The Invaders by Jack Ritchie

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1 Assessment Practice Assessment Practice RL 3 Analyze how dialogue or incidents in a story propel the action. RL 4 Analyze the impact of word choices on tone. RL 5 Analyze how the structure of text contributes to its meaning. RL 6 Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and reader create such effects as suspense. W 10 Write over shorter time frames. L 1 Demonstrate command of grammar and usage. L 3 Use knowledge of language when writing. L 4a c Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word; use Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word; consult reference materials. check readiness Read aloud the paragraph under ASSESS and stress to students that this is not the full Unit Test, but a way for them to check their readiness for it. Then have students examine the unit standards and the skills listed below and look back in the unit or in the Student Resource Bank for any skills they need to review. read the texts Remind students to keep unit goals in mind as they read the passage, paying particular attention to these literary and reading skills: plot, including stages and suspense conflict sequence, including order of events and flashback cause and effect To help students focus on plot while reading, encourage them to ask questions such as What are the key events of the story? How does the author create suspense at each stage of the story? answer the questions Direct students to pages R93 R99 of the Test- Taking Handbook to review strategies. Remind students to read all the answer choices, eliminate any that are clearly wrong, and then choose the best answer the one that is most accurate and complete. Encourage students to reread the directions after completeing the first item of each section. By checking the directions a second time, students can clarify their understanding of them in the context of an item. 160 unit 1: plot and conflict assess Taking this practice test will help you assess your knowledge of the following skills and determine your readiness for the Unit Test. review After you take the practice test, your teacher can help you identify any standards you need to review. RL 3 Analyze how dialogue or incidents in a story propel the action. RL 4 Analyze the impact of word choices on tone. RL 5 Analyze how the structure of text contributes to its meaning. RL 6 Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and reader create such effects as suspense. W 10 Write over shorter time frames. L 1 Demonstrate command of grammar and usage. L 3 Use knowledge of language when writing. L 4a c Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word; use Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word; consult reference materials. Practice Test Take it at thinkcentral.com. KEYWORD: HML8N unit 1: plot and conflict differentiated instruction Assessment Practice: Work Backward Prepare students for the assessment by having them read the questions before reading the passage. Have pairs find unfamiliar words in test directions and questions and follow these steps: 1. Write each word on an index card. 2. Look up the meaning in a dictionary and write it on the back of the card. DIRECTIONS Read the selections and answer the questions that follow. The Invaders by Jack Ritchie None of them left the ship on the first day of its arrival, but I knew that they would be watching carefully for signs of human life. The skies were dark with scudding clouds, and the cold wind moved high in the trees. Thin snow drifted slowly to the ground. From the cover of the forest, I now watched as a small, heavily armed group of them left the large craft. When they reached the edge of the woods, they hesitated for a few moments and then moved cautiously forward. I had seen them before and I knew that in appearance, at least, they were not monsters. They looked very much like us. There were some differences, of course, but all in all, we were really quite similar to them. I met them first when I was almost a boy and I had been without caution. I approached them and they seemed friendly, but then suddenly they seized me and carried me off in their strange ship. It was a long journey to their land and when our ship made a landing, I was shown about and exhibited as though I were some kind of animal. I saw their cities, and I was shown plants and animals completely strange to me. I learned to wear their clothing and even to eat their food. They taught me to communicate in their strange and difficult tongue until I could, at times, even think in their language. I had almost given up the hope of ever seeing my home again, but they one day put me back on one of their ships and told me that they were returning me because they wished to establish friendly relations with my people. But by now, I knew enough of them to know that this was not true. However, I nodded and smiled and watched for my opportunity to escape. When the ship landed, I went out with the first search party. It was near evening and as the darkness gathered, I edged away from them and finally I fled into the blackness and safety of the forest. They came after me, of course, but I was hidden deep in the woods where they could not find me. Finally they gave up and I watched their ship become smaller and finally disappear, and I hoped fervently that they would never return. But now they were back again. I felt a coldness inside of me as I watched them moving slowly through the trees. They seemed somehow different from the others who had been here before. It was not so much in their appearance as in the air about them the way they walked, the way they looked about with speculating eyes. 3. Use the cards to practice the words with your partner and to teach them to others.

