1 School Days Cartoons CARTOON OF THE WEEK CARTOON OF THE WEEK Level TIME Inc.
2 Reader s Response Do you think students from other cultures would find these cartoons funny? Why or why not? Which cartoon best describes your own school experiences? Explain. Did you think these cartoons were funny? Why or why not? USING THE UNEXPECTED What makes you laugh? When Stahler and Thompson were designing these cartoons, they were both counting on personal experience and the element of surprise to make their audience laugh. Notice how in both cases, the cartoonists begin with very ordinary, but funny-looking characters in predictable situations. In the first cartoon, Stahler shows two students having a conversation about homework. In the other, Thompson shows two students having a conversation on their way to school in the morning. Both artists rely on the reader s personal experiences to figure out the time, place, and circumstances of these events. The element of humor enters into the scene after the first student in each cartoon has spoken. Both Stahler and Thompson set up a situation in which the reader could easily predict a suitable response, but then the unexpected happens a surprise answer! Writer s Response In the top cartoon, how does the cartoonist use pictures to get across the idea of heavy homework? In the bottom cartoon, why does the cartoonist show balloons and confetti coming out the front door? What background knowledge about school do the cartoonists think readers will have? Draw a cartoon that shows something you think is funny about the first day of school. Try to make your readers laugh by adding a surprise. Find a cartoon in a magazine or newspaper that you think is funny or interesting. Write a description of the scene and characters. Explain what is happening and why. Write a top five list for the five best reasons for going back to school. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
3 Tornado Watch: Tracking Storms T he chase was on. Mark Askelson was riding in a speeding truck. Danger was rushing closer and closer: a swirling, angry tornado. Askelson had to get to safety. But it wasn t time for him to get out of the storm s way yet. First he had to drop tools in the path of the tornado. The tools would measure the storm s temperature and strength. Askelson placed the tools and then quickly found safety. Askelson works for the National Severe Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma. He studies tornadoes to figure out when and where they will hit. With that information, scientists can give people warning. That s our goal: to answer scientific questions about tornadoes so that we can help save people s lives, says Askelson. Tornadoes are nature s most powerful storms. They can produce super strong winds that blow at speeds of 00 miles an hour. When a tornado strikes, it can cause a lot of serious damage. SUPERCELL VORTEX COLD AIR AIR WARM A twister crashed through this Nashville church on April 6. A DANGEROUS SEASON Spring is tornado season in the South. In April 998 tornadoes struck eight states in the Southeast. That season s storms were especially deadly. They hit more cities and towns than usual. The tornadoes killed people. Rodney Standford of Nashville, Tennessee, saw a twister tear through a football stadium. Parts of the stadium were being tossed around like Popsicle sticks, he said. I ve never seen anything like it. Scientists are a long way from knowing how to stop tornadoes. But they re closer than ever to understanding why they form (see box). Says Askelson, We re moving toward a time when we ll be able to give people hours of notice before a storm hits. Those hours will save lives. HOW A TORNADO FORMS A giant storm system made of moisture and wind is called a supercell. It is formed when warm air crashes into cooler air. The crash sometimes causes the wind to start spinning and form a tornado. The center of a tornado is called a vortex. Most tornadoes are black from dust and dirt they suck up from the ground. DAVE MARTIN/AP ILLUSTRATION FOR TIME FOR KIDS BY ALEX REARDON Level TIME Inc.
