PRESENT SIMPLE: AFFIRMATIVE FREQUENCY ADVERBS (prezentul simplu: afirmativ adverbe de frecvenţă)

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1 JURNALISM, ANUL 1-2, CURS 12 PRESENT SIMPLE: AFFIRMATIVE FREQUENCY ADVERBS (prezentul simplu: afirmativ adverbe de frecvenţă) Statements (afirmaţii): we use the present simple to describe general facts, repeated actions and habits, things that are always true (folosim prezentul simplu pentru a descrie fapte generale, acţiuni repetate şi obiceiuri, lucruri care sunt întotdeauna adevărate) # general facts (fapte generale) I like milk. ( Îmi place laptele) Maria plays basketball. (Maria joacă baschet) They speak Turkish. ( Ei vorbesc limba turcă). We live in Australia. (Noi trăim/locuim în Australia). # repeated actions and habits (acţiuni repetate şi obiceiuri) Harry often arrives late. ( H adesea ajunge târziu) I usually get up at ( De obicei mă scol la 7.30) I walk to school every day. ( Merg la şcoală zilnic) My brother usually walks with me. ( Fratele meu de obicei merge cu mine). # things that are always true (lucruri care sunt întotdeauna adevărate) The sun rises in the east. ( Soarele răsare la est) The earth goes round the sun. ( Pământul se învârte în jurul soarelui). I walk (merg, mă plimb) We walk You walk They walk BUT (dar) he walks She walks It walks Spelling (ortografierea): go ( a merge) goes Miss (a rata, a-i lipsi) misses Watch ( a privi) watches Wash ( a spăla) washes Relax ( a se relaxa) relaxes Always (mereu), usually (de obicei), often ( adesea), sometimes (uneori), never (niciodată) always 100% Tim always wears jeans. (Tim poartă intotdeauna blugi) usually 80% I usually go to bed at (Eu de obicei mă culc la 9.30) often 60% Sue often goes to the cinema. (Sue merge deseori la cinema) sometimes 40% Sam sometimes walks to school. (Sam uneori merge la şcoală.) 1

2 never 0% It never rains here in August. (Niciodata nu plouă aici în august) The frequency adverb goes between subject and verb. (adverbul de frevenţă este plasat între subiect şi verb): Monday always comes after Sunday. (Luni vine întotdeauna după duminică) Practice: 1. Complete each sentence with a verb from the box. ( Completaţi propoziţiile cu verbele date mai jos): arrive ( a sosi) like ( a îi plăcea) live ( a trăi/locui) rain ( a ploua) start ( a începe) teach ( a preda) a) David likes chocolate. b) It.here in November. c) Liz.with her family in Italy. d) George often.late. e) The lesson..at f) Kate and Jim.English in Spain. 2. Underline the correct word in each sentence. (Subliniaţi cuvântul corect în fiecare propoziţie): a) Juan and Carmen live/lives in Madrid. b) Harry watch/watches television every evening. c) I usually go/goes to school by bus. d) It never snow/snows in this city. e) Sam live/lives in that house. f) You never clean/cleans your teeth! g) Carol get/gets up early every day. h) All the buses leave/leaves from this bus-stop. 3. Complete each sentence. Use the verb and frequency adverb in brackets. (Completaţi fiecare propoziţie. Folosiţi verbul şi adverbul de frecvenţă din paranteze.) a) Tina (sometimes, miss) sometimes misses the bus to school. b) I (never, get up).before c) We (usually, have)..a holiday in August. d) Jim and Helen (often, go).to the theatre. e) I (often, sing)..in the shower. f) Pat (sometimes, play)..football on Sunday. g) You (never, finish) your homework! h) Our teacher (always, wear) a tie. 2

3 PRESENT SIMPLE: NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONS (prezentul simplu: forma negativă şi interogativă) # Negatives (forma negativă): I don t like ice-cream. ( Nu-mi place îngheţata) She doesn t eat chocolate. ( Ea nu mănâncă ciocolată) I do not walk He does not walk. We do not walk. I don t walk. He doesn t walk. We don t walk. You do not walk. She does not walk. They do not walk. You don t walk. She doesn t walk. They don t walk. It does not walk. It doesn t walk. # Examples: I don t drink coffee. ( Nu beau cafea). Tom doesn t play tennis. (Tom nu joacă tennis) They don t speak Italian. ( Ei nu vorbesc italiana). We don t live in France. ( Noi nu locuim în Franţa). # Questions (întrebări, interogativul): Do you walk to school or do you take the bus? (Mergi pe jos la şcoală sau iei autobuzul?) I usually walk. ( de obicei merg pe jos). Do I walk? Does he walk? Do we walk? Do you walk? Does she walk? Do they walk? Does it walk? # Examples: Do you like ice-cream? (Îti place îngheţata?) Does Ana play basketball? (Ana joacă basket?) Does Harry often arrive late? ( Harry ajunge târziu des? Do they speak Italian? (Ei vorbesc limba italiană?) Do you live in Australia? (Locuiesti/trăiesti în Australia?) Do you usually get up at 7.30? ( De obicei te scoli la 7.30?) # Careful! (Atenţie)!: I walk, you walk, we walk BUT: he walks, she walks, it walks He walks BUT: Does he walk? I don t walk. BUT: He doesn t walk. She doesn t walk. 3

