," suburb nized, bthg " serene / Foreheds houses," while thrush sgs herlds Sprg. Upon herg this song poet, "whose childhood / Is forgotten boredom," feels "like child / Who comes on scene / Of dult reconcilg, / And cn underst nothg / But unusul lughter, / And strts be hppy." The song bird, nturl energy, "snish g brickwork," sserts present, gives it sound beuty vlue s evengs grdully lengn, it promises dvnce repeted genesis: "It will be Sprg soon, / It will be Sprg soon." These les duplicte thrush's wrblg cdence. The pst is lso evoked given vlue its own; though child cn underst "nothg" fds lughter "unusul" (my emphsis), he noneless "strts be hppy." The bird's song becomes vehicle for recon poet's cilition pst, present, future. The fl ffirmtion, s we come expect with Lrk, is cutious but erned. This poem, s does entire volume, new suggests begng, poetic crntions. "Comg," "At Grss," re "Deceptions" mselves enough dicte grce telli gence Lrk's mture chievement. XX Poems is n ttempt redefe Lrk's poetic sensibility fter ennervtg imittive dulgences The North Ship complete filure In Grip Light. An urge disply vriety tlent, for its own ske, is still pprent? pretensions obscurities "Two Portrits Sex" embrrssg self-nlysis "If, My Drlg," for exmple?but germ Lrk's untic voice is re. The second poem, "Modesties," s I hve nnounces suggested, this new unticity, but underestimtes true impct his developg skills. He lerns curb poetic lnguge domted rhericl metphoricl excess, wlk Amis's "temperte zone";18 he lerns tht is metphor best used s trope which deepens reflection, rr thn s structurl prciple which cn strngle life out poem, he begs underst t lst tht his own frequently ironic response his life, life his fellow, will his provide subject mtter. It is here tht he will mke his poetry, not from or "myth-kitty"19 ny or such trditionl source. This wreness new pproprite direction, ger with surviv g tempttions for less pproprite poetic mbitions, my be witnessed XX Poems. The future poet is proposed this volume, is pro posed modestly; it provides necessry rehersl for sound judg ments The Less Deceived, The Whitsun Weddgs, High Wdows. 102

18 NOTES 1 The North Ship (1945; rpt. London: Fber, 1966), pp Lrk refers "prticulrly potent music" Yets which "rued mny better tlent." 2 XX Poems (The Author: Queen's College, Belfst, 1951). There is no pgtion. Permission quote from this volume ws kdly grnted Mr. Lrk. 3 They re, order y pper The Less Deceived, with ir erlier numerls prenses: "Weddg-Wd" (I), "Comg" (XII), "Dry-Pot" (XI), "Next Plese" (III), "Gog" (XIX), "Wnts" (XVIII), "No Rod" (XIII), "Wires" (XVI), "Sprg" (VIII), "Deceptions" (IV), "Ltest Fce" (V), "If, My Drlg" (XIV), "At Grss" (XX). Of se, only "Weddg-Wd," "Sprg," "Wnts" hd tides XX Poems, while ws "Dry-Pot" origlly clled "Etchg." 4 Philip Okes, "The Unsung Gold Medllist: Portrit Poet," Sundy Times Mgze (Mrch 27, 1966), p. 65. This lesson, Lrk dmits here, ws imprted him Vernon Wtks. Dvid Timms, his excellent study, Philip Lrk (Edburgh: Oliver & Boyd, 1973), p. 69, comments: "Between publiction XX Poems The Less Deceived... he hd recognized mnner form which he wrote most In effectively." his few generl remrks on XX Poems, pp. 68-9, Timms mkes no mention unreprted pieces. 5 The Month (November, 1951), pp Of ten volumes verse discussed Enright, Lrk's is described s "most impressive." He elbortes: "The uthor... hs tht respect for lnguge which is begng look old-fshioned se dys; he persudes words beg poetry, he does not bully m. This little pmphlet whets ppetite; it is be hoped tht some publisher will tke ht." 6 British Poetry Sce 1945 (Hrmondsworth, Engl: Pengu, 1970), p Amis did mke n erlier ppernce with Bright November ( London: Fortune Press, 1947). These poems, however, most dtg from 1943 few even erlier, do not convey much certty style. 8Lrk No. 21 ppered (Mrch 1954), ws represented : "Les on Young Ldy's Phogrph Album," "Whtever Hppened," "If, My Drlg," "Arrivls, Deprtures," "At Grss." "If, My Drlg," "At Grss" were reprted from XX Poems, ll m were The Less Deceived published followg yer. Consult Michel Schmidt Grevel Ldop, eds., British Poetry Sce 1960: A Criticl Survey (Oxford: Crcnet Press, 1972), pp , for n vluble bibliog rphy verse published post-wr period, compiled Brbr Atkson. 9 "Edir's Introduction," Sprgtime: An Anthology Young Poets ( London: Peter Owen, 1953), p. 12: "Irish poets, like Mr. Lrk, though writg strd English, reflect nor regionl vlue, tht rootedness; Mr. Lrk's horses medows stble crekg doors re more rel him thn furniture physicl London is bstrcted metropolitn md." The fct tht Lrk hd this volume published while sub-librrin t Queen's, Belfst, obviously leds edirs ir "regionl" identif iction. In note bibliogrphicl Lrk is described s uthor "one volume poems" " novel." (p. 60) 10 Schmidt Ldop, p. 73. n Lrk's unpublished notebook, full: MS , British Librry, provides this dte. 12 Nmely: I, VI, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XVII, XXI, XXII, XXIV, XXXI, from 31 poems which comprise first edition The North Ship. 103

