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1 3200 Jaguar Run, Tracy, CA (209) Fax (209) Dear English 1 Pre-AP Student: Welcome to Kimball High s English Pre-Advanced Placement program. The rigorous Pre-AP classes that are offered at both the freshman and sophomore level are designed to prepare students for the Advanced Placement program. You will be reading and close reading excellent works during the next few years, summarizing and analyzing non-fiction writings, learning how to write an analytical essay, and building your vocabulary. Summer Reading Assignment One: Read the epic poem, The Odyssey, Books I-VIII, by Homer. Students will take an objective test about the epic poem s Book I-VIII at the beginning of the school year. Summer Reading Assignment Two: Read The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros. Summer Reading Assignment Two Poster Assignment: Students are to create a poster (standard poster size: 22 x 28 ) that describes five different houses or locations on Mango Street. List the names of the people who live at or frequent each location, use direct quotations and cite page numbers from the novel to describe each location. Describe what major event happens at each location. Print your name and class period on the back of the poster. Due the first day of class. The summer reading assignments must be completed by the first day of school and will be included in your first quarter grade. The books are available for check out in the Kimball High School Library beginning Tuesday, May 29. Kimball High School Library is open five days after school ends, from 7:45 a.m. to 3:45 p.m., Tuesday through Friday, May 29 through June 1, and from 7:45 a.m. to 1 p.m., Monday, June 4, for summer assignment materials check out. If you read the books early in the summer, it would be wise to review the material just before classes begin. Academic English Below are the terms and definitions for Academic English that we will be using during this upcoming year in a chart form that must be completed by the first day of classes. Students will be expected to know these terms and will be tested on them during the first month of school. The image/symbol is a visual representation of the academic term. If you have any questions, I, Jack Eddy, can be reached at throughout the summer.

2 Academic Terms English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 1 Word Definition Synonym Sentence Image/Symbol Plot A series of related events in a story, each connected to the next. Sequence The order in which a Exposition or Basic Situation Internal Conflict External Conflict Climax Resolution Flashback story s events take place The opening of a story, when the characters and their conflicts are introduced A struggle that takes place within a character s mind and heart. A struggle that takes place between two characters; between a character and a group; or between a character and an animal or a force in nature. The most exciting part of a story; the moment when the outcome of the conflict is determined. The climax usually comes near the end of a short story. Also called denouement. The very end of the story, when loose ends of the plot are tied up. An action that interrupts the story to introduce an event that took place in the past Flash-forward Foreshadowing Setting Atmosphere An action that jumps ahead of the story to narrate an event that happens at a later time Hints in the story that certain events are going to happen later The time and place in which the story happens Mood or feelings brought on by a story s setting

3 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 2 Direct Characterization Writers tell us directly what a character is like ( good or evil or Indirect Characterization Protagonist Antagonist Subordinate Characters Flat Character Round Character Dynamic Character Static Character Motivations Dialogue First-person Narration lazy ) You use clues in the story to decide what kind of person a character is. Clues may be descriptions of how the character acts, speaks, and thinks and how other people respond to the character The main character in a story The character that the main character (protagonist) struggles against Minor characters in the story A character who is not fully developed in the story. A flat character is almost never the main character. A character who is fully developed, just as a person in actual life is. A character who changes during the story. The change might involve recognition of some truth about life. A character who does not change during the story The reasons behind a character s actions and feelings The conversations characters have with other characters A story told by an I narrator. An I narrator is a character in the story

4 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 3 Narrator The teller of the story Omniscient Point of View Third-personlimited Narrator First-person narrator Credible Narrator Unreliable Narrator Diction Tone Voice The narrator can tell us everything about the characters, including how they think and feel. The narrator is not a character in the story. Narrator is all knowing A narrator that is not a character in the story Focuses on only one character s actions and feelings. A character in the story who refers to himself or herself as I or me. In a story told from the first-person point of view, the reader knows only what this narrator knows and chooses to reveal. A narrator that is trustworthy. The reader can believe what the character is telling us. A narrator that might not always tell the truth about characters or events in the story. The writer s choice of words The writer s attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, or toward the audience. A story s tone can be described by words like humorous, serious, sad, sarcastic, sympathetic. The writer s use of language and overall style, created by tone and choice of words.

5 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 4 Word Definition Sentence Image/Symbol Subject The topic of a work of literature. The subject can usually be stated in a single word or phrase such as love, war, childhood, growing up, aging. Theme The general idea or insight about human life that a work of literature reveals and can be stated in one or more sentences. Generalization Genre A broad statement that applies to many individuals, experiences, or observations and a type of conclusion that is drawn after considering as many facts as possible. The different forms of literature that include short stories, novels, plays, and poems. Universal Themes External Conflict Themes that can be found in literature from different times, countries, and cultures and that cross genres as well as national boundaries, languages, customs, and historic periods. A character struggle against an opposing force such as another character, society as a whole or a force of nature. Internal Conflict A struggle that takes place within a character s own mind. It is a struggle between opposing needs, desires, or emotions.