2 Slowly and instinctively, I realized that this time they were not here on just another raid for a captive or two. This time they had come to stay. What could we do now? Could we lure them deeper into the forest and kill them? Could we take their weapons and learn how to use them? No, I thought despairingly. There were so many more of the invaders on the ship. And more weapons. They would come out and hunt us down like animals. They would hunt us down and kill us all. I sighed. We must find out what it was that they wanted this time and whatever it might be, we must learn to adjust and to hope for the best. But I still retreated silently before them, afraid to approach. I watched them search the ground ahead of them and knew they were looking for footprints, for some signs of life. But there was not yet enough snow on the ground to track us down. Their strangely colored eyes glanced about warily. They were cautious, yes. They could be a cruel race, I knew. I had seen with my own eyes how they treated their animals and even their own kind. I sighed again. Yes, we could be cruel, too. In this respect we could not claim to be superior to the invaders. They paused now in a clearing, their eyes gleaming beneath their helmets. It was time for me to approach them. I took a deep breath and stepped into the open. Their weapons quickly pointed at me. Welcome, I said. They stared at me, and then one of them turned to their bearded leader. It appears that this savage can speak some English, Captain Standish. Welcome, I said again. But I wondered what they would do to my land and my people now. item analysis comprehension and short constructed response items Plot 2, 3, 6, 10, 14, 15 unit pages 30, 37 Conflict 4, 5, 17 28, 51, 67 Sequence 1, 8, 9, 12, 16 Cause and Effect 7, 11, , 123 vocabulary items unit pages Latin Roots 1, 2, 3, Use a Dictionary 5, 6, 7 89 revising and editing items unit pages Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement 1, 4, 5, Progressive Forms 2, 3 79 Practice Test On thinkcentral.com students can complete an interactive version of this practice test and receive remediation for the skills they have not yet mastered. assessment practice 161 for struggling readers Assessment Support Consider these options for completing the Assessment Practice: Have students work backward, reviewing the questions before reading the passage. Select random questions in the Assessment, and have students demonstrate how and where to look for the answers. Ask students to locate unfamiliar vocabulary words in the Assessment. Elicit the words meanings from the class. Have students record useful testing words and definitions for later reference. Read the selection or parts of it aloud to aid in student comprehension. Review Literary Terms Display the following literary terms. Then give the definitions in random order and have students match them to the terms. plot: the main events that happen in a story conflict: struggles between opposing forces exposition: the beginning part of a story that introduces the main characters, the setting, and sometimes the main conflict rising action: the middle part of a story in which suspense or tension builds because problems arise that make the conflict more difficult for the main characters climax: the turning point of the story, when the reader s interest is most intense falling action: the last part of the story, which shows the result of the conflict and brings the story to a close assessment practice 161

3 answers Reading Comprehension Model a thinking process for answering multiple-choice questions. 1. B is correct. The story begins with the invaders leaving the ship and entering the woods (paragraph 3). It is later in the story that the narrator thinks about attacking them (paragraph 17) and then watches them look for footprints (paragraph 20), making A and C incorrect. D is incorrect because the narrator greets the invaders at the end of the story (paragraphs 26 28). 2. D is correct. The exposition of the story describes its cold and snowy setting (paragraph 2). A, B, and C are incorrect because they all describe details revealed later in the story, not in the exposition. 3. B is correct. The narrator s prediction creates tension because readers wonder who they are and why they might be watching. A, C, and D are incorrect because they provide details about time, place, and character, but they do not raise questions, hint at events to come, or cause tension. 4. B is correct. The narrator debates whether it is in the best interest of his people to respond with violence or with cooperation (paragraphs 17 19). A is incorrect because the narrator shares only bad memories of being in the invaders country. C is incorrect because he never mentions sharing or hiding food. D is incorrect because he clearly wants to protect his people, not betray them. 5. A is correct. The story ends with the narrator wondering what the invaders will do to his land and people (paragraph 30). B is incorrect because readers know the narrator communicates with the invaders by speaking English to them. C is incorrect because the invaders leave the ship and enter the forest at the beginning of the story. D is incorrect because the narrator makes the decision not to stay hidden. 6. C is correct. Tension rises as the narrator realizes the seriousness of the fact that the invaders have returned. A is part of the exposition, and B is part of the flashback, making both incorrect. D is incorrect because it comes close to the end of the story. 