4 Practice: 1. Complete each sentence. Put the words in brackets into the correct order. (Completaţi fiecare propoziţie. Puneţi cuvintele din paranteze în ordinea corectă): a) Our (smoke, not, teachers, do).teachers do not smoke at school. b). Where (Helen, live, does).? c) (do, not, go, we)..to the cinema on Friday. d) (David, does, ride).a bike? e) (play, do, you)..football after school? f) Kate (like, does, not) oranges. g) I (lunch, usually, have).at Complete each sentence. Use the words in brackets. (Completaţi fiecare propoziţie. Folosiţi cuvintele din paranteze): a) Mary (like, not)..does not like.baseball. b) (wash, Peter).his face every morning? c) (watch, you)..television every day? d) I (eat, not, often) fruit. e) (have, we) homework today? f) My friends (live, not) near my house 3. Write a question or a negative sentence. (Scrieţi o întrebare sau o propoziţie negativă): a) Jack get up at 7.00.Does Jack get up at 7.00? b) Alice and Mike walk to work.? c) Jack leave home at ? d) Alice and Mike relax in the evening.? e) Alice and Mike not/like tennis Alice and Mike don t like tennis. f) Jack not/wear school uniform. g) Alice and Mike not/use computers.. h) Jack not/do his homework PRESENT CONTINUOUS: AFFIRMATIVE (prezentul continuu: afirmativ) Statements (afirmaţii): we use the present continuous to talk about actions happening at the moment. (folosim prezentul continuu pentru a vorbi despre acţiuni care se petrec la momentul vorbirii) I am sitting in my car. ( Stau/şed acum în maşina mea) She s watching television. (Ea se uită acum la televizor) I am waiting (eu aştept) He is waiting We are waiting. I m waiting. He s waiting. We re waiting. You are waiting. She is waiting They are waiting. You re waiting. She s waiting. They re waiting. It is waiting. It s waiting. 4

5 Examples: I m studying English. (Acum studiez engleză) My brother s talking on the telephone now. (Fratele meu vorbeşte acum la telefon) We re swimming in the sea. (Acum înotăm în mare) Sue s reading a book at the moment. (Sue citeşte o carte în momentul ăsta) Spelling (ortografierea): a) verbs with two vowels and ending in one consonant, add ING (verbele cu două vocale şi terminate într-o consoană, adaugă ING) Wait waiting b) Verbs ending in e, drop e and add ING (la verbele terminate în e, se taie e şi se adaugă ING) Make making Decide deciding Write writing c) Verbs ending with one vowel and one consonant, double the consonant (verbele terminate într-o vocală şi o consoană, dublează consoana) Sit sitting Swim swimming Cut cutting schimbă ie în Y) d) Verbs ending in ie, change ie to Y (verbele terminate în ie, Lie lying Tie tying Die dying e) Verbs ending in a vowel and y, add ING (verbele terminate în vocală şi y, adaugă ING) Stay staying Play playing Say saying Practice: 1. Write sentences (present continuous) (Scrieţi propoziţii cu prezentul continuu): a) I/eat..I m eating. b) They/listen.. c) She /come.. d) You / move. e) It / rain.. f) We / sing. 5

6 2. Complete this letter. Pur the verbs in brackets into the present continuous. (Completaţi această scrisoare. Puneţi verbele din paranteze la prezentul continuu) Dear Jim, We (1) (have) are having.a terrible holiday. It (2) (rain)..i (3) (sit)..in the hotel. I (4) (watch)..television. Tom and Peter (5) (play).computer games. Alice (6) (read).a book. Susan (7) (make) a cup of coffee. The baby (8) (cry).i want to go home. All the best, George PRESENT CONTINUOUS: NEGATIVE AND QUESTIONS (prezentul continuu: forma negativă şi interogativă) # Negatives (forma negativă): I m not walking to school today. (Nu merg pe jos la şcoală azi) I am not waiting (eu nu He is not waiting We are not waiting aştept acum) I m not waiting He isn t waiting We aren t waiting (He s not ) (We re not ) You are not waiting She is not waiting They are not waiting You aren t waiting She isn t waiting They aren t waiting (You re not..) (She s not ) (They re not ) It is not waiting It isn t waiting (It s not waiting) Examples: I m not drinking milk, I m drinking cola. (Acum nu beau lapte, beau cola) They aren t playing football. They re playing rugby. (Ei nu joacă fotbal acum, joacă rugby). #Questions (întrebări, interogativul): Are you walking to school today? ( Mergi pe jos la şcoală azi?) Am I waiting? Is he waiting? Are we waiting? Are you waiting? Is she waiting? Are they waiting? Is it waiting? Examples: What are you doing? (Ce faci acum?) I m fixing my bike. ( Îmi repar bicicleta) Are you reading? (Citeşti?) No, I m not reading. (Nu, nu citesc) 6

7 Careful! (Atenţie!): It is better to use the contractions in statements and negatives! ( este mai bine să utilizaţi formele scurte în afirmaţii şi negaţii). Practice: 1. Change the statements into questions (Treceţi de la forma afirmativă la cea interogativă) a) I m making a lot of noise. Am I making a lot of noise? b) Clare is reading.. c) You are watching the news.. d) It is snowing... e) We are waiting in the right place. f) You are sitting here. g) David is enjoying the film... h) The bus is stopping. 2. Change the statements into negative sentences.(treceţi de la forma afirmativă la cea negativă) a) You re listening to me. You aren t listening to me. b) Tim is studying... c) We re talking... d) You are writing. e) Katherine is lying. f) They are waiting for us.. g) Anna s having a good time.. h) I m reading at the moment Correct each sentence or question. (Corectaţi fiecare propoziţie sau întrebare) a) I playing tennis with my best friend. I m playing tennis with my best friend. b) You re coming to the cinema tonight? c) John and Mary don t going to the beach. d) Is Emma and Katy flying to America?. e) My sister is walk on the beach now... f) We not studying French at school this year. g) What s that noise? The dog is outside?.. h) I aren t watching the TV. Turn it off. i) Fred are eating a sandwich for his lunch. 7

