11 ~ S. N.? -f!j j A A. The Logic of the English Paragraph. 11'\ m ;t:t; ~..J.:(IS'H.IK~*#i 1 0)

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3 Frame 1 Please read this paragraph. It is about travelling to school in the morning. We call what the paragraph is about "the topic of the paragraph. " Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring. First, I must take a bus from my house to the station. Often, I have to wait a long time for the bus to come, and when it finally does come, it is usually crowded. It is difficult to get on the bus and almost impossible to find a seat. It takes about twenty minutes from my house to the station and another twenty minutes by train to school. By the time I reach school, I am tired out. The topic of this paragraph is : A. Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring. (Frame 5) B. Travelling to school in the morning. (Frame 8) C. Travelling to school in the morning is very nice. (Frame 7) D. Travel difficulties. (Frame 10) From Frame 82 Your answer: Frame 89 [B. Mike likes many kinds of music.] This answer is wrong because there is something else in the paragraph which tells us when he likes music. Please go back to Frame 82 and read it again.

4 Franle 2 From Frame 5 Your answer: [A. chocolate.] Your answer is wrong. Go back to Frame 5 and choose again. Frame 90 From Frame 91 Your answer: [B. eating a meal.] Your answer is wrong. There is nothing about eating a meal. Go back to Frame 91.

5 , I Frame 3 From Frame 9 Write in the topic of the following paragraph. I like......,..... best. I really love to eat large dishes of strawberries and ice cream in the summer. Cream cakes and chocolates are -ini-favoriies, -buf'"urifortunately they make me fat. I also think steak is wonderful, but I don't like cooking it. I can't say I like working or studying very much at all. Go to Frame 11. '. :" From Frame 84 Your answer: [B. fruit.] You are correct.. Please continue. Frame 91 Circle the letter of the heading under which you would classify the following phrases. A. preparing a meal (Frame 94) B. eating a meal (Frame 90) C. working (Frame 97) buying meat and vegetab.1es -. preparing the meat and vegetables for cooking setting the table with knives, forks, spoons, etc. cutting?read _ 5,.

6 Frame 4 From Frame 8 and 11 Your answer: [B. Very good.] Please continue. We use the word TOPIC to mean what any paragraph is _ a~o~t. in the topic of the following paragraph. Write The topic is: Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring. First, I must take a bus from my house to the station. Often, I have to wait a long time for the bus to come, and when it finally does come, it is usually crowded. It is difficult to get on, let alone find a se~t. It takes about twenty minutes from my house to the station by bus and another twenty minutes by train to school. The train is also very crowded since I come to school during the rush hour. By the time I come to school, I am tired out. Go to Frame 12. Frame 92 From Frame 84 Your answer: [A. vegetables.] You are wrong and perhaps not paying attention. Go back to Frame 84 and look again. 6

7 Frame 5 From Frame 1 Your answer: [A. Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring.] This answer is wrong. Look at this paragraph. John likes chocolate. He eats chocolate every day. his money to buy chocolate. He uses all This paragraph is about: A. chocolate (Frame 2) B. John (Frame 6) From Frame 96 Your answer: Frame 93 [B. Shah Jehan did not care about the tomb.] Your. answer IS wrong. Read Frame 96 again, and this time read it carefully. 7

8 From Frame 5 Your an,8wer: [B. John.] Good. You are correct. Frame 6 Turn to Fram e 8, and start reading at "Which of the paragraphs below...." Frame 94 From Frame 91 Your answer: [A. preparing a meal.] Good. Please continue. "buying meat and vegetables," "preparing the meat and vegetables for cooking," "setting the table with knives, forks, spoons, etc." and " cutting bread" are all specific details which add up to the idea of " preparing a meal" The specific details which follow add up to what idea? taking a pen and paper writing on the paper with the pen - finding an envelope and a stamp Write the idea here: Go to Frame 96.