162 Reading Comprehension Use The Invaders to answer questions What event happens first in the story? A. The invaders look at the ground for footprints. B. The invaders leave the ship and enter the woods. C. The narrator thinks about attacking the invaders. D. The narrator steps into view and greets the invaders. 2. In the exposition of the story, you learn that A. the narrator speaks English B. the invaders are cruel people C. Captain Standish is a leader D. the weather is cold and snowy 3. In paragraph 1 the author develops suspense by using the phrase A. first day of its arrival B. I knew that they would be watching C. None of them left the ship D. signs of human life 4. The conflict the narrator struggles with is A. choosing whether to return with the invaders to their country B. deciding which response to the invaders will be best for his people C. sharing food with the invaders or hiding it from them D. betraying his people by helping the invaders find what they want 7. A is correct. The narrator acknowledges, with despair, how many more invaders and weapons must be on the ship. B, C, and D are incorrect because paragraph 18 makes no specific mention of hiding places, another captive, or footprints. 8. A is correct. The flashback begins when the narrator recalls meeting the invaders when he was a boy. B is incorrect because it comes toward the end of the flashback. C and D are incorrect because they are in the main part of the story, not the flashback. 5. The conflict not resolved at the end of the story is A. what will happen between the invaders and the narrator s people B. how the narrator will decide to communicate with the invaders C. whether the invaders can make their way off the ship and into the forest D. if the narrator will choose to stay hidden from the invaders 6. The rising action begins when the narrator says A. They looked very much like us (paragraph 4) B. I learned to wear their clothing and even to eat their food (paragraph 7) C. But now they were back again (paragraph 13) D. Yes, we could be cruel, too (paragraph 23) 7. In paragraph 18 the narrator is losing hope because A. he fears his people are outnumbered and will be killed B. his hiding places in the snowy forest are too visible C. he thinks that the invaders are looking for another captive D. his footprints might lead the invaders to his people 8. The flashback begins when the narrator says A. I met them first when I was almost a boy and I had been without caution (paragraph 5) B. But by now, I knew enough of them to know that this was not true (paragraph 9) C. There were so many more of the invaders on the ship (paragraph 18) D. But I still retreated silently before them, afraid to approach them (paragraph 20) 9. B is correct. The flashback focuses on the narrator s experience of being captured and taken to the invader s land. A is not part of the flashback. C is incorrect because the flashback explains the narrator s growing sense of the invaders unfriendly intentions. D is incorrect because the flashback describes how the narrator became accustomed to his captors clothing, food, and languages, which were strange to him (paragraph 7). 162 unit 1: plot and conflict

4 Assessment Practice 9. The flashback reveals that the narrator A. carefully watched the invaders when they left their ship B. was captured as a child by invaders and taken to their land C. grew to believe that invaders had friendly intentions D. had many habits in common with the invaders 10. The climax of the story occurs when the narrator A. steps out and speaks to the invaders B. hides from the invaders in the woods C. returns home after being held captive D. hears the invaders talk to their leader 11. The narrator hides from the new invaders because A. he distrusts the invaders and is trying to decide what to do B. other people are coming to help him C. he wants to surprise the invaders from a well-protected location D. a search party is looking for him 12. Which phrase from the story helps you figure out when an event occurs? A. There were some differences... B. It was a long journey... C. I could at times... D. They paused now The narrator rejects the idea of attacking the invaders because A. the strangers have enough people and weapons to harm the local people B. the strangers are peaceful and hope to do good deeds C. neither the strangers nor the local people want to have a fight D. the narrator can speak the strangers language 14. During the falling action, you discover that the invaders A. arrive on a large ship B. have strangely colored eyes C. are led by an English captain D. mistreat their animals and each other SHORT CONTRUCTED RESPONSE Write two or three sentences to answer each question. 15. Identify one technique the author uses to create suspense. Give an example from the text to support your choice. 16. In the flashback, what steps does the narrator take to escape the invaders? Write a paragraph to answer this question. 17. Reread paragraphs What does the narrator realize about the invaders? Explain how this realization helps him to resolve his conflict. 10. A is correct. The narrator s approach to the invaders is the story s highest point of interest and its turning point. B is incorrect because it is part of the rising action. C is incorrect because it occurs at the end of the story s early flashback. D is incorrect because it occurs at the very end of the story. 