8 j) Are waiting they for a bus?. PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND PRESENT SIMPLE (prezentul continuu şi prezentul simplu): # Present continuous: to talk about things happening at the moment ( pentru a vorbi despre lucruri care se întâmplă la momentul vorbirii) Jim is watching television at the moment. ( Jim se uită acum la televizor) # Present simple: to talk about habits and routines (pentru a vorbi despre obiceiuri şi treburi de rutină) Things we do often, every day, every week, etc, ( lucruri pe care le facem des, zilnic, săptămânal) Things that always happen (ceva ce se întâmplă mereu) I arrive at ( Eu ajung întotdeauna la 8.30) The first lesson starts at ( Prima lecţie începe mereu la 8.45) The lesson finishes at (Lecţia se termină mereu la 9.30) Careful! ( atenţie!): A. Joe lives in New York. New York is his home. He lives there all the time. (Joe locuieşte/ trăieşte in New York. NY este casa lui. El locuieşte acolo tot timpul) We are living near the station at the moment. We want to move to another house soon. (Noi locuim acum lângă staţie. Vrem să ne mutăm curând în altă casă). B. verbs usually used with the present simple (verbe folosite de obicei la prezentul simplu) Cost This bike costs $ 200. ( Bicicleta asta costă 200$) Like Anna likes rap music. (Anei îi place muzica rap) Know Do you know the answer? (ştii răspunsul?) Understand I don t understand this. ( Nu înţeleg asta) Believe Do you believe me? ( Mă crezi?) C. Some verbs have one meaning in the simple form, but a different meaning in the continuous form. (unele verbe au un sens la foma simplă, dar sens diferit la forma continuă) Do you have a bike? = Do you own a bike? (ai o bicicletă?) (in general) I m having a great time! = It s a great party! (mă distrez super) (at the moment) I think this film is great = I like this film a lot. ( îmi place mult filmul acesta) (in general) Quiet! I m thinking! = I m doing a difficult exercise (Linişte, trebuie să mă concentrez) 8

9 Practice: 1) Choose the most suitable sentence or question (Alegeţi cea mai potrivită propoziţie sau întrebare): a) 1. I wash my hair. 2. I m washing my hair. (ok) b) 1. do you know the answer? 2. Are you knowing the answer? c) 1. Do you wait for the school bus? You re in the wrong place! 2. Are you waiting for the school bus? You re in the wrong place! d) 1. That bike costs $ That bike is costing $350. e) 1. Do you understand? 2. Are you understanding? f) 1. I do my homework. 2. I m doing my homework. 2. Complete each sentence. Use the words in brackets. Use present simple or continuous (Completaţi fiecare propoziţie. Folosiţi cuvintele din paranteze. Folosiţi prezentul simplu sau continuu): a) Richard (always, get up).always gets up before b) Hurry up! The bus (wait)..for us! c) Where (we,go)..? This is the wrong road! d) My friends (not believe) my story. e) Please be quiet! I (read) a very interesting book. f) (like, Susan)..horror films? 3. Choose the most suitable word or phrase for each space (Alegeţi cuvântul cel mai potrivit sau construcţia cea mai potrivită pentru fiecare spaţiu). a) Someone B.for you outside. Who is it? A. waits B. is waiting C. waiting. b) What of this book? I think it s fantastic! A. do you think B. is you think C. you do think c).in ghosts? A. Are you believe B. Are you believing C. Do you believe d) Kate is busy. She.for a test. A. is study B. is studying C. is studies e)..a great time at the moment! A. We are have B. We re have C. We re having f) Tina usually..at A. get up B. is getting up C. gets up. 9

10 # PRESENT TENSES (formele timpului prezent) 1. the two present tenses (cele două forme de prezent): Most English verbs have two present tenses. (Cele mai multe verbe englezeşti au două forme de prezent.) Forms like I wait, she thinks, are called simple present or present simple ; forms like I am waiting or she s thinking are called present progressive or present continuous. (Forme ca I wait = eu aştept, she thinks = ea crede, sunt numite prezent simplu ; forme ca I am waiting = eu aştept acum, sau she s thinking = ea se gândeşte, sunt numite prezent progresiv, sau prezent continuu.) Modal verbs like can or must do not have progressive forms, and some other verbs such as know or contain are rarely used in progressive forms. (Verbe modale ca can = a putea, sau must = a trebui nu au forme de continuu, iar alte câteva verbe ca know = a şti, a cunoaşte, sau contain = a conţine sunr rar utilizate la forme de continuu). The two present tenses are used to refer to several different kinds of time. (Cele două forme de prezent sunt folosite pentru a se referi la câteva tipuri diferite de timp). 2. General time: simple present (timpul general: prezentul simplu). When we talk about permanent situations, or about things that happen regularly or all the time (not just around now), we usually use the simple present. (Când vorbim despre situaţii permanente, sau despre lucruri care se întâmplă în mod regulat sau tot timpul [nu în momentul vorbirii], de obicei utilizăm prezentul simplu). My parents live near Dover. ( Părinţii mei locuiesc lângă Dover) I go to London about three times a week. ( Merg la Londra cam de trei ori/săpt) Water freezes at 0 0 Celsius. (Apa îngheaţă la zero grade Celsius) 3. around now: present progressive (acum: prezentul continuu): When we talk about temporary continuing actions and events that are going on around now, we usually use a present progressive tense (când vorbim despre acţiuni temporare în desfăşurare şi evenimente care se întâmplă acum, folosim de obicei timpul prezent progresiv/continuu). What are you doing? (Ce faci acum?) I m reading (Acum citesc) I m going to a lot of parties these days. (Mă duc la o mulţime de petreceri zilele astea) 4. series of events: simple present (serii de evenimente: prezentul simplu): when we talk about series of actions and events that are completed as we speak, we usually use simple present tenses. (când vorbim despre serii de acţiuni sau evenimente care sunt terminate în momentul vorbirii, de obicei folosim prezentul simplu) Watch carefully. First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it. Next. ( Uită-te atent. Întâi iau un castron şi sparg două ouă în el. Apoi.) Taylor shoots and it s a goal! (Taylor trage şi e gol!/ în poartă) 5. future time (timpul viitor): in subordinate clauses, we often use present tenses to refer to the future. (în propoziţiile subordonate, folosim adesea prezentul pentru a ne referi la viitor). I ll go wherever you go. (Voi merge oriunde mergi/vei merge şi tu). Come and see us next week if you re passing through London. 10