6 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 5 Verbal Irony Occurs when someone says something but means the opposite. Example: Nice shot you say as your friend totally misses the garbage can. Situational Irony Refers to an event that is contrary to, or the opposite of, what we expected. Example: The firehouse burns down. Dramatic Irony Ambiguity Takes place when we know what is going to happen to a character but the character does not know. Example: We know the killer is in the closet, but the soon to be dead teenager opens it to hide. A quality that allows something to be interpreted in several different or conflicting ways. It lets you decide what happens. Irony The difference between what we expect or what seems suitable and what actually happens.

7 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 6 Symbol An object, person, an animal, or an event that stands for something more than itself. Public Symbol Invented Symbol A symbol that has become widely recognized. Example: bald eagle (symbol of the US) or the olive branch (a symbol of peace) A symbol invented by the writer, which usually stands for something abstract, such as evil, innocence, or love. Allegory A story in which characters and settings stand for something beyond themselves, usually virtues and vices.

8 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 7 Imagery Language that appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. Figurative Language Simile A word or phrase that creates an imaginative comparison and not meant to be taken literally. There are three main types: simile, metaphor, personification Compares two unlike things by using a word such as like or as. Metaphor Personification Rhyme Rhythm Compares two unlike things without using like or as. It is a direct comparison. Type of metaphor in which an object, animal, or idea is talked about as if it were human. The repetition of the sound of the stressed vowel and the rest of the word. A musical quality based on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Free verse Onomatopoeia Alliteration Poetry that does not follow a regular pattern of rhyme and meter. It sounds like ordinary conversation. The use of words that sound like what they mean. The repetition of consonant sounds (usually in the beginning of words) that appear close together.

9 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 8 Sentence Pattern The length and complexity of a writer s sentences, from short and choppy to long and elegant with multisyllable words. Theme The general idea or insight about human life that a work of literature reveals and can be stated in one or more sentences. Mood The feeling or atmosphere of the story created by the writer s diction and figures of speech. Diction The writer s choice of words. Tone The writer s attitude toward the subject of a story, toward a character, or toward the audience. A story s tone can be described by words like humorous, serious, sad, sarcastic, sympathetic.

10 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 9 Historical setting The time and place of the story. Biographical Dimension The generational and historical perspective of the author. English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 10 Word Definition Sentence Image/Symbol Epic A long narrative poem that tells about the adventures of a great hero and embodies the values of the people who tell it. Myths Tall Tale Archetype Homeric or Heroic Simile Traditional stories, rooted in a particular culture, that usually explain a belief, a ritual, or a mysterious natural phenomenon. Most grew out of religious rituals. A humorous kind of folk tale that uses a great deal of exaggeration and is not meant to be taken very seriously. Old patterns, characters, or images that appear over and over in works of literature. They can be: plots quests for something of value; characters innocent hero; places the dragon s lair; things the magical gold ring. An extended simile with elaborate descriptive details that continues over a number of lines.

11 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 11 Play A story acted out live, using dialogue and action. Tragedy Tragic Hero Tragic Flaw Comedy Dialogue Monologue Soliloquy Aside Stage Directions Props A play that presents serious and important actions and ends unhappily for the main character. An admirable figure who has a personal failing that leads to his or her downfall. A failing that leads a character to make choices that result in a tragedy. A play that ends happily, in which the main character gets what he or she wants. Conversations between characters in a play. A long speech made by one character to one or more other characters onstage. A speech made by a character who is alone onstage, speaking to himself or herself or to the audience. A short speech, delivered to the audience or to another character, that others onstage are not supposed to hear. Descriptions of how characters move onstage and how they speak their lines. The portable items (properties) that actors carry or handle onstage.

12 English 1 Pre-AP: Academic Vocabulary Chapter 12 Source A person, book, or document that provides information on a topic. Elaboration The addition of ideas to support the ideas already presented in a work. Synthesis The merging of information gathered from more than one source. Argument A series of statements designed to convince the reader to accept a claim, or opinion. Evidence Support for an idea, including facts, statistics, examples, anecdotes (brief stories about real people), and quotations. Credibility The believability of an argument or statement. Consumer Documents Documents used in selling and buying of products. Many consumer documents, such as warranties, protect the rights of the Public Documents Workplace Documents Technical Documents Functional Documents purchaser and the seller. Documents that inform the public. They are created by governmental, social, religious, or newsgathering organizations. Documents used in offices, factories, and other work sites to communicate information. Documents used to explain or establish procedures for using technology, such as mechanical, electronic, or digital products or systems. Any documents prepared for a specific function, such as consumer, public, workplace, and technical documents.

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