4 Reader s Response Writer s Response What new facts did you learn about tornadoes from this article? How did the graphic help you understand tornadoes? Why is it important that we learn as much as we can about tornadoes? Why do you think the author wrote the first paragraph to sound like a scene from a scary movie? What effect did this have on you, the reader? Why did the author include a graphic that explains how a tornado forms? What is the purpose of the arrows in the diagram? Tornadoes are dangerous and scary. But I ve DIRECT never been in a tornado QUOTATIONS myself, thank goodness. So how could I convince kids that I knew about tornadoes? I decided I had to talk to some people who really did know. Mark Askelson was one. I copied down exactly the words he said so I could put those words in the article. Then I talked to Rodney Standford. I wrote down his exact words, too. In the article, I put the words those two people said in quotation marks so the kids reading the article would know that was exactly what they said. Direct quotations from people can make an article more interesting. But they can also show a reader what someone who has really been in a tornado or studied them knows. That s convincing! Pretend you are Mark Askelson, and you are going to speak to a third-grade class about tornadoes. Make a poster that explains how a tornado is formed. Imagine that you were riding along with Mark Askelson when he left the tools in the path of that tornado. Write a journal entry about what that ride was like. Be sure to explain the purpose of the trip. What should people do if they heard a warning that a tornado is on its way? Write a list of safety tips that people should follow. You may want to ask your local police or fire department for advice. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
5 Top Five: Population Top 5 Nations with the Biggest Population Almost 70 million folks live in our country s sleepy suburbs, crowded cities, and tiny towns. That may sound like a lot. But India, which is only a third as big, has nearly four times as many people. China has the most people of all! Here are the nations with the biggest populations: ILLUSTRATION FOR TIME FOR KIDS BY MARTY BAUMAN Top 5 Least Densely Populated Lands In the U.S. there are 48 people for every square mile. Many nations are even more packed. Europe s tiny Monaco has 5,868 people per square mile! If you need your space, visit these lands. They have the fewest folks per square mile: Level TIME Inc.
6 Reader s Response Writer s Response Which country has a little more than three times as many people as the United States does? What do you suppose the countries with the least number of people per square mile have in common? Would you rather live in a country that has many people or one with few people? Why? Why do you think the writer of these two graphics decided to present the information this way instead of writing about it? Why did the writer explain that the United States has 48 people for every square mile and Monaco has 5,868? How are these facts helpful in understanding the graphic? Why did the writer use figures of people instead of bars to make the graph? How do the symbols make it easier to compare populations? Sometimes when you have a lot of facts to get across to your CHOOSING readers, using a graph, GRAPHICS chart, map, or other visual is the best way to make your point. For example, the graph about the biggest national populations makes it easy for readers to see how many more people some countries have than others. Choosing the kind of graphic to use is very important. Some kinds of information will work in some kinds of graphics but not in others. For example, a bar graph is best for comparing numbers like populations of five different countries. A line graph wouldn t work. A circle graph wouldn t work. First, think carefully about what you are trying to show your readers. Then, choose a graphic that fits your purpose. Your school newspaper wants to know which classrooms in your school have the biggest populations the number of kids in each class. Find out how many kids are in each classroom. Create a graph that shows your findings. Find out how many square miles are in China, in India, and in the United States. Make a chart or graphic to illustrate this information. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
7 4 CARTOON OF THE WEEK The Perils of Peanuts 4 A t first, you feel an itchy throat and runny nose. Next, you feel like throwing up. Then suddenly, you can t even breathe. That is what it can be like for a person who is having an allergic reaction to something made with peanuts. Without the proper medicine, the person might die. Some people who are severely allergic to peanuts will have this kind of violent reaction after just smelling or touching anything that contains peanut oil or dust. Many people are allergic to peanuts. They are, in fact, the most common food that people are allergic to. Now peanuts are under attack. Airlines and restaurants are being asked to stop serving them as snacks. Then allergic people won t risk coming into contact with even leftover peanut bits or dust. In some schools, cafeterias are setting aside peanut-free tables. Other schools are putting a complete ban on peanut butter products. That includes peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwiches, a favorite food of most kids and an affordable one for many families. But will a peanut ban ensure that no one will be exposed to peanuts? Some foods or snacks may contain peanut oil without anyone knowing it. Peanut defenders say allergic people should use careful food habits and wash their hands to protect themselves. Level TIME Inc.