11 ( Vino să ne vezi săptămâna viitoare daca treci/o să treci prin Londra) # THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE (prezentul simplu) 1. general time (timpul general): we often use the simple present to talk about permanent situations, or about things that happen regularly, repeatedly or all the time. (folosim adesea prezentul simplu pentru a vorbi despre situaţii permanente, sau despre lucruri care se întâmplă de regulă, în mod repetat, sau tot timpul). What do frogs eat? (Ce mănâncă broaştele?) (NOT: What are frogs eating?) Water boils at Celsius. (Apa fierbe la 100 grade Celsius) (NOT: Water is boiling at Celsius) I play tennis every Wednesday. (Joc tennis in fiecare miercuri) Alice works for an insurance company. ( Alice lucrează pentru o companie de asigurări). 2. series of events (serii de evenimente): when we talk about completed actions and events that happen as we speak or write, we usually use the simple present. (când vorbim despre acţiuni terminate şi evenimente care se întâmplă când vorbim şi scriem, de obicei folosim prezentul simplu). This happens, for example, in demonstrations and commentaries. (Aceasta se întâmplă, de exemplu, în demonstraţii şi comentarii) First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it. Next. ( Întâi iau un castron şi sparg două ouă în el. Apoi.) (NOT: First I am taking a boal) Lydiard passes to Taylor. Taylor to Morrison, Morrison back to Taylor..and Taylor shoots and it s a goal! (Lydiard pasează lui Taylor. Taylor lui Morrison, Morrison înapoi la Taylor.şi Taylor trage şi gol!) 3. here comes..(iată că vine.): Note the structures here comes.and there goes.(observaţi structurile here comes = iată că vine, şi there goes = s-a dus ) Here comes your husband. (Iată-l [că vine] pe soţul tău) (NOT: here is coming.) There goes our bus we ll have to wait for the next one. (S-a dus autobuzul nostru va trebui să-l aşteptăm pe următorul). 4. promises (promisiuni): sometimes we do things by saying special words (promising, swearing). (Uneori facem lucruri spunând cuvinte speciale [promisiuni, jurăminte] We usually use the simple present in these cases. (de obicei folosim prezentul simplu în astfel de cazuri): I promise never to smoke again. (NOT: I m promising) (Promit să nu mai fumez niciodată) I swear that I will tell the truth. (Jur că voi spune adevărul) I agree. (NOT: I am agreeing) (Sunt de accord) He denies the charge. (NOT: He is denying) (Neagă acuzaţia) 5. formal correspondence (scrisori în stil formal): some fixed phrases that are used in letter-writing can be expressed either in the simple present (more formal) or in the present 11

12 progressive (less formal). (unele construcţii fixe care sunt folosite în scrisori pot fi exprimate sau prin prezentul simplu [mai formal], sau prin prezentul continuu [mai puţin formal]) We write to advise you..(scriem pentru a vă sfătui.) (Less formal: We are writing to let you know.) (mai puţin formal) I enclose my cheque for $200. (Anexez în plic cecul meu de $200) (Less formal: I am enclosing.) I look forward to hearing from you. (Abia aştept să aud veşti despre tine) (Less formal: I m looking forward to hearing from you) 6. instructions (indicaţii): the simple present is often used when we ask for and give directions and instructions. (prezentul simplu este adesea utilizat când cerem şi dăm indicaţii) How do I get to the station? You go straight on the traffic lights, then you turn left. (Cum ajung la statie? Mergi drept spre semafor, apoi o iei la stânga ) 7. stories (poveşti): the simple present is common in informal narrative and in summaries of plays, stories, etc. (prezentul simplu este obişnuit în povestirile familiare şi în rezumatele de la piese de teatru, poveşti, etc). In Act I, Hamlet meets the ghost of his father. ( În Actul I, Hamlet întâlneşte fantoma tatălui său). 8. temporary situations: non-progressive verbs (situaţii temporare: verbe non-progresive): we do not usually use the simple present to talk about temporary situations or actions that are only going on around the present. (de obicei nu folosim prezentul simplu pentru a vorbi despre situaţii temporare sau acţiuni care au loc doar la momentul vorbirii). The kettle s boiling shall I make tea? (NOT: The kettle boils ) (Ceainicul fierbe să fac ceaiul?) However, the simple present is used with verbs that cannot normally be used in progressive forms. (Totuşi, prezentul simplu este folosit cu verbe care nu pot fi în mod normal utilizate la forme progresive) I like this wine very much. (NOT: I m liking) (Îmi place foarte mult vinul acesta) I believe you. (NOT: I m believing you). (Te cred) 9. talking about the future (vorbind despre viitor): we do not normally use the simple present to talk about the future. (de obicei nu folosim prezentul simplu pentru a vorbi despre viitor) I promise I won t smoke any more. (Promit că nu voi mai fuma) (NOT: I promise I don t smoke any more). We re going to the theatre this evening. (Vom merge la teatru astă-seară) (NOT: We go to the theatre this evening). There s the doorbell. I ll get it. (Sună la uşă. Deschid/ o să deschid eu) (NOT: I get it) 12