9 Frame 7 From Frame 1 Your answer: [C. Travelling to school in the morning is very nice.] Your answer is wrong. You have not read the paragraph carefully. Go back to Frame 1 and this time read it carefully. From Frame 96 Your answer: Frame 95 [C. Shah J ehan wanted to build a very fine tomb for his wife.] Good. Please continue. Add the following numbers: , ):1. 'Go to Frame 98. 9

10 Frame 8 From Frame 1 Your answer : [B. Travelling to school in the morning.] Very good. Please continue. Which of the paragraphs below has "Travelling to school in the morning" as its topic? A. Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring. But I like travelling very much. In the summer vacation, I hope to go to Hokkaido to enjoy its beautiful scenery and to get away from the hot weather of Tokyo. When I go travelling, I usually go by myself so that I am free to go wherever I like. B. Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring. As I dislike getting up early in the morning, I usually have to run to catch the bus, and there is no chance of getting a seat as I travel during the rush hour. Paragraph A (Frame 9) Paragraph B (Frame 4) From Frame 94 Your answer : [writing a letter.] Frame 96 We have seen that phrases can add up to an idea. way sentences can add up to an idea. 10 In the same Circle the letter of sentence which the group of sentences add up to. A. Shah Jehan wanted to build a tomb quickly. (Frame 99) B. Shah J ehan did not care about the tomb. (Frame 93) C. Shah Jehan wanted to build a very fine tomb for his wife. (Frame 95) Over three hundred years ago, Shah J ehan built the Taj Mahal as a tomb for his wife. He loved his wife very much. He wanted to build something wonderful in her memory. Over 25,000 of the finest workmen built it. It took seventeen years to build it. Only the best stone was used.

11 Frame 9 From Frame 8 Your answer: [Paragraph A.] Your answer is wrong. Please read the following: It is sometimes confusing trying to find the topic of a paragraph. In the paragraphs you have just read, both appear to be about "travelling to school." The point to note is that paragraph A is about travelling in general-not only to school, but also to other places. Paragraph B is about travelling in particular, in this case, to school. If I ask you what you like to do best, your answer will be about something-for example, about talking, eating or playing. That thing you like doing is the topic of your answer. Go to Frame 3. Frame 97 From Frame 91 Your answer: [C. working.] This answer is not quite correct because if you look at the items, each one involves working but this working is for one special purpose. that purpose? What is Go back to Frame 91 and see. 11

12 From Frame 1 Your ans\ver: Frame 10 [D. Travel difficulties.] This answer is wrong. Your answer does not tell us what kind of travel difficulties are involved nor when and where they take place. Please go back to Frame 1 and read it again. Frame 98 From Frame 95 Your answer: [22.1 If you got any other answer, you should be ashamed of yourself. Please continue. If \ve add the following specific details we get a general statement. I like apples. I like strawberries. I like peaches. I like oranges. I like (a number of kinds of) fruit. (General statement) Go to Frame

13 From Frame 3 Your answer: [I like eating best.] Frame 11 Which paragraph has eating as its topic? A. The thing I like best is eating ice cream. I don't mind what kind of ice cream it is-strawberry, vanilla, coffee, or peach. I could eat ice cream every day of the week and never tire of it. B. There is nothing I like better than eating. I can eat at any time of the day and I never seem to have enough to eat. I like eating all kinds of food and I don't think there is any kind of food that I dislike. Paragraph A (Frame 14) Paragraph B (Frame 4) Frame 99 From Frame 96 Your answer: [A. Shah Jehan wanted to build a tomb quickly.] Your answer is wrong. It took seventeen years I Go back to Frame 96 and read it again. 13

14 From Frame 4 Your answer: [Travelling to school in the morning.] Frame 12 " Travelling to school in the morning" is the topic of the paragraph below. What is the writer's assertion (what does he say) about the topic? Circle the correct letter. A. it is very pleasant (Frame 13) B. it is very interesting (Frame 15) C. it is very tiring (Frame 16) Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring. First, I must take a bus from my house to the station. Often, I have to wait. a long time for the bus to come, and when it finally does come, it is usually cro\vded. It is difficult to get on, let alone find a seat. It takes about twenty minutes from my house to the station by bus and another twenty minutes by train to school. The train is also very crowded since I come to school during the rush hour. By the time I reach school, I am tired out. Frame 100 From Frame 98 When we add specific details (SD) together we get a general statement (GS). Choose the specific details which add up to the following general statement: "Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring." 14 a. Often I have to wait a long time for a bus. b. We have six classes every day. c. The bus is very crowded. d. I don't like school. e. There are many students in my school. j. It is impossible to get a seat on the train. g. Everybody pushes so much on the train that it is difficult to stand up. Write in the letters. SD 1 Answer: (a) b, c, d, g (Frame 102) SD 2 (b) a, c, j, g (Frame 103) SD 3 (c) a, c, e, g (Frame 105) SD 4 (d) a, c, d, j (Frame 107) GS Travelling to school in the morning is very tiring.