19 13 The subject poetry poetic spirtion my be found poems IX, XVII, XX The North Ship, re is "tht lifted, rough-ngued bell / (Art if you like)" from "Resons for Attendnce" The Less Deceived. 14 Poem VI from The North Ship; similr loneless is described IV, XVI, XVIII. 15 Gefrey describes "filure" s Thurley "gret me ll Lrk's work," The Ironic Hrvest: English Poetry Twentieth Century (London: Arnold, 1974), p Clv Bedient, gentler nes, refers Lrk's "ncient fmilirity with de fet" his criticl study, Eight Contemporry Poets (London: Oxford University Press, 1974), p "No Right Entry," Phoenix (Autumn Wter, ), p Dvid Timms this connection remrks: "Lrk hs fe drmtic sense, with " poems with collections." 'Church Gog' Revisited: 'The Buildg' The Notion Development Lrk's Poetry," Phoenix (Autumn Wter, ), p From Kgsley Amis's "Agst Romnticism," mnifes poem cluded New Les. 19 Philip Lrk, Poets Fifties: Anthology New English Verse, ed. D. J. Enright (Tokyo: The Kenkyush Press, 1955), p. 78. CRITICISM / M. D. UROFF Sylvi Plth Confessionl Poetry: A Reconsidertion When M. L. Rosenthl first used term, confessionl poetry, he hd md phse Robert Lowell's creer when Lowell turned mes sexul guilt, lcoholism, confement mentl hospitl, developed m first person wy tht tended, Rosenthl's view, pot poet himself. Rosenthl ws creful limit possibilities mode but he did nme Sylvi Plth confessionl s poet well becuse, he sid, she put speker herself t center her poems such wy s mke her psychologicl vulnerbility shme n embodi ment her civiliztion.1 Rosenthl's widely ccepted estimtion ws chllenged first Ted Hughes who out poted tht Plth uses ubio grphicl detils her poetry more emblemtic wy thn Lowell, more recently Mrjorie Perlf who clims tht Plth's poetry lcks relistic detil Lowell's work.2 If Hughes Perlf re right, I thk y re, n we should reconsider nture speker Plth's poems, her reltionship poet, extent which poems re confessionl. 104

What do these sentences describe? Write P for plants, A for animals or B for both next to each sentence below. They ve got roots.

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