LITERARY DEVICES IN POETRY

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1 POETRY

2 LITERARY DEVICES IN POETRY

3 FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Figurative Language is the use of words outside of their literal or usual meaning to add beauty or force. It is characterized by the use of similes and metaphors.

4 METAPHOR Metaphor is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, in which one thing becomes another without the use of the words like, as, than, or resembles. EXAMPLE: LOVE IS A ROSE

5 SIMILE Simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison between two unlike things, using words such as like, as, than, or resembles. Example: My love is like a red, red rose. - Robert Burns

6 ONOMATOPOEIA Onomatopoeia is the use of a word or words whose sound imitates its meaning. Examples: crackle, pop, fizz, click, chirp

7 PERSONIFICATION Personification is a special kind of metaphor in which a nonhuman thing is talked about as if it was human (given human characteristics).

8 Example: This poetry gets bored of being alone, It wants to go outdoors to chew on the wings, To fill its commas with the keels of rowboats. -Hugo Margenat, from Living Poetry

9 SYMBOLISM Symbolism is when a person, place, thing or idea stands for itself and for something else. Example: Use of the bald eagle to represent the USA

10 ALLITERATION Alliteration occurs when a series of words in a row (or close to a row) have the same first consonant sound. For example, She sells seashells down by the sea-short or Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers are both alliterative phrases.

11 ASSONANCE - Assonance, (or medial rhyme) is the agreement in the vowel sounds of two or more words, when the consonant sounds preceding and following these vowels do not agree. Thus, strike and grind, hat and man, 'rime' with each other according to the laws of assonance.

12 TOUNGUE TWISTERS "Rhyme, alliteration, assonance, and consonance combined often produce tongue-twisting linguistics. Big Punisher's 'Twinz' includes this couplet... 'Dead in the middle of little Italy / Little did we know that we riddled a middle man who didn't know diddly.'... Keying in on a single sound, he runs a staggering series of rhyme variations ('middle,' 'little,' 'riddled,' 'middle,' 'diddly'), which he further builds upon with consonance (d) and assonance (i) and alliteration (d and l). This is what happens when a poet is in complete control of his rhymes."

13 DISSONANCE - Dissonance is the direct avoidance of assonance. It is a disruption of harmonic sounds or rhythms, and is often a harsh collection of sounds. This depends on the organization of sound for a jarring effect, rather than on the unpleasantness of individual words.

14 HYPERBOLE Hyperbole is a figure of speech composed of a striking exaggeration. Example: I have a million things to get done this weekend.

15 METER Meter is the pattern of rhythm established for a verse.

16 RHYTHM Rhythm is the actual sound that results from a line of poetry.

17 PURPOSES OF POETRY WHY WRITE A POEM? POETS HAVE VARIOUS PURPOSES. WHEN YOU WRITE A POEM, IT HELPS TO KNOW WHAT YOUR PURPOSE IS: To tell a story it can be long or short To be humorous funny ideas, silly rhymes, humorous descriptions To express a feeling a release of feeling by explaining what the emotion is like and what it feels like to go through it To describe a person, place, or thing; usually includes sensory details (sights, sounds, smells,etc.) To persuade convince a reader to think a certain way or do a particular thing

18 CLOSE READING The best strategy to use with a poem is close reading. Close reading means reading word for word, line for line. Read the poem a number of times (usually 3 or 4 times depending on the length and complexity of the poem).

19 BEFORE READING Read the title Make a prediction. What do you think this poem will be about? Who is the poet? Do you know anything about the kind of poetry this person reads? Is the poem structured in a different or unique way? Why might this be so?

20 FIRST READING Read for enjoyment. Get a feeling for the poem s words. A poem is like a song. Note the sound of the words, for they can be as important as the meaning. Listen for the rhythm of the poem. Write a few sentences stating what the poem is about?

21 SECOND READING Read for meaning. Look for clues that help you understand what the poem is saying. Try to visualize the images. Paraphrase to make sure you understand the meaning

22 THIRD READING Study the structure and language of the poem. What kind of poem is it? Does it have a rhyme scheme? How many stanzas are in it? What type of language is used? alliterations, similes, metaphors, personification, idioms, etc.

23 FOURTH READING Read for feeling. What are the mood and tone of the poem? How does this poem make you feel?

24 AFTER READING Complete your analysis of the poem using the notes and annotations you made during each of your readings The Acronym TPCASTT may help you Title Paraphrase Connotation Attitude Shift Title Theme

25 TPCASTT Title: What will this poem be about? Make a prediction Paraphrase: After 1 st reading state what the poem is about in your own words. Connotation: Look at the poet s choice of words, metaphors, simile s alliteration, etc. Attitude: What is the attitude of the speaker toward the poem s subject?

26 TPCASTT Shift: Is there a change or shift in time, tone, or speaker in the poem. Title (again): What do you think the title means now? Theme: What is the theme or message of the poem? What is the insight or perspective about life the poet wants you to see or think about?

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