15 Frame 13 From Frame 12 Your answer: [A. it is very pleasant.] This answer is wrong. If you read the paragraph carefully, you will not find anything in it which says that "it is very pleasant." Go back to Frame 12 and read it again. Frame 101 From Frame 103 Your answer: You should have written something like: [It's a fine day.] or [The weather is good (nice, fine) today.] Circle the general statement (GS) : 1. One kind likes to stay in bed. 2. There are two kinds of people in the world. 3. The other kind likes to get up early in the morning. A. sentence 1 (Frame 109) B. sentence 2 (Frame 104) C. sentence 3 (Frame 106) 15

16 From Frame 11 Your answer: [Paragraph A.] Your answer is wrong. Frame 14 Go back to Frame 11 again and read it carefully. Frame 102 From Frame 100 Your answer: [Ca) b, c, d, g.] This answer is wrong. Sentence b has no relation to the topic. Go back to Frame

17 Frame 15 From Frame 12 Your answer: [B. it is very interesting.] If you read the paragraph carefully, it is difficult to find anything in it that we could call, "very interesting." Go back to Frame 12 and read it again. From Frame 100 Your answer: [(b) a, c, j, g.] Good. You are right. Please continue. Frame 103 The follo\ving specific details add up to a general statement. write the general statement below the line. Please 1. There are no clouds in the sky. 2. The breeze is cool. 3. The sun is shining. 4. There are no signs of rain. GS Go to Frame

18 Frame 16 Fro.m Frame 12 Yo.ur answer: [C. it is very tiring.] Very go.o.d. Yo.U are co.rrect. No.w, please read the fo.llo.wing: The writer's assertion abo.ut a to.pic is what he says about the to.pic. What a writer says abo.ut a to.pic is called his abo.ut the to.pic. Circle the co.rrect letter. A. to.pic (Frame 20) B. assertio.n (Frame 19) C. sentence (Frame 18) Fro.m Frame 101, 110 and 126 Yo.ur answer: [B. sentence 2.] Yo.U are co.rrect. Frame 104 Fro.m what we have seen we can think o.f the to.pic sentence as being the general statement which sums up the specific details o.f the paragraph. GS=To.pic sentence=sd+sd+sd+sd+sd+sd Please go.. to. Frame 108.

19

20 From Frame 16 Your answer: [C. sentence.] This answer is wrong. Frame 18 Go back to Frame 16. Frame 106 From Frame 101 Your answer: [C. sentence 3.] This answer is wrong. This sentence is a specific detail from the general statement" There are two kinds of people in the world." Remember that a general statement (topic sentence) contains all the other ideas which could appear in a paragraph with that particular general statement (topic sentence). 20 Which acts as the general statement in the following? A (Frame 111) B. 23 (Frame 110) =23

21 From Frame 16 and 20 Your answer: [B. assertion. ] You are correct. Frame 19 Please continue. The topic of the paragraph below is, "travelling in foreign countries." What is the writer's assertion? A. is a good way to make new friends (Frame 24) B. is expensive (Frame 22) C. is very troublesome (Frame 17) Travelling in foreign countries is expensive. We must pay for hotels, sightseeing trips and we even have to give tips for various kinds of service. Soon we find that we have no money left. But it is very pleasant to see new cities and make nevv friends even though it is expensive. Frame 107 From Frame 100 Your answer: [(d) a, c, d, I.] This answer is wrong. Sentence d has no relation to the topic. Go back to Frame