11. A is correct. The narrator s thoughts as he hides reveal his distrust and his conflicting thoughts on how to handle the invaders. There is no evidence in the story to support B, C, or D, making those choices incorrect. 12. D is correct. The word now lets readers know that the action being described is occurring in the present. A, B, and C do not contain words that indicate when actions and events occurred. 13. A is correct. The narrator states that the invaders would have ample people and weapons with which to retaliate against an attack (paragraph 18). He describes the strangers as a cruel race, making B incorrect. While C may be true, it is not the reason the narrator rejects the idea of fighting. D is incorrect because the narrator does not mention his ability to speak the same language as a reason not to attack. 14. C is correct. The falling action follows the story s climax (which occurs when the narrator approaches the invaders). It is at this point that the readers learn of the English captain (paragraph 29). Readers learn of the large ship, as in A, early in the story s exposition. B and D can be eliminated because these details are revealed in the rising action, prior to the climax. 17. The narrator understands that the invaders visit this time is different from the raid he remembers as a child. He states, This time they had come to stay (paragraph 16). This realization helps the narrator resolve his conflict over how to respond to the invaders. He realizes that they are determined to settle in the area and that there are probably many of them with a large supply of weapons. These facts lead him to decide it is not in the best interest of his people to become adversaries of the strangers. 163 Instead, he feels strongly that they should attempt to communicate with the strangers and learn to adjust and to hope for the best (paragraph 19). SHORT CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE Possible responses: 15. The author varies the length of his sentences, using short, choppy sentences following descriptive passages to create tension. Examples include But now they were back again (paragraph 13) and This time they had come to stay (paragraph 16). 16. The narrator cooperates and watches for an opportunity to escape (paragraph 9). When the ship arrives in his homeland, he goes out with the first search party and flees into the darkness of the forest (paragraph 10). He then stays hidden deep in the woods where the invaders cannot find him (paragraph 11). assessment practice 163

5 answers Vocabulary 1. B is correct. The narrator describes being shown about to people in the invaders land. A, C, and D do not fit easily into the context of paragraph 6; furthermore, A and D are unrelated to the word s Latin meaning. 2. D is correct. The invaders wanted to set up a friendship with the narrator s people. Also, the definition make solid relates to the Latin word stabilis, or its definition firm. Their act would not end or damage a friendship, as in A and B, because no friendship exists. C does not make sense in the context of the paragraph, and to bring about using trickery does not relate to firm. 3. C is correct. Readers can infer that the narrator has strong emotions in wishing away his captors. Boil is often associated with passion or anger. The definitions in A and B do not fit the context or relate to boil. D makes no sense in the context. 4. B is correct. The context of the sentence suggests that the invaders were thinking about different possibilities as they observed their surroundings. There is no evidence in the story of creating, risk-taking, or accepting something as true, as in A, C, and D. 5. A is correct. Readers are told in the first sentence of the story that the invaders are on a ship. B and C are incorrect because they do not work in the context of the paragraph. D can be eliminated because craft is clearly being used as a noun in the sentence. 6. C is correct. In this sentence, craft refers to the action of creating bookshelves. In A, the pronoun her indicates something that belongs to someone, making the word a noun in this context. In B and D, the article the used with craft indicates its use as a noun. 7. B is correct. Singers demonstrate their skill when they perform. A is incorrect because audience members already know the singer s profession, but not her talent. C and D do not make sense within the context of the sentence. 164 unit 1: plot and conflict 164 Vocabulary Use your knowledge of context clues and the Latin word root definitions to answer the following questions. 1. The Latin word habere means to hold or to see. In paragraph 6, what does the word exhibited mean? A. Made to work hard B. Presented in public C. Held captive in a prison D. Soothed with kind words 2. The Latin word stabilis means firm. In paragraph 9, what does the word establish mean? A. To end quickly B. To damage beyond repair C. To bring about using trickery D. To set up and make solid 3. The Latin word fervere means to boil. In paragraph 12, what does the word fervently mean? A. In a dreamy way B. For a long time C. With great emotion D. While cooking 4. The Latin word speculare means to observe. In paragraph 14, what does the word speculating mean? A. Creating a new object B. Thinking about or guessing C. Taking a risk in the hope of gain D. Accepting something as true differentiated instruction Assessment Support: Latin Roots Point out that English words derived from Latin roots often have cognates in Spanish and other Romance languages. Help students identify cognates for the base words in items 1 4. Spanish cognates are as follows: exhibit/exhibir establish/establecer fervent/ferviente, fervoroso speculate/especular 5. Read the dictionary entry below for the word craft. craft (krbft) noun 1. A boat, ship, or aircraft. 