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2 The structure of this ppt Structural, categorial and functional issues: English Hungarian Functional issues (in English) 2

3 1.1. Structural issues The VP lecture (1) S NP John VP laughed. read the paper. gave Kate a present. sang a song happily. the subject predicate primary division 3

4 1.2. Structural issues verbal The VP elements lecture (2) John is has has been will have been will have been will have been being laughed laughing laughed laughing laughing laughed laughed at you. at you. at you. at you. at you. at. at. multi-verb expression: verbal complex auxiliary/auxiliaries + lexical/full verb two uses of the term VP: including or excluding the non-lexical part of the verbal complex: (aux aux aux aux V ) vs. aux aux aux aux (V ) in our approach, a mixed view: aux (aux aux aux V) 4

5 1.3. Structural issues Quirk et al. (1985) sentence subject predicate auxiliary as operator predication He should(n t) have been painting her. Should(n t) he have been painting her? (generalized) functional categories 5

6 1.4. Structural issues our alternative sentence subject auxiliary as operator predication He should(n t) have been painting her. Should(n t) he have been painting her? 6

7 our alternative (1) 1.5. Structural issues sentence S subject NP auxiliary as operator Aux predication VP Aux Aux V NP He should(n t) have been painting her. Should(n t) he have been painting her? together with phrasal (categorial) representation 7

8 our alternative (2) 1.6. Structural issues S NP Aux VP Aux Aux V NP He should(n t) have been painting her. Aux NP Should(n t) he have been painting her? with only phrasal (categorial) representation 8

9 1.7. Structural issues our generalized phrase structure S (XP) NP subj (Aux) VP (Aux) (Aux) (Aux) V (NP) obj1 (NP) obj2 XP* a. XP: categorial variability b. (Aux), (NP), (XP): optionality c. XP*: any number of XPs, possibly null d. imperative sentences often lack the subject NP 9

10 1.8. Structural issues 1. John laughed. 2. John will laugh. 3. John ate the cheese. 4. John gave Mary the cheese (in the morning). 5. John gave the cheese to Mary (in the morning). 6. John will laugh at Mary. 7. The children were playing loudly in the bedroom. 8. Mary, John will invite her. 9. Mary, John will invite. 10. John his name is. 10

11 1.9. Structural issues 11. In the morning I bought the tickets. 12. Did you buy the tickets in the morning? 13. What did you buy in the morning? [next slide] 14. Whose tickets did you buy in the morning? 15. John might have been being insulted by the crowd for an hour. 16. (You) Open the window! 17. Don t open the window! 18. John told Mary that Peter had bought the tickets in the morning. 11

12 1.10. Structural issues an analysis S NP Aux NP VP N N V PP P Det NP N What did you buy in the morning? 12

13 1.11. Structural issues a general (blank) structure S (XP) NP (Aux) VP (Aux) (Aux) (Aux) V (NP) (NP) XP* 13

14 2.1. English vs. Hungarian sentence structure the most fundamental difference: English is grammatical-function-configurational: it uses designated structural positions to (canonically) encode the central grammatical functions: SUBJ, OBJ & OBJ2 Hungarian is discourse-function-configurational: it uses designated structural positions to (canonically) encode the central discourse functions: TOP (old information) & FOC (new information) 14

15 2.2. English vs. Hungarian sentence structure word order permutations and grammatical functions in the two languages SUBJ, OBJ 1. The boy knows the girl. 1. A fiú ismeri a lány-t. the boy.nom knows the girl-acc 2. *The boy the girl knows. 3. *Knows the boy the girl. 4. *Knows the girl the boy. 5. *The girl knows the boy. (!) 6. *The girl the boy knows. 2. A fiú a lány-t ismeri. 3. Ismeri a fiú a lány-t. 4. Ismeri a lány-t a fiú. 5. A lány-t ismeri a fiú. 6. A lány-t a fiú ismeri..nom = unmarked nominative (subjective) case 15 -ACC = marked accusative (objective) case

16 2.3. Basic Hungarian sentence structure word order permutations and discourse functions in Hungarian TOP, FOC 1. Ismeri a fiú a lány-t. 2. Ismeri a lány-t a fiú. 3. A fiú ismeri a lány-t. 4. A fiú ismeri a lány-t. 5. A lány-t ismeri a fiú. 6. A lány-t ismeri a fiú. = heavy stress 7. A fiú a lány-t ismeri. 8. A fiú a lány-t ismeri. 9. *A fiú a lány-t ismeri. 10. *A fiú a lány-t ismeri. 11. A lány-t a fiú ismeri. 12. A lány-t a fiú ismeri. 13. *A lány-t a fiú ismeri. 14. *A lány-t a fiú ismeri. 16

17 2.4. Basic English sentence structure (a reminder) S NP [SUBJ] VP V NP [OBJ] XP* 17

18 2.5. Basic Hungarian sentence structure S XP* [TOP] VP (XP) [FOC] V XP* 18

19 2.6. Basic Hungarian sentence structure NP [TOP] NP [TOP] S NP [FOC] 19 VP V NP NP Ismeri Ismeri a fiú a lányt A fiú ismeri a lányt. A fiú ismeri a lányt. A lányt a fiú ismeri. A lányt a fiú ismeri. a lányt. a fiú.