22 Frame 20 From Frame 16 Your answer: [A. topic.]' This answer is wrong. The word assertion comes from the verb to assert. If you assert something about a thing or a person, you say something about that thing or person. If I say something about John, I assert something about John. So when I say that John is a kind boy, I assert that John is a kind boy. What I assert about John, is called my assertion. What a writer says about a topic is called his about that topic. Turn to Frame 19. From Frame 104 Which sentence is the general statement? A. sentence 1 (Frame 112) B. sentence 2 (Frame 113) c. sentence 3 (Frame 114) D. sentence 4 (Frame 116) Frame Power machinery helps in other ways. 2. Trains and trucks can bring materials from far and near. {~. Modern builders have many machines to help them. 4. This machinery can move heavy things into place.

23 From Frame 22 Your answer: [D. I don't know.] Frame 21 Remember, we said that what the writer says about the topic of his paragraph is called his assertion. So an assertion is what the writer has to say about the topic of the paragraph. Go to Frame 33. Frame 109 From Frame 101 Your answer: [A. sentence 1.] This answer is wrong. This sentence is a specific detail from the general statement "There are two kinds of people in the \vorld." Remember that a general statement (topic sentence) contains all the other ideas which could appear in a paragraph with that particular general statement (topic sentence). Which acts as the general statement in the following? A (Fra.me 111) B. 23 (Frame 110) =23 23

24 Frame 22 From Frame 19 Your answer: [B. is expensive. ] Very good. Please continue. We now know that the writer has a topic and makes an assertion.. An assertion is (circle the correct letter): A. the meaning of the paragraph (Frame 23) B. the topic of the paragraph (Frame 25) C. what the writer has to say about the topic (Frame 33) D. I don't know (Frame 21) Frame 110 From Frame 106 and 109 Your answer: [B. 23.] Yes, you are correct. Note that we can usually consider the general stotement and the topic sentence of a paragraph to be the same thing. Please go to Frame 104~ 24

25 Frame 23 From Frame 22 Your answer: [A. the meaning of the paragraph.] This answer IS wro.ng. The writer first has a topic; then, he wants to write something about that topic. If he had the topic of "Mary," and he wanted to say something about her-for example, he thinks she is very beautiful; then, he could assert that she was very beautiful. "Mary (topic) is very beautiful." (assertion) The phrase "is very beautiful" is saying something about the topic "Mary." What the writer has to say about a topic is called: A. a paragraph (Frame 28) B. an assertion (Frame 30) C. a topic (Frame 26) Frame.111 From Frame 106 and 109 Your answer: [A ] Your answer is wrong. These are specific details which add up to the general statement of 23. Go back to Frame

26 Frame 24 From Frame 19 Your answer: [A. is a good way to make new friends.] This is one of the things mentioned in the paragraph. There are other things mentioned also, and there is one thing about travelling in foreign countries which joins all these things together. Please go back to Frame 19 and read it again. From Frame 108 Your answer: [A. sentence 1.] This answer is wrong. Frame 112 Go back to Frame

27 Frame 25 From Frame 22 Your answer: [B. the topic of the paragraph.] Your answer is wrong. Look at the following. " Mary is very beautiful." Mary is the topic, and" is very beautiful," is the assertion about Mary. The writer says something about the topic (Mary). He asserts something about Mary. He asserts that she is very beautiful. His assertion about the topic (Mary) is that she is very beautiful. "Harry is very kind." The assertion is: A. Harry (Frame 27) B. is very kind (Frame 29) From Frame 108 Your answer: [B. sentence 2.] This answer is wrong. Frame 113 Go back to Frame

28 Frame 26 From Frame 23 Your answer: [C. a topic.] This answer is wrong. You are not reading carefully enough. Go back to Frame 23. From Frame 108 Your answer: [C. sentence 3.] You are right. Please continue. Frame 114 Circle the number of the general statement (topic sentence) in the following paragraphs. 28 A. 1. Mary is very untidy. 2. John only does what he wants to do. 3. Jane does everything she is told to do. 4. Harry never does his homework. 5. Betty is always late for class. 6. Mike always works hard. 7. There are many kinds of students in my class. B. 1. Mike always works hard. 2. He always does his homework on time. 3. He is never late. 4. He tries to do everything as well as he can. Go to Frame 115.

