Short story definition. Brief work of fiction

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2 Short story definition Brief work of fiction

3 Elements of A Short Story Character Plot Setting Theme Point of View

4 Plot The sequence of events in a literary work.

5 Plot elements Plot is built on five main parts: - Exposition Rising Action Climax Falling Action Resolution (Denouement)

6 Plot Line Climax Complications (Rising Action) Falling Action Exposition Resolution

7 Plot Exposition introduces setting, characters, basic situation; introduction Rising Action- inciting incident; central conflict introduced; leads to climax Climax high point of interest or suspense; turning point; light bulb moment

8 Plot Falling Action - Conflict begins to resolve; story tapers off; leads to resolution Resolution Denouement; end of story; conflicts resolved

9 Character Person, animal, natural force or object in a story or play.

10 Characterization Author s way of revealing the personality of a character

11 Characterization Direct Characterization - Writer directly states character s traits; tells reader what kind of person the character is. Indirect Characterization Author provides clues; reader must use own judgment to identify personality traits of a character

12 Character Indirect Characterization Five methods for revealing character: - Actions (what he does) * Appearance (what he looks like) - Other characters reactions Speech (how he speaks & what he says) * Thoughts (what he thinks) * Most effective techniques

13 Characterization Static character does NOT change during story Dynamic character develops and grows during story

14 Characterization Flat character: Shows only one personality trait; cartoon character Round character Many different personality traits (virtues & vices)

15 Characterization Protagonist Main character; often changes; may NOT be the good guy Antagonist Character or force in conflict with protagonist; may NOT be the bad guy

16 Conflict Struggle between opposing forces Internal: character struggles with self e.g. fear vs. duty/ duty vs. pride/ training vs. instinct External: character struggles against outside forces

17 External Conflict Man vs. man Man vs. nature Man vs. society Man vs. fate/destiny

18 Character: Dialogue Conversation between characters May reveal traits & advance action Indicated by quotation marks New paragraph = change of speaker

19 Character: Motivation Reasons character thinks, feels, acts, or behaves in certain way Result of personality & situation

20 Narrator Speaker/character who tells story NOT always the author! Choice of narrator determines POV

21 Point of View: POV Vantage point from which the author tells the story Controls info (type & amount) the author reveals

22 First Person POV One of characters tells story, using pronoun I May be reliable narrator May be unreliable narrator

23 Third Person POV Voice outside story narrates story using 3 rd person pronouns, e.g. he, she, they Two types: Limited: one character Omniscient: all characters

24 Third Person Limited POV Narrator sees the world through one character s eyes Reveals only that one character s thoughts.

25 Third Person Omniscient POV All Knowing Narrator outside the story tells readers what all characters think and feel.

26 Setting Time and place of action in a story or play Time: historical period, year, season, climate, time of day Place: geographic, social, economic, cultural

27 Setting can provide/reveal: Atmosphere: mood or feeling created in reader Background: place for characters to live & act Character: how he lives where he lives Conflict: something against which character must fight

28 Setting One of oldest story plots in the world: a person fights against something in the physical world drought, horde of ants, heat of the desert, storm, shipwreck, etc.

29 Theme Central idea or message or insight into life contained in the story Subject/topic + answer to question: What about it? THEME

30 Theme A theme reveals something about a subject Subject of story is NOT theme of story Subject = topic of story e.g. love, war, greed, journey Love is a subject, NOT a theme. Ask yourself... What about love?

31 Theme Stated: author directly reveals message, e.g. moral at end of folk/fairy tale Implied: author indirectly suggests his belief about people or life; reader must figure it out.

32 Finding a Theme Does the title signify something important about the story? Does the main character change during the story? Does he realize something he didn t know before? Are there any important statements about life or people made in the story - by the words/actions of the narrator or characters?

33 Other Terms to Know Allusion: reference in a story that refers to Bible, history, or work of literature/art Dialect: way a character speaks (directly related to setting & time period)

34 Other Terms to Know Feelings/ attitudes: Mood (atmosphere) Feeling created in reader by story details Tone writer s attitude toward audience or subject e.g. formal or informal, serious or playful, bitter or ironic

35 Other Terms to Know Flashback: info/material that occurred earlier than present time of narrative Foreshadowing: clues suggest events yet to occur in story; creates suspense Frame story: story within a story, e.g. Arabian Nights

36 Irony is a contrast or difference between: Between expectation and reality (between what is expected to happen and what really happens) Between what is said and what is really meant Between appearance and reality (between what appears to be true vs. what is really true)

37 Types of Irony Verbal - writer or speaker says one thing but means another Situational - what we expect to happen is different than what actually happens Dramatic - Audience or reader knows what is happening but the characters do not. (Audience knows; characters don t)

38 Other Terms to Know Suspense - The uncertain feeling about what is going to happen next in a story.

39 Other Terms to Know Symbol - Anything that stands for or represents another person, object, or abstract idea e.g. Red rose =? American flag =? storm =?

40 Symbol Conventional: universal representations, e.g. flags Personal: created by author through emphasis or repetition e.g. scarlet ibis

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