13 However, the simple present is used to refer to future events which are timetabled. (Totuşi, prezentul simplu este folosit pentru a se referi la evenimente viitoare care sunt programate) His train arrives at (Trenul lui ajunge la 11.46) I start my new job tomorrow. ( Încep noul serviciu mâine) And the simple present is often used instead of will in subordinate clauses that refer to the future. (şi prezentul simplu este adesea folosit în loc de will.. [viitor] în propoziţii subordonate care se referă la viitor) I kill anybody who touches my possessions. (NOT: who will touch) (Ucid pe oricine se (va) atinge de bunurile mele) I ll phone you when I get home. (Not: when I ll get home) (O să te sun când [o să] ajung acasă) Note also the use of the simple present in suggestions with Why don t you..?(observaţi de asemenea utilizarea prezentului simplu în sugestii cu why don t you = de ce nu.?) Why don t you take a day off tomorrow? (De ce nu iţi iei zi liberă mâine?) 10. I hear (aud): the simple prezent is used with a perfect or past meaning in introductory expressions like I hear, I see, I gather, I understand (prezentul simplu este folosit cu sens de perfect sau de trecut în expresii introductive de genul aud/am auzit, văd/am văzut, deduc, bănuiesc, înţeleg.) I hear you re getting married. (Aud/am auzit că te căsătoreşti). I see there s been trouble down at the factory. (Văd/înţeleg că au fost necazuri pe la fabrică) I gather Peter s looking for a job. (Bănuiesc că Peter îşi caută o slujbă). Quotations are often introduced with..says. (Citatele sunt adesea introduse prin says = zice ) No doubt you all remember what Hamlet says about suicide. (Fără îndoială toţi vă amintiţi ce spune Hamlet despre sinucidere) It says in the paper that petrol s going up again. (Spune la ziar că iar urcă [preţul la] petrol) # THE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE (prezentul continuu) 1. around now (cam acum): we use the present progressive to talk about temporary actions and situations that are going on around now : before, during and after the moment of speaking. (folosim prezentul continuu pentru a vorbi despre acţiuni temporare şi situaţii care se petrec cam acum : înainte, în timpul şi după momentul vorbirii) Hurry up! We re all waiting for you! (NOT: We all wait.) ( Grăbeşte-te! Toţi stăm şi te aşteptăm!) What are you doing? I m writing letters (NOT: I write letters) (Ce faci (acum)? Scriu scrisori ) Why are you crying? Is something wrong? (NOT: Why do you cry?...) (De ce plângi? S-a întâmplat ceva?) He s working in Saudi Arabia at the moment. (În momentul de faţă lucrează în Arabia Saudită) 13

14 We can also use the present progressive to talk about what is going on around a particular time that we are thinking of. (putem să mai folosim prezentul continuu şi pentru a vorbi despre ceea ce se întâmplă într-o anumită perioadă la care ne gândim) At seven, when the post comes, I m usually having breakfast. (La ora 7, când vine poşta, de obicei imi iau micul dejun) She doesn t like to be disturbed if she s working. (Nu-I place să fie deranjată când/dacă lucrează) You look lovely when you re smiling. (Arăţi minunat când zâmbeşti). 2. changes (schimbări): we also use the present progressive to talk about developing and changing situations (de asemenea folosim prezentul continuu pentru a vorbi despre situaţii în desfăşurare şi schimbare). Compare (comparaţi): The child s getting bigger every day. (copilul este din ce in ce mai mare pe zi ce trece) The climate is getting warmer. (Clima se face mai caldă) (NOT: the climate gets warmer). The universe is expanding, and has been since its beginning. (Universul se extinde, şi continuă să se extindă de la începutul său). 3. talking about the future (vorbind despre viitor): we often use present progressive to talk about the future. (adesea folosim prezentul continuu pentru a vorbi despre viitor). What are you doing tomorrow evening? ( ce faci/ o să faci mâine seară?) Come and see us next week if you re passing through London. (Vino să ne vezi săptămâna viitoare daca treci/vei trece prin Londra) 4. present progressive and simple present: permanent situations (prezentul continuu şi prezentul simplu: situaţii permanente): we do not usually use the present progressive to talk about more long-lasting or permanent situations. (de obicei nu folosim prezentul continuu pentru a vorbi despre situaţii de mai lungă durată sau permanente). Compare (Comparaţi): My sister s living at home for the moment. (Sora mea locuieşte acasă pentru moment) You live in North London, don t you? (Locuieşti/ trăieşti în nordul Londrei, nu-i aşa?) Why is that girl standing on the table? (de ce stă fata aceea în picioare pe masă?) Chetford Castle stands on a hill outside the town. (Castelul Chetford este ridicat pe un deal în afara oraşului). 5. present progressive and simple present: repeated actions (prezentul continuu si prezentul simplu: acţiuni repetate): the present progressive can refer to repeated actions and events, if these are happening around the moment of speaking. (prezentul continuu se poate referi la acţiuni şi evenimente repetate, dacă acestea se întâmplă cam în momentul vorbirii.) Why is he hitting the dog? (de ce loveşte căţelul?) 14

15 Jake s seeing a lot of Felicity these days. ( Jake se tot vede cu Felicity zilele astea) But we do not normally use the present progressive to talk about repeated actions and events which are not closely connected to the moment of speaking. (Dar nu folosim în mod normal prezentul continuu pentru a vorbi despre acţiuni şi evenimente repetate dacă acestea nu sunt îndeaproape legate de momentul vorbirii). I go to the mountains about twice a year. ( Merg la munte cam de două ori pe an) (NOT: I m going ) Water boils at Celsius. (Apa fierbe la 100 grade Celsius) (NOT: Water is boiling..) 6. physical feelings (senzaţii fizice): verbs that refer to physical feelings (feel, hurt, ache) can often be used in simple or progressive tenses without much difference of meaning. (verbele care se referă la senzaţii fizice [ a simţi, a răni/ a durea, a durea ] pot deseori fi utilizate la timpuri simple sau continue făra prea mare diferenţă de sens). How do you feel? OR How are you feeling? (Cum te simţi?) My head aches. OR My head is aching. (Mă doare capul) # NON-PROGRESSIVE VERBS (verbe care nu se folosesc la forma de continuu) 1. verbs not used in progressive forms (verbe care nu se folosesc la forme de continuu): some verbs are never or hardly ever used in progressive forms (unele verbe nu sunt niciodată utilizate, sau sunt foarte rar utilizate la forma de continuu). I like this music. (Îmi place muzica asta) (NOT: I m liking this music) I rang her up because I needed to talk. (Am sunat-o pentru că simţeam nevoia să vorbesc) (NOT: because I was needing to talk) Some other verbs are not used in progressive forms when they have certain meanings. (alte verbe nu sunt folosite la forma de continuu când au anumite sensuri). Compare (comparaţi): I m seeing the doctor at ten o clock. (Mă duc /am programare la doctor la ora 10) I see what you mean. (Înţeleg ce vrei să spui) Many of these non-progressive verbs refer to states rather than actions. (multe dintre aceste verbe se referă la stări mai degrabă decât la acţiuni). Some refer to mental states (know, think, believe); some others refer to the use of the senses (smell, taste). (unele se referă la stări mentale ( a şti, a gândi, a crede ); altele se referă la folosirea simţurilor ( a mirosi, a gusta ) 2. common non-progressive verbs (verbe non-progresive obişnuite): here is a list of some common verbs which are not often used in progressive forms (or which are not used in progressive forms with certain meaning). (iată o listă cu unele verbe obişnuite care sunt rar utlizate la forma de continuu [sau nu sunt utilizate la forma de continuu cu anumite sensuri]. Mental and emotional states (stări mentale şi emoţionale) Believe (a crede) love (a iubi) see ( a înţelege) Doubt (a se îndoi) hate ( a urî) suppose (a presupune) Feel ( a avea o părere) prefer ( a prefera) think (a avea o părere) 15