29 From Frame 25 Your answer: [A. Harry.] Your answer is wrong. Frame 27 Go back to Frame 25 and read it again. From Frame 114 Your answer: [paragraph A, sentence 7.] [paragraph B, sentence 1.] Frame 115 If you did not get these ans,\vers right, go back to Frame 114 and read it again. The same sentence can be an SD or a GS depending upon the other sentences in the paragraph. Read the following paragraphs. In paragraph A " Mike always works hard" is a Specific Detail. In paragraph B "Mike always works hard" is a General Statement. A. Mary is very untidy. John only does what he wants to do. Jane does everything she is told to do. Harry never does his home ",, ork. Betty is always late for class. Mike always works hard. There are many kinds of students in my class. B. Mike always works hard. He does his homework on time. He is never untidy in his work. Go to Frame

30 From Fra.me 23 Your answer: [A. a paragraph.] This answer is wrong. Frame 28 Go to Frame 23 and read it again. Frame 116 From Frame 10B Your answer: [D. sentence 4.] This answer is wrong. Go back to Frame 10B. 3D

31 From Frame 25 Your answer: [B. is very kind.] Good. You are correct. Frame 29 An assertion is what the writer has Go to Frame 33. Frame 117 From Frame 115 Write a paragraph using ~ of the following topic sentences. at least four specific details. A. I like Sunday best of all the days of the week. B. Parties are fun. c. The rush hour in my home town is hectic. Remember to write the topic sentence in your paragraph. Write Go to Frame 118'. 31

32 From Frame 23 Your answer: [B. an assertion. ] You are correct. Frame 30 An assertion is what the writer has Go to Frame 33. Frame 118 From Frame 117 In,,Sections 1 and 2 you learned the following: The topic of a paragraph is what the paragraph is about. The assertion is what the writer has to say about the topic of a paragraph. The topic sentence of a paragraph is the sentence which contains the topic and the assertion of the paragraph.. A ge1!-eral statement is made up of specific details. We can think of the topic sentence as being the general statement which sums up the specific details of the paragraph. 32' Go to Frame 119.

33 Frame 31 From Frame 33 Your answer: [B. John.] Good. You are correct. Please continue. What is the writer's assertion in the follo\ving paragraph? Write here: John likes modern jazz very much. Nearly every week he goes to a jazz club downtown to listen to a different jazz group. He spends a lot of his pocket money on buying records which he likes to play for his friends. Go on to Frame 34. Frame 119 From Frame 118 It is necessary to have specific deta ls \vhich are suitable for your topic sentence. You should not include sentences which do not syppo.r-t',your topic sentence. Only sentences which the topic sentence should be included in the paragraph. Go to Frame

34 Frame 32 From Frame 33 Your answer: [C. how John spends his money.] This answer is wrong. Go back to Frame 33 and read it again. I From Frame 119 Your answer : [support. ] Very good. Frame 120 Please continue. The topic sentence cnntro!s. and dictai.s what sentences we can inelude in a particular paragraph. Only sentences which support the topic sentence can be included in the paragraph. 34 What controls the sentences which can be included in the paragraph? A. the topic (Frame 123) B. the support (Frame 121) C. the topic sentence (Frame 122) D. the paragraph (Fra,me 124)

35 Frame 33 From Frame 22 Your answer: [C. An assertion is what the writer has to say about the topic.] Good. You are correct. What is the writer's topic ~ the paragraph which follows? A. modern jazz (Frame 36) B. John (Frame 31) C. how John spends his money (Frame 32) John likes modern jazz very much. Nearly every week he goes to a jazz club downtown to listen to a different jazz group. He spends most of his pocket money on buying records which he likes to play for his friends. From Frame 120 Your answer: [B. the support.] You are wrong. Frame 121 Go back to Fra.me 120 and read it again carefully. 35