2. Skill in doing or making something. 3. An occupation or trade. Verb 1. To make by hand. Synonyms: noun: vehicle, talent, profession, trickery; verb: create. Which definition represents the meaning of the word craft as it is used in paragraph 3? A. Definition noun 1 B. Definition noun 2 C. Definition noun 3 D. Definition verb 1 6. In which sentence is the word craft used as a verb? A. She learned her craft from her father, who was a carpenter. B. The fine workmanship revealed the sculptor s craft. C. He tried to craft a set of bookshelves for the library. D. The small craft was tossed about by the rough waves. 7. Which synonym would best replace the word craft in the following sentence? The singer demonstrated her craft through her performance in the opera. A. Profession B. Talent C. Trickery D. Vehicle

6 Assessment Practice Revising and Editing DIRECTIONS Read this paragraph and answer the questions that follow. (1) When the Pilgrims first landed at Plymouth in 1620, everyone had their dream of a better life. (2) They had been agreeing that they should work together to build a common house for meetings and religious services. (3) People s lives became difficult though, especially because there was a shortage of food. (4) Nobody knew whether they would survive. (5) In fact, many settlers died during his first winter in the colony. (6) The Native American Squanto helped everyone who remained find where they could fish and trap animals for food. (7) The Native Americans willingness to share their knowledge of agriculture helped the Pilgrims survive in the new land. (8) Today the national holiday of Thanksgiving recalls the Pilgrims celebration of their first harvest in Plymouth. 1. The meaning of sentence 1 can be improved by changing their to A. theirs B. its C. his or her D. they 2. What change, if any, should be made in sentence 2? A. Change had been agreeing to will agree B. Change had been agreeing to agreed C. Change had been agreeing to agrees D. Make no change 3. What change, if any, should be made in sentence 3? A. Change became to will become B. Change became to are becoming C. Change became to will be becoming D. Make no change Assessment Support: Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Remind students that pronouns must agree with their antecedent in gender and in number. Discuss these examples: The man learned where it could go fishing. (incorrect gender) The man learned where they could go fishing. (incorrect number) The man learned where he could go fishing. (correct gender and number) 4. The meaning of sentence 4 can be improved by changing they to A. he or she B. them C. his or her D. its 5. The meaning of sentence 5 can be improved by changing his to A. their B. its C. his or her D. her 6. The meaning of sentence 6 can be improved by changing they to A. it B. its C. their D. he or she Review indefinite pronouns, which do not refer to a specific person, place, or thing. Some are singular (everyone, someone) while others are plural (all, many). Illustrate with these examples: Everyone had their reasons for coming to Plymouth. (incorrect number) Everyone had his or her reasons for coming to Plymouth. (correct number) Many met his death. (incorrect number) Many met their death. (correct number) 165 answers Revising and Editing 1. C is correct. The words his or her are singular possessive pronouns that agree with the antecedent Everyone, a singular indefinite pronoun. A can be eliminated because theirs is a plural possessive pronoun used to show ownership when no noun follows it. B is incorrect because it does not refer to people. D is incorrect because they is a third-person plural pronoun used as a subject. 2. B is correct. The past tense is required because the sentence refers to something that occurred at a specific time in the past. The past perfect progressive form of the verb, had been agreeing, is incorrect because it expresses an ongoing past action that is interrupted by another past action. A is incorrect because the future tense is inappropriate. C is incorrect because the present tense is inappropriate and the verb form agrees does not agree with the subject they. D is incorrect because the change in B is needed. 3. D is correct. The past tense is required because the sentence refers to something that occurred at a specific time in the past. A, B, and C are incorrect because the future tense, present progressive, and future progressive forms are inappropriate. 4. A is correct. He or she agrees with the singular pronoun Nobody. B is incorrect because them is a plural objective pronoun. C and D are incorrect because his, her, and its are possessive pronouns, not subject pronouns required for the clause they would survive. 5. A is correct. Their agrees in number with settlers. B is incorrect because its does not correctly refer to settlers. C and D are incorrect because neither agrees in number with settlers. 6. D is correct. He or she agrees in number with the antecedent everyone. A and B can be eliminated because it and its do not refer to people. C is incorrect because their is a possessive adjective. assessment practice 165

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