16 Imagine (a-şi imagina) realise (a-şi da seama) understand ( a înţelege) Know (a şti) recognise (a recunoaşte) want ( a vrea) (dis)like (a-i (dis)plăcea) remember ( a-şi aminti) wish (a dori) Use of the senses (folosirea simţurilor) Appear ( a (a)părea, a se vedea) look ( a părea) seem ( a părea) Hear (a auzi) see ( a vedea) smell ( a mirosi) Sound ( a suna) taste ( a avea gust) Communicating and causing reactions ( comunicare şi provocarea reacţiilor) Agree (a fi de acord) deny( a refuza) impress ( a impresiona) Astonish (a uimi) please ( a face pe plac) satisfy (a satisface) Disagree ( a nu fi de accord) Promise ( a promite) surprise (a surprinde) mean ( a însemna, a intenţiona) Promise ( a promite) Other verbs (alte verbe) Be ( a fi) deserve ( a merita) measure (a avea lungimea) Belong ( a aparţine) fit ( a se potrivi) need ( a avea nevoie) Concern (a preocupa) include (a include) owe ( a datora) Consist ( a consta din) involve ( a implica) own ( a stăpâni, a deţine) Contain ( a conţine) lack ( a-i lipsi) possess ( a poseda) Depend (a depinde) matter ( a conta) weigh ( a avea greutatea) 3. progressive and non-progressive uses (utilizări progresive şi non-progresive): compare the progressive and non-progressive uses of some of the verbs listed above (comparaţi utilizările progresive si non-progresive ale unora dintre verbele de mai sus): I m feeling fine. (= I feel fine Mă simt bine) I feel we shouldn t do it. (NOT: I m feeling we shouldn t do it) (Simt/cred că n-ar trebui să facem asta) What are you thinking about? (La ce te gândeşti?) What do you think of the government? ( NOT: What are you thinking of the government?) (Ce părere ai despre guvern?) I m seeing Leslie tomorrow. (Mâine mă văd cu Leslie) I see what you mean. (NOT: I m seeing what you mean) (Înţeleg ce vrei să spui) urât?) Why are you smelling the meat? Is it bad? (De ce miroşi carnea? E stricată?) Does the meat smell bad? (NOT: Is the meat smelling bad?) (Carnea miroase I m just tasting the cake to see if it s OK. (Gust prăjitura să văd dacă e OK). 16

17 The cake tastes wonderful. (NOT: The cake is tasting..) (Prăjitura are un gust minunat) The scales broke when I was weighing myself this morning. (S-a rupt cântarul când mă cântăream de dimineaţă). I weighed 68 kilos three months ago and look at me now! (NOT: I was weighing 68 kilos three.) (Aveam/cântăream 68 de kg acum 3 luni şi uite cum arăt acum!) Jack is being noisy. ( Jack este gălăgios acum) Jack is noisy. ( Jack este gălăgios de felul lui) We are having an interesting conversation. ( Avem/ purtăm o discuţie interesantă) Deirdre has a Porsche. ( D are/ posedă o maşină P) I am depending on you. (Depind de tine) It depends what you mean. ( Depinde ce vrei să spui) Note also that many non-progressive verbs are occasionally used in progressive forms in order to emphasise the idea of change or development. (Observaţi de asemenea că multe verbe non-progresive sunt uneori folosite cu forme progresive pentru a accentua idea de schimbare) These days, more and more people are preferring to take early retirement. (Astăzi, din ce în ce mai mulţi oameni preferă pensionarea timpurie) The water s tasting better today. ( Apa are gust mai bun azi) 4. can see : Can is often used with see, hear, feel, taste, smell, understand and remember to give a kind of progressive meaning, especially in British English. ( can = a putea este adesea utilizat cu a vedea, a auzi, a simţi, a gusta, a mirosi, a înţelege, a-şi aminti pentru a da un fel de sens progresiv, mai ales în engleza britanică). I can see Sue coming down the road. ( O văd pe Sue venind pe stradă). Can you smell something burning? (Miroşi/ simţi că arde ceva?) 5. ing forms (forme în ing ): even verbs which are never used in progressive tenses have ing forms which can be used in other kinds of structure. (chiar şi verbele care nu sunt folosite niciodată la timpuri progresive au forme în ing care pot fi utlizate pentru alte structuri). Knowing her tastes, I bought her a large box of chocolates. (ştiindu-i gusturile, i-am cumpărat o cutie mare de ciocolată) I don t like to go to a country without knowing something of the language. ( Nu-mi place să merg într-o ţară fără să-i ştiu cât de cât limba) 17