36 \ Frame 34 From Frame 31 Your answer: [that John likes modern jazz very much.] This is correct. Please continue. The asser The topic of a paragraph is what the paragraph is about. tion is what the writer says about the topic. If this is the first sentence of a paragraph, the topic is: "Mary finds it difficult to get up in the morning." A. it is difficult to get up in the morning (Frame 37) B. Mary (Frame 38) Frame 122 From Frame 120 Your answer: [C. the topic sentence.] Good. You are right. 36 Check the sentences which do not support this topic sentenc~: "_Mr. Harris is the most interesting man I know." 1. He has been everywhere and done everything. 2. He had interesting experiences in India when he was twenty. 3. He has been to most countries.in the world. 4. There are many old men in th~ world. 5. He has many exciting stories to tell ~bout his hunting trips. 6. I like eating. Go to Frame 125.

37 From Frame 38 Your answer: > Frame 35 [A. that Mary finds it difficult to get up in the morning.] Your answer is correct. Please continue. Write in your answer. The topic of a paragraph is \vhat the The assertion is what the writer has Go on to Frame 39. From Frame 120 Your answer: [A. the topic.] This answer is wrong. Frame 123 Please go back to Frame 120 and read it again.

38 Frame 36 From Frame 33 Your answer: [A. modern jazz.] This answer is wrong. Modern jazz is what John likes very much. Go back to Frame 33 and read it again. Frame 124 From Frame 120 Your answer: [D. the paragraph.] You have made a careless mistake. Go back to Frame 120 and read it again. 38

39 Frame 37 From Frame 34 Your answer: [A. it is difficult to get up in the morning.] Your answer IS wrong. Go back to Frame 34 and read it again. Frame 125 From Frame 122 Your answer: [4 and 6.] If you got this wrong, go back to Frame 122. Check the sentences which do not support the topic sentence. 1. Harry didn't have very much to eat last night. 2. He went with some friends to eat at a Japanese restaurant. 3. There are many Japanese restaurants in San Francisco. 4. All his friends used chopsticks and he did, too. 5. Chinese people also use chopsticks. 6. He had never used chopsticks before and he had a very difficult time. 7. He had so much trouble with chopsticks that he finally gave up eating. Go to Frame

40 From Frame 34 Your answer: [B. Mary. ] You are correct. Frame 38 Please continue. U sing the same first sentence of a paragraph, the assertion is: " Mary finds it difficult to get up in the morning." A. that Mary finds it difficult to get up in the morning (Frame 35) B. Mary (Frame 34) Frame 126 From Frame 125 Your answer: [3 and 5.] If 'you did not get this answer, go back to Frame 104 and read it again. Is there a topic sentence in this paragr~ph? If so check its number. Yes, number... (Frame 129) No. (Frame 128) 1. James wanted to go to the movies. 2. There are many movies made each year. 3. I like to go fishing. 4. The city seems to be getting more and more crowded. 40

41 Frame 39 From Frame 35 Your answer: [(The topic of a paragraph is what the) paragraph is about.] [(The assertion is what the writer has) to say about the topic.] Go to Frame 40. From Frame 128 Remember when we write a p~ragraph all must support the topic sentence. Frame 127 Go to Frame

42 .tl Frame 39 Write the topic and the assertion of the paragraph below.. Frame 40 HarJY~-thinks soil]& -9f his cla~~es.!~~-y~:nr impo.tlfljlt. For those classes he studies very hard because he thinks they will be useful in the future. The topic is.. The assertion is.. Go to Frame 41. Frame 128 From Frame 1~6 Your answer: [N 0.] Good. You are right. ow Using one of the topic sentences below, write a paragraph. 1. I like music very much. 2. It is difficult to get up in the morning. 3. I like holidays more than anything else. 4. My teacher gives me too much homework. Go to Frame

43 From Frame 40 Your answer: [(The topic is) Harry.] Frame 41 [The assertion is that he (Harry) thinks some of his classes are very important.] Fill in the blanks. When a writer writes a paragraph, he has a... '\vhich shows what he is writing about, and he makes an which shows what he has to say about the topic. Go to Frame 44. Frame 129 From Frame 126 Your answer : [Yes, number....] This answer is wrong. There is no topic sentence in Frame 126. Remember that the topic sentence is a generalization which sums up all the specific details of a paragraph. Go back to Frame 126 and look again and you will not be able to find any sentence which acts as a topic sentence. 43