20 3.1. Functional issues Quirk et al. (1985): basic binary division: subject predicate subject typically: topic (= theme, what is being discussed ) predicate: something new (about the subject) (1) The boy has opened the door. (2) The door has been opened (by the boy). determines agreement (concord), cf. subject-verb agreement (3) The boy has/*have opened the door. (4) The boys *has/have opened the door. involved in inversion in questions, cf. subject-auxiliary (operator) inversion (5) Has the boy opened the door? (6) What has the boy opened? 20

21 3.2. Functional issues Quirk et al. (1985) five elements of a sentence 1. subject: S (be careful! S = sentence vs. S = subject!) 2. verb: V 3. object (direct vs. indirect): O d vs. O i 4. complement (subject vs object complement): C s vs. C o 5. adverbial: A 21

22 3.3. Functional issues (1) John (S) searched (V) the room (O d ) carefully (A). (2) The girl (S) is (V) now (A) a student (C s ) in Debrecen (A). (3) His brother (S) grew (V) happier (C s ) gradually (A). (4) It (S) rained (V) steadily (A) all day (A). (5) He (S) had given (V) the girl (O i ) an apple (O d ). (6) They (S) make (V) him (O d ) the chairman (C o ) every year (A). (7) She (S) saw (V) [that it (S) rained (V) all day (A)] (O d ). (8) He (S) grew (V) happier (C s ) [when Mary (S) arrived (V)] (A). (9) [That she (S) asked (V) the question (O d ) correctly (A)] (S) pleased (V) him (O d ) enormously (A). 22

23 3.4. Functional issues subject and object complements ~(2) The girl (S) is (V) a student (C s ) / happy (C s ). (cf. a student girl, a happy girl ) Hungarian: A lány diák/boldog. A lány diák/boldog volt. ~(3) His brother (S) grew (V) happier (C s ). (+ become, turn ) cf. He is/was happier. (as a result) ~(6) They (S) make (V) him (O d ) the chairman (C o ). cf. He (S) is the chairman (C s ). (as a result) 23

24 3.5. Functional issues direct vs. indirect objects ~(1) John (S) searched (V) the room (O d ). ~(6) They (S) make (V) him (O d ) the chairman (C o ). ~(7) She (S) saw (V) [that it (S) rained (V) all day (A)] (O d ). ~(5) He (S) gave (V) the girl (O i ) an apple (O d ). cf. He (S) gave (V) an apple (O d ) to the girl (A). Quirk et al. (1985) --- a semantic approach direct object: the given/received entity 1st or 2nd object NP indirect object: the receiver 1st object NP or PP (A) -- a structural ( grammatical functional) approach is better 24

25 3.6. Functional issues NP S VP V NP NP He gave the girl O i O 1 an apple. O d O 2 NP S VP V NP PP He gave an apple O d O 1 25 to the girl. A A

26 3.7. Functional issues Quirk et al. (1985: 721) Type S(ubject) V(erb) O(bject)(s) C(omplem.) A(dverbial) SV SVO SVC SVA SVOO SVOC SVOA The sun The lecture Your dinner My office I The students You intransitive is shining monotransitive bored copular seems copular is ditransitive must send complex-trans. have found complex-trans. can put O d me O i my parents O d a letter O d her O d the dishes 26 C s ready C o very helpful S-related A in the building O-related A on the table

27 3.8. Functional issues problems 1. the columns appear to indicate syntactic positions, but in ditransitive constructions the two objects have two distinct (adjacent), designated positions: V NP 1 NP 2 the object complement (immediately) follows NP 1, the primary object it can be an adjectival phrase (see previous slide) but it can also be a NP, in which case it is in the same position as the second(ary) object, NP 2, i.e. the secondary object NP and the object complement NP should be represented in complementary distribution 2. the adverbials in SVA and SVOA are obligatory this calls for a more substantial functional distinction: OBLIQUE vs. ADJUNCT 27

28 3.9. Functional issues Type S V O 1 O 2 / C A:OBLIQUE A: ADJUNCT SV It intr. shines SVO SVC SVA SVOO SVOC SVOA It It It I I He monotr. bored copular seems copular was ditr. sent called compl-tr. found called compl-tr. can put O d me O i my friend my friend O d my friend my friend O d the book C s ready O d a letter a taxi C o helpful a genius 28 (obligatory) S-related A in the box O-related A on the table (optional) at night at night

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