18 # PRESENT TENSES: STORIES, COMMENTARIES, AND INSTRUCTIONS (formele de prezent: povestiri, comentarii, şi indicaţii) 1. stories (povestiri): present tenses are often used to tell stories, especially in an informal style. (timpurile prezente sunt adesea utilizate pentru a spune poveşti, mai ales într-un stil familiar). The simple present is used for the events the things that happen one after another. (Prezentul simplu este utilizat pentru evenimente lucrurile care se întâmplă unul după altul). The present progressive is used for background things that are already happening when the story starts, or that continue through the story. (Prezentul continuu este folosit pentru cadru lucrurile care se întâmplau deja când povestirea începe, sau care continuă pe parcursul povestirii). So I open the door, and I look out into the garden, and I see this man. He s wearing a pink skirt and a policeman s helmet. Good morning, he says. (Aşa că deschid uşa, şi mă uit în grădină, şi îl văd pe omul acesta. Poartă (avea pe el) o fustă roz şi o cască de poliţist. Bună dimineaţa, spune el.) There s this Scotsman, you see, and he s walking through the jungle when he meets a gorilla. And the gorilla s eating a snake sandwich. So the Scotsman goes up to the gorilla.(a fost o dată un Scoţian, ştii, şi el se plimba/ se plimbă prin junglă când vede o gorilă. Şi gorila mânca un sandwhich cu şarpe. Aşa că scoţianul se duce la gorilă.) The simple present is common in summaries of plays, stories, etc (prezentul simplu este obişnuit în rezumatele pieselor de teatru, povestiri, etc) In Act I, Hamlet meets the ghost of his father. The ghost tells him..(in Actul I, Hamlet întâlneşte fantoma tatălui său. Fantoma îi spune ) Chapter 2: Postman Pat goes to Scotland and makes friends with a sheep. (Capitolul 2: Poştaşul Pat se duce în Scoţia si se împrieteneşte cu o oaie) 2. commentaries (comentarii): in commentaries, the use of tenses is similar. (În comentarii, folosirea timpurilor este similară). The simple present is used for the quicker actions and events (which are finished before the sentences that describe them); the present progressive is used for longer actions and situations. (Prezentul simplu este utilizat pentru acţiunile şi evenimentele mai rapide [care sunt terminate înainte de propoziţiile care le descriu]; prezentul continuu este utilizat pentru acţiuni şi situaţii mai lungi). There are more simple and fewer progressive tenses in a football commentary, for instance, than in a commentary on a boat race. (Sunt mai multe forme simple şi mai puţine de continuu la un comentariu de fotbal, de exemplu, decat pentru un comentariu la o cursă de bărci). Smith passes to Devaney, Devaney to Barnes, Barnes to Lucas and Harris intercepts..harris to Simms, nice ball and Simms shoots! (Smith pasează lui Devaney, Devaney lui Barnes, Barnes lui Lucas şi Harris interceptează, frumoasă minge şi Simms trage!) Oxford are drawing slightly ahead of Cambridge now; they re rowing with a beautiful rhythm; Cambridge are looking a little disorganized..(cei de la Oxford o iau câte puţin înaintea celor de la Cambridge; vâslesc într-un ritm frumos; cei de la Cambridge par un pic dezorganizaţi). 18

19 3. instructions and demonstrations (instrucţiuni şi demonstraţii): we often use present tenses in a similar way to give instructions, demonstrations and directions (deseori folosim formele de prezent în mod similar pentru a da indicaţii, a face demonstraţii şi a arăta direcţia): Ok, let s go over it again. You wait outside the bank until the manager arrives. Then you radio Louie, who s waiting round the corner, and he drives round to the front entrance. You and Louie grab the manager. (Ok, să recapitulăm. Tu aştepţi în faţa băncii pâna soseşte managerul. Apoi tu îi transmiţi lui Louie, care între timp aşteaptă după colţ, şi el se îndreaptă cu maşina spre intrarea din faţă. Tu şi Louie îl înşfăcaţi pe manager ) First I put a lump of butter into a frying pan and light the gas; then while the butter s melting I break three eggs into a bowl, like this.( Întâi pun o bucată de unt întro tigaie şi aprind focul; apoi în timp ce se topeşte untul, sparg 3 ouă într-un castron, aşa.) How do I get to the station? You go straight on to the traffic lights, then you turn left (Cum ajung la staţie? Mergi drept înainte pâna la semafor, apoi o iei la stânga). Other uses of present continuous (alte utilizări ale prezentului continuu): complaints about bad habits (plângeri legate de obiceiurile rele ale cuiva) You are always complaining about my cooking! (Mereu te plângi de cum gătesc eu! other possible adverbs are (alte adverbe posibile sunt): constantly, continually, forever ( constant, continuu, mereu ) Other uses of present simple (alte utilizări pentru prezentul simplu): Making declarations (declaraţii): verbs describing opinions and feelings tend to be state verbs (verbele care descriu păreri şi sentimente tind să fie verbe de stare): I hope you ll come to my party. ( Sper că o să vii la petrecerea mea). I bet you don t know the answer! (Sunt sigur că/ pariez că nu ştii răspunsul!) Headlines (titluri din ziare): these are written in a telegram style, and references to the past are usually simplified to present simple (acestea sunt scrise în stil telegramă, iar referirile la trecut sunt de obicei simplificate prin prezentul simplu) Ship sinks in midnight collision. (Barca se scufundă/scufundată în coliziunea de la miezul nopţii). Practice 1. Choose the most appropriate words underlined: (Alegeţi cea mai bună variantă subliniată) a. I haven t decided yet about whether to buy a new car or a second-hand one. But I think about it/ I m thinking about it. b. All right, you try to fix the television! But I hope /I m hoping you know what you re doing! c. Every year I visit/i m visiting Britain to improve my English. d. It s time we turned on the central heating. It gets/it is getting colder every day. 19

