2 Adjectives Adjectives modify nouns: I ate a meal. Meal is a noun. We don t know what kind of meal; all we know is that someone ate a meal. I ate an enormous lunch. Lunch is the noun, and enormous is an adjective that modifies it. It tells us WHAT KIND OF meal the person ate.
3 Adjectives Adjectives usually answer one of a few different questions: What kind? Which? How many? Examples: The tall girl is riding a new bike Fifteen students passed the midterm exam; twelve students passed the final exam
4 Adjectives Most of the time, adjectives come before nouns. However, when they come after the nouns they modify, they usually follow a verb like: be, feel, taste, smell, sound, look, appear, seem Examples: The dog is black [black = adjective, is = form of verb to be ] Brian seems sad [sad = adjective, seem = verb] The speaker sounds hoarse [hoarse = adjective, sound = verb]
5 Adverbs Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs (sometimes they are easily recognizable because many of them are formed by adding ly to an adjective) Adverbs answer the question HOW Examples: She sang beautifully The cellist played carelessly That woman is extremely nice It was a terribly hot afternoon
6 Adverbs: Common errors Bad vs. Badly: I feel bad = describing the way you feel I feel badly = you are unable to feel, hands are numb (similar to saying I play football badly ) The dog smells badly = The dog cannot smell very well The dog smells bad = The dog needs a bath
7 Adverbs: Common errors Good vs. Well: Good is an adjective, so you do NOT live good you live well My mother looks good = she appears healthy I feel really good today = I do not touch things successfully, I am happy or healthy
8 Adverbs: Common errors Sure vs. Surely: Sure is an adjective, surely is an adverb. He is sure about his answer = sure describes HE The Senator spoke out surely = surely describes HOW S. spoke Near vs. Nearly: Near can be a verb, adverb, adjective or preposition, nearly is used as an adverb to mean in a close manner, or almost but not quite I ll be seeing you in the near future The cat crept near Don t worry, we re nearly there
9 Articles Articles MODIFY nouns (just like adjectives) English has two articles: THE = definite article: used to refer to specific or particular nouns A/AN = indefinite article: used to modify non-specific or nonparticular nouns
10 Definite and Indefinite Articles The is used to refer to a specific or particular member of a group. Let s read the book = Let s read a specific book I just saw the most popular movie of the year = There are many movies, but only one particular movie is the most popular A/an is used to refer to a non-specific or non-particular member of the group. Let s read a book = Let s read any book I would like to go see a movie = Not talking about a specific movie, talking about any movie, don t have have a specific one in mind However, there are ALWAYS EXCEPTIONS!
11 Definite Articles: Exercise dog that bit me ran away I was happy to see policeman who saved my cat! I saw elephant at the zoo He spilled milk all over the floor I love to sail over water
12 Indefinite Articles: Usage Rules Choice of indefinite article is based on the phonetic (sound) quality of the first letter in the word following it, not the orthographic (written) representation of the letter. If the first letter makes a vowel-type sound, you use an ; if the first letter would make a consonant-type sound, you use a. However, there are ALWAYS EXCEPTIONS!
13 Indefinite Articles: Examples A goes before words that begin with consonants: A cat A dog A purple onion A buffalo A big apple An goes before words that begin with vowels: An apricot An egg An orbit An uprising An office
14 Indefinite Articles: Exceptions Use an before any unsounded h. Because the h hasn t any phonetic representation and has no audible sound, the sound that follows the article is a vowel; thus, an is used. An honorable peace An honest error An hour
15 Indefinite Articles: Exceptions When u makes the same sound as the y in you, or o makes the same sound as w in won, then a is used. The initial word sound y ( unicorn ) is actually a phonetic glide that has consonantal properties; thus, it is treated as a consonant a is used. A union A U.S. ship A united front A one-legged man A used napkin A useful tool
16 Indefinite Articles: Exercise broken egg unusual problem European country I am teacher Brian is Irishman Seiko is practicing Buddhist
17 Prepositions: Definition Prepositions are used for Time, Place, and Introducing Objects I will see you on Monday I m going to Paris for two weeks There is a wasp in the room Hang that picture above the couch She glanced at her reflection I m looking for my keys
18 Prepositions: Time One point in time: On is used with days: I will see you on Friday for our PWE lunch session The week begins on Sunday At is used with noon, night, midnight, and with the time of day: My plane leaves at noon The movie starts at 6:00 p.m. In is used with other parts of the day, months, years, seasons: He likes to read in the afternoon The days are long in August The book was published in 1999
19 Prepositions: Time (cont d) Extended time: To express extended time, English uses the prepositions since, for, by, from-to, from-until, during, (with)in: She has been gone since yesterday I m going to Paris for two weeks The movie showed from August to October The decorations were up from spring until fall We must finish the project within the semester
20 Prepositions: Place To express notions of location: To talk about the point itself: IN To express something contained: INSIDE To talk about the surface: ON To talk about a general vicinity: AT There was a wasp in the room She was waiting at the corner Put the present inside the box I left your keys on the table
21 Prepositions: Place (cont d) Higher than a point: over above He threw the ball over the roof Hang that picture above the couch Lower than a point: under underneath beneath below The rabbit burrowed under the ground The valley is below sea level Close to a point: near by next to between among opposite She lives near the school I found my pen lying among the books
23 Prepositions: Introducing Objects (cont d) She glanced her reflection I m looking the computer monitor Stop staring me I don t approve his speech My contribution to the article consists many pages I dream finishing college in four years I am thinking this problem Did someone call a taxi He hopes a raise in salary I you wish an A in this class, you must work hard
24 Final Grammar Review: Adjectives modify nouns; answer questions of what kind, which, how many Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs (sometimes they are easily recognizable because many of them are formed by adding ly to an adjective); answer question of how Articles modify nouns, there are two different types: definite (the) and indefinite (a/an) Prepositions are used for time, place, and introducing objects: on, at, in, inside, since, for, by, from-to, from-until, during, (with)in, over, above, under, underneath, beneath, below, near, by, next to, between, among, opposite, of
25 Sources: ALL MATERIAL used in this presentation was from the Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) website, which has an AMAZING collection of writing resources, very logically and clearly organized: Info on Adjectives: Info on Adverbs: Info on Articles: Info on Prepositions: All exercises can be found here:
26 Looking Ahead: More PWE Lunch Sessions! Writing effectively with statistics Using pronouns correctly How to compose transitions between paragraphs Strategies for sentence variety: adding complexity to your writing How to use outlining effectively to organize a paper Essay writing: different styles for different assignments (e.g. argumentative, expository, descriptive, narrative) Using the active voice
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Sentence Clarity and Combining A workshop brought to you by The Purdue University Writing Lab Sentence Clarity Why do we need to be concerned with sentence clarity? To communicate effectively to the reader
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