Refers to external patterns of a poem Including the way lines and stanzas are organized

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1 UNIT THREE: POETRY

2 Form and Structure Form Refers to external patterns of a poem Including the way lines and stanzas are organized Structure Organization of images, ideas and words to present a unified impression or an idea to the reader

3 Lines and stanzas Line A horizontal row of words May or may not form a complete sentence Stanza Groups of lines forming a unit Separate from the next stanza by a line or space

4 Example The mother smiled to know her child was in a sacred place, but that smile was the last smile to come upon her face. --Dudley Randall, from Ballad of Birmingham

5 Language of Poetry Imagery Figurative

6 Imagery Descriptive language used to represent objects, feelings and thoughts. It often appeals to one or more of the five senses: sight, touch, hearing, taste and smell. Imagery is the painting of pictures in the reader s mind through the use of language.

7 Analyzing Imagery When you analyze imagery, it is very important to avoid simply listing the images that the poet uses. For each image you discuss, you should consider: What type of image is being used? Why this particular image is being used? What the effect of this image is on the reader? How the image contributes to the poem as a whole? You should suggest a possible interpretation of an image rather than stating your ideas as definite.

8 Figurative Language Figure of Speech A word or an expression that is not literally true but expresses some truth beyond the literal level. o Simile o Metaphor o Personification o Hyperbole

9 Simile type of imagery that makes a comparison between one thing and another, to strengthen the word picture in the reader s mind Uses words like or as to compare two seemingly unlike things

10 Types of Simile Simile 1. Where one thing is said to be like another Simile 2. Where one thing is said to be as as a

11 Simile 1 Simile 1. Where one thing is said to be like another, for instance: The sun looked like a golden coin in the sky. In this example, the sun is being compared to something that looks similar, i.e. the golden coin.

12 Simile 2 Where one thing is said to be as as a, for instance: The moon shone as brightly as the stars. This type of simile gives a slightly more definite feeling. Here, the light of the moon is being compared to that of the stars.

13 Practice with these examples These similes are taken out of context, you will need to create your own inferences about the effects they might create within a poem: The moon shone as brightly as the stars. The cat was as black as the night. The man cried like a baby. The house was as silent as the grave. The tree was gnarled and bent, like an old man.

14 Metaphor Compares two or more things by implying that one thing is another They do not use like or as rather than saying that something is like another, a metaphor says it actually is that thing. can create a far more powerful effect than similes, because they are so definite in their comparison.

15 Metaphor Example Her face was a book, he could read her every thought and emotion. In this example, the writer tells us that the girl s face is a book, when clearly it is not. He develops the metaphor slightly, by using the word read. As you would read a book, so the man reads the girl s face.

16 Analyzing Metaphors When discussing metaphors, and the effects they create in poetry Describe the word picture you see in your mind, and how the links you associate with that picture add to the poem. For example: In the last metaphor, the girl s face is described as a book, suggesting that her emotions are visible, just as print is in a book. By saying that he can read the girl s face, the poet strengthens the image. Her face was a book, he could read her every thought and emotion.

17 Practice Analyzing Metaphors These metaphors are taken out of context, you will need to decide on the effects that they might create within a poem: The cat slunk his way through the dustbins, a black panther deadly in his intentions. Life is a blank page, waiting for us to write on it. My love is the sunshine in my life, brightening up my day.

18 Personification Giving human characteristics to an animal, object or idea It strengthens a description, making it more vivid and memorable As with simile and metaphor, personification works by making a connection between two things

19 Example The house sat proudly on the land, its windows were eyes watching over its kingdom. - In this example, the house is personified. - Clearly, a house does not sit, nor does it feel proud, whilst a person does. - The image is developed further as the windows are described as eyes watching.

20 Analyze Personification The pen ran quickly over her page, jumping from word to word as though rushing to finish a race. The sun climbed wearily into the sky, pushing its way through the black clouds and attempting to smile.

21 Examples She laughs like wind water, shaking her braids loose, she laughs --Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, from Woman with Kite Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines, And often is his gold complexion dimmed; --William Shakespeare, from Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer s Day? the spring rain is a thread of pearls --Lady Ise, Form a tanka

22 The Sound of Poetry Rhyme Is the repetition of a final stressed vowel and succeeding sounds in two or more words Example Hat and cat, willowier and billowier Fire and desire

23 The Sound of Poetry Internal Rhyme Occurs within lines of poetry Example The mother smiled to know her child End Rhyme Occurs at the ends of lines Example From what I ve tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire.

24 Rhyme Scheme The pattern formed by end rhymes is shown by a row of letters (aabb) in which a different letters of the alphabet signals a new rhyme Black reapers with the sound of steel on stones a Are sharpening scythes I see them place the hones a In their hip-pockets as a thing that s done, b And start their silent swinging, one by one. b --Jean Toomer, from Reapers

25 Rhythm and Meter Rhythm: Pattern of stresses and unstressed syllables in a line can be regular or irregular Meter Is a regular rhythm Foot A basic unit in measuring rhythm Contains one stressed syllable marked with ( / ) and one or more unstressed syllables marked with ( ).

26 Symbol Syllable Type Description / Stressed: Syllable carries the stress Unstressed: Syllable is not stressed

27 Example If I Had loved you less or played you slyly I might have held you for a summer more --Edna St. Vincent Millay, from Well, I have Lost You; and I Lost You Fairly

28 If I / had loved / you less / or played / you slyly I might / have held / you for / a sum / mer more

29 Alliteration: repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words past the puffed-cheeked clouds, she follows it, her eyes slit-smiling at the sun. Consonance: repetition of consonant sounds within words or at the ends of words And kisses are a better fate

30 Assonance: repetition of vowels sounds within non-rhyming words I sipped the rim with palatable lip. (The i sound is repeated in sipped, rim and lip) Onomatopoeia: use of word or phrase, such as swoosh or clank, that imitates or suggests the sound of what it describes

31 Hyperbole Exaggerated expression Might be used to express strong emotion, make a point or evoke humor Example I nearly died laughing

32 Free Verse A poetry without a fixed pattern of meter and rhyme

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