20 e. Of course, you re Mary, aren t you! I recognise/ I am recognising you now. f. What s the matter? Why do you look/ are looking at me like that? g. The film of War and Peace is very long. It lasts/ It is lasting over four hours. h. I can see from what you say that your mornings are very busy! But what do you do/ are you doing in the afternoons? i. I m going to buy a new swimming costume. My old one doesn t fit/ isn t fitting any more. j. That must be the end of the first part of the performance. What happens now/ is happening now? 1. Choose the most suitable word or phrase to complete each sentence. (Alegeţi cuvântul sau construcţia cea mai potrivită pentru a completa fiecare propoziţie) a. What exactly.? A. is this job involving? B. Does this job involve? b. Who exactly.? A. does own this car B. does this car belong to c. that we have been here for six months already! A. Do you realise B. Are you realising d. I d like to stay longer. But.just for the weekend. A. I come B I ve come e. Terry is in bed. He..flu. A. has B. is having f. This new teaching job is really difficult, but. A. I survive B. I m surviving g. What on that notice? A. does it write B. does it say h. Ladies and gentlemen, I this ship HMS Highlight. A. name B. am naming i. Absolutely! I..with you completely. A. agree B. am agreeing j..this car. Do you want to buy it? A. I sell B. I m selling 2. Put each verb in brackets into the most suitable present tense. (Puneţi verbele din paranteze la timpul prezent cel mai potrivit) a. I (hear) that you have been promoted. Congratulations! b. British people (drink) more and more wine, apparently. c. I hope Sarah will be here soon. I (depend) on her. d. Please be quiet! You (continually interrupt). e. Hey, you! What (you think) you re doing? f. Could you come here please? I (want) to talk to you now. g. Jane is away on holiday so Linda (handle) her work. h. To be honest, I (doubt) whether Jim will be here next week. i. You ve only just started the job, haven t you? How (you get on)? j. Pay no attention to Graham. He (just be) sarcastic again. 3. Rewrite each sentence, beginning as shown, so that the meaning stays the same. (Rescrieţi/ reformulaţi fiecare propoziţie, începând cum se vede, astfel ca sensul să rămâna acelaşi) a. What s your opinion of Ted s new book? What do.. b. Nigel keeps interrupting me. Nigel is.. c. What is the meaning of this word? What does. 20

21 d. The number of people who own bicycles is increasing. More and more people. e. What about going to that new film at the Rex tonight? How do.. f. What is the weight of that piece of meat? How much g. Never mind about the price, just buy it! The price.. h. There s smell of onions in this room. This room.. i. What is inside the box? What does. j. Paul has flu. Paul is. 4. Put each verb in brackets into the most suitable present tense. (Puneţi fiecare verb din paranteze la cea mai potrivită formă de prezent). I work in a large office with about thirty other people, most of whom I (1) know quite well. We (2) (spend) most of the day together, so we have all become friends. In fact, most of my colleagues are so interesting, that I (3) (think) of writing a book about them! (4) (take) Helen Watson, for example. Helen (5) (run) the accounts department. At the moment she (6) (go out) with Keith Ballantine, one of the sales representatives, and they (7) (seem) very happy together. But everyone (except Helen apparently) (8) (know) that Keith (9) (always make) eyes at Susan Porter. But I (10) (happen) to know that Susan (11) (dislike) Keith. I can t stand people who (12) (apologise) all the time! she told me. And besides, I know he (13) (deceive) poor Helen. He (14) (see) Betty wills from the overseas department. And plenty of other interesting things (15) (go on). For instance, every week money (16) (disappear) from the petty cash box. When you (17) (realise) that someone in your office is a thief, it (18) (upset) you at first. But I (19) (also try) to catch whoever it is before the police are called in. I m not going to tell you who I (20) (suspect). Well, not yet anyway! 5. Rewrite each sentence so that it contains the word in capitals, and so the meaning stays the same. (Rescrieţi/ reformulaţi fiecare propoziţie, astfel încât să conţină cuvintele cu majuscule, iar sensul să rămâna acelaşi) a. Charles and his father are exactly alike. LOOKS b. The cost of excursions is part of the price of the holiday. INCLUDES c. I find working here really enjoyable. ENJOYING d. I study hard, so I spend a lot of time in the library. MEANS e. What s your opinion of Wendy s new painting? THINK f. Sunrise is at 4.30 tomorrow morning. THE SUN g. What s on your mind at the moment? ABOUT h. Neil has the bad habit of getting in people s way. ALWAYS i. I am losing my voice. GOING j. How long is that wall? DOES Choose the most suitable word or phrase underlined. (Alegeţi cea mai bună variantă subliniată) a. I work in this office all this year/all the time. b. Are you studying French for long/at the moment? c. I am not making much money these days/ so far this year. d. The food tastes worse now/ usually. You ve put too much salt in. 21

22 e. We normally / forever get in touch with customers by post. f. Pete was ill but he is getting over his illness currently/ now. g. I m feeling rather run down lately/ at present, doctor. h. I always stay on duty since/until six o clock. i. People continually/ traditionally prepare coloured eggs at Easter. j. Fortunately the baby now/ recently sleeps all night. 6. Identify any possible errors in these sentences, and correct them if necessary.(identificaţi orice greşeli posibile în aceste propoziţii şi corectaţi acolo unde este necesar) a. I m depending on you, so don t make any mistakes! b. Is this total including the new students? c. Excuse me, but do you wait for someone? d. These potatoes are tasting a bit funny. e. How are you feeling today? f. I look forward to hearing from you. g. I have a feeling that something goes wrong. h. What s that you are eating? i. Are you hearing anything from Wendy these days? j. I think you re being rather mean about this. Other Useful Skills There are other valuable skills which you can easily gain which can make all the difference to your application. Wordprocessing, typing and shorthand are things you are either taught or pick up on the job, but prior knowledge would show some initiative. Most journalists type in a very haphazard way but to a high speed. It s obviously better for your accuracy and the health of your hands if you can learn to do it properly. Confidence with wordprocessors is an advantage. Systems used by news organizations vary, but being faced with a VDU screen for the first time can be rather daunting and can frighten some people away from entering the industry. A few local evening classes in word-processing can build up your confidence and typing speed and look good on your CV. Shorthand training can be the bane of a journalist s life. Local newspaper trainees often have to travel to weekly classes in the evenings for hours of drilling. You should attain a speed of 100wpm but, like driving, some people pick it up quickly whereas for others it is an uphill struggle. It may help to find a night class beforehand to build up some speed even if you do not take an exam. Although many journalists use tape recorders, they tend to use them only as backup as machines can break down, especially when exposed to rainstorms. And, as stated earlier, most editors are impressed by candidates who have taken the traditional approach and who have grounded themselves in this basic skill. It cannot be stressed strongly enough how most candidates fare better when they can prove their dedication to the field of journalism through work experience and samples of their own writing. However, there are many who can disprove this point so do not be deterred from applying for jobs as employers who see potential in a recruit will be prepared to give them a chance. 22

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