44 Frame 42 From Frame 44 Your answer': [C. he likes to play records for his friends.] This answer. IS wrong. Go back to Frame 44. from Frame 127 Your answer : [specific details.] This is correct. Frame 130 Please continue. Read the paragraph you wrote using one.of the four topic sentences and cr~ss-out an senten~e that does not support the topic sentence. Go to Frame

45 ( Frame 43 From Frame 44 Your answer: [B. he goes to listen to jazz groups dovvntown.] This. answer IS wrong. Go back to Frame 44. Frame 131 From Frame 135 and 138 Your answer : [a general statement.] This answer is wrong because first you must have atopic. Once you have a topic you can then make an assertion about that topic and that could be the general statement for your paragraph. Go to Frame 133 and read from "When you have found... " 45

46 From Frame 41 Your answer : [topic. ] [assertion. ] Frame 44 Please continue. Which of the follow The topic of the following paragraph is John. ing is the assertion about John? Circle the correct letter. A. he likes jazz very much (Frame 45) B. he goes to listen to jazz groups downtown (Frame 43) C. he likes to play records for his friends (Frame 42) John likes modern jazz very much. Nearly every week he goes to a jazz club downtown to listen to a different jazz group. He spends most of his pocket money buying records which he likes to play for his friends. From Frame 138 Your answer: [topic.] This is correct. Please continue. Frame 132 If you said " Miss X is ahvays very nice to everybody" you are saying something about your topic. 46 "is always very nice to everybody" is the of your paragraph. 1. topic (Frame 139) 2. general statement (Frame 141) 3. assertion (Frame 142)

47 Frame 45 From Frame 44 Your ans\ver: [A. he likes Jazz very much.] Very good. You are correct. This is the end of Section 1. Go to Frame 49. From Frame 131 and 135 Your ansvver: [a topic.] Good. Frame 133 Please continue. When you have found a topic for your paragraph, you need to say something about it. This is called A. a general statement (Frame 137) B. an assertion (Frame 138) 47

48 Frame 46 From Frame 53 Your answer: [C. I don't know.] The assertion is what the writer has to say about the topic of a paragraph. Go to Frame 49. Frame 134 From Frame 135 Your answer: [an assertion.] This answer is wrong because first you must have a topic and then you can make an assertion about it. Go to Frame

49 Frame 47 From Frame 53 Your answer: [B. The assertion of a paragraph is what the writer has to say about the topic. ] You are correct. Please continue. Write a sentence which contains both the topic and the assertion of the par~graph below. I don't mind what kind of ice cream it is-strawberry, vanilla, coffee, or peach. I could eat ice cream every day of the week and never tire of it. Your sentence: Go to Frame 50. From Frame 130 When you write a paragraph you must first have: a topic (Frame 133) a general statement (Frame 131) an assertion (Frame 134) some specific details (Frame 140) Frame

50 Frame 48 From Frame 50 Your answer: [B. the assertion of a paragraph.] This answer is wrong. You have already learned that the assertion is what the writer has to say about the topic. The question you were asked was, "What contains the topic and assertion of a paragraph? " Go back to Frame 50 and read it again carefully. Frame 136 From Frame 138 Your answer : [topic sentence.] This answer is wrong. The topic sentence contains both the topic and the assertion. Go back to Frame 138 and choose again. 50

51 Frame 49 From Frame 45 and 46 In. Section 1, you learned the meaning of the words "topic" and " assertion." The topic of a paragraph is what the paragraph is about. An assertion is what the writer has to say about a topic. In the following paragraph, ', Mary" is the topic and the assertion is that Mary likes cooking. Mary likes cooking. She often invites her friends over to her house when she cooks something special. At present she is learning to cook Chinese food. Last year she learned how to cook in the French manner. She doesn't mind spending a lot of time cooking because she enjoys it. Go to Frame 56. Frame 137 From Frame 133 Your answer: [A. a general statement.] This ans"\ver is wrong. A general statement sums up all the specific details of a paragraph. Go back to Frame 133 and choose again. 51

52 Frame 50 From Frame 47 Your answer : You should have written a sentence like this: [I like ice cream very much.] or [I like eating ice cream.] Your sentence is called a topic sentence.!.he tobic sentence includes ~, the topic and the assertion. The topic and the assertion are BOTH CONTAINED in the topic sentence. What contains the topic and assertion of a paragraph? Circle the correct letters : A. the first sentence of a paragraph (Frame 54) B. the assertion of a paragraph (Frame 48) C. the topic sentence of a paragraph (Frame 58) D. the topic of a paragraph (Frame 55) From Frame 133 Your answer: [B. an assertion.] You are correct. Frame 138 If you were asked to write a paragraph about someone in your class, first you would have to decide who you were going to write about. If you decided to write about Miss X, she would then be the.... of your paragraph topic (Frame 132) 2. general statement (Frame 131) 3. specific details (Frame 140) 4. topic sentence (Frame 136)

53 Frame 51 From frame 56 Your ans'wer: [A. The topic of a paragraph is \vhat the ~Titer has to say about atopic.] This ansvver is vvrong. Go back to Frame 56. Frame 139 From Frame 132 and 142 Your ans\ver: [topic.] This ans\ver IS wrong. You already learned the topic is "Miss X." Go back to Frame

54 Frame 52 From Frame 56 Your answer: [B. The topic of a paragraph is always the first sentence of a paragraph.] This answer is wrong. Look at the following paragraph. Harry likes history. Mary prefers music. Mike enjoys mathematics while Joe likes to study social science. Different people in my class like to study different things. In the above paragraph, the last sentence contains the topic (Different people in my class) of the paragraph. Please go back to Frame 56. Frame 140 From Frame 135, 138 and 142 Your answer : [specific details.] This answer is wrong because first you must have a topic and make an assertion about it. You would then have a topic sentence (general statement) and finally you would write some specific details to support the topic sentence. 54 Go to Frame 133.

55 Frame 53 From Frame 56 Your answer: [C. The topic of a paragraph is what the paragraph is about.] Good. You are correct. Please continue. The assertion of a paragraph is: A. the same as the topic (Frame 49) B. what the writer has to say about the topic (Frame 47) C. I don't know (Frame 46) Frame 141 From Frame 132 Your answer: [general statment.] This answer is wrong. Remember that a general statement is a sentence which sums up the specific details of the paragraph. Go back to Frame

56 Frame 54 From Frame 50 Your answer: [A. the first sentence of a paragraph.] This answer is wrong. It is true that the topic sentence (which contains the assertion and topic) is often the first sentence of a paragraph, but sometimes the topic sentence is not the first sentence. Look at the following paragraph. Western excite me, but sometimes I like to see romantic movies. I also enjoy comedies and "spy" movies. And I even like to see the latest musicals. All things considered, I like all kinds of movies. In this paragraph, the last sentence is the sentence which contains the topic and the assertion of the paragraph. This last sentence is called A. a topic sentence (Frame 61) B. an assertion sentence (Frame 57) From Frame 132 Your answer : [assertion.] Very good. Frame 142 The whole sentence "Miss X is very nice to everybody" is the.... of your paragraph. 1. topic (Frame 139) 2. topic I sentence (Frame 145) 3. specific details (Frame 140) 56

57 From Frame 49 The topic of a paragraph is: Frame 56 A. what the writer has to say about a topic (Frame 51) B. always the first sentence of a paragraph (Frame 52) C. what the paragraph is about (Frame 53) Frame 144 From Frame 143 Your answer: [3 and 6.] If you did not get this correct go back to Frame Fill in the blanks to form our paragraph. 1. Miss X is very nice to everybody. 2.,She always old people find a seat on the bus or train. 3. When her friends have trouble understanding their studies she is always willing to if she can. 4. She her mother whenever she can. S. She is very patient with small children, and them all she can. Go to Frame 146.

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