8 Reader s Response How does a peanut ban in this cartoon compare to a ban on smoking? Do you think that a ban on peanuts is a nutty idea or not? Explain your answer. What in the cartoon gives you a clue to the cartoonist s feelings about a ban on peanuts? USING HUMOR This cartoonist feels bad for people who have such a dangerous reaction to food. But he sees flaws in the solutions. What about the rights of people who don t have any allergies and who enjoy peanuts? So, this cartoonist uses humor to make a point. To show how difficult it would be to solve the peanut problem by using a ban, the cartoonist compares the peanut ban with something familiar the current ban on smoking. The cartoon is set in a restaurant. This familiar setting helps readers easily make the connection between a no-smoking and a no-peanut situation. The cartoonist uses this comparison to show how ridiculous a no-peanut policy could be. The cartoonist wants to send the message that, to some people, a ban on peanuts is just plain nutty! Writer s Response 4 In the cartoon, how does the artist use pictures to get across the idea of problems with peanuts? How does the author use dialogue to show a problem with peanuts? Why do you think the cartoonist chose to use the setting of a restaurant? What details did the cartoonist include in the cartoon to bring humor to a serious topic? Draw a cartoon that shows where you stand on an issue. Try to use the characters and the words in your cartoon to make your audience laugh. Make a chart that shows the pros and cons of the peanut debate. List reasons for banning peanuts on one side and reasons for not banning peanuts on the other. Imagine you are allergic to peanuts. Write about your experiences after sitting next to a child who was eating a peanut-butter-and-jelly sandwich. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
9 5 Giant of the Deep The search for a live giant squid heats up H ow would you describe the creature? Famous writers have called the giant squid a terrible monster, a vast pulpy mass, and a monstrous fish. Storytellers have had to use their imaginations because no one has ever seen a healthy giant squid alive in the ocean. For many years the only clues to the giant squid s existence were huge tentacles washed up on a beach or occasionally an entire eight-armed corpse. Marine biologist Clyde Roper of the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History in Washington plans to observe a giant squid in action at last. Roper will lead a trip to New Zealand to study the giant squid in its natural habitat, the deep sea. In early 996 four dying giant squid were caught in the waters near New Zealand and Australia. The largest of the creatures was a 6- foot,,0-pound female. The four were preserved so that scientists could study them at a later date. Getting the creatures to a lab was not easy. New Zealand biologist Steve O Shea loaded one onto a trailer hitched to his car. The squid s tentacles stretched over the car s roof. It was an odd sight, says O Shea. There were arms and legs everywhere. Although other dead, giant squid have been studied, the daily life of this animal remains a mystery. That is why Roper and O Shea will dive deep into the sea about,000 feet in a small craft that looks like a fishbowl. Nothing would be better than having a giant squid attach itself to the sphere of the craft, says Roper, the better to study those suckers! 5 Steve O Shea and the catch of the day: a giant squid. O Shea and others will study the huge mysterious slimy monster. DID YOU KNOW? Giant squid can be 55 to 60 feet long and weigh more than one ton. A giant squid s eye is the largest in the animal kingdom about the size of a volleyball! Giant squid have eight powerful arms with sharp, circular suckers. Two long, thin tentacles grab food. A giant squid probably defends itself by squirting out a dark squid-shaped ink blob. When an enemy turns its attention to the blob, the squid gets away. AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY Level TIME Inc.
10 Reader s Response Writer s Response Based on the picture, how is a squid like an octopus? How is it different? Which facts from the Did You Know? box is your favorite? What would probably happen if a giant squid did attach itself to the research craft deep under the sea? What play on words does the writer use in the caption? Why did the writer do that? Why did the writer include the description of O Shea taking the squid to the lab? How does the author s use of the picture help the reader learn the size of giant squids? I talked to Steve O Shea in New Zealand about giant REVISING squids and the research he is doing with Clyde Roper from Washington. He gave me a lot of information about the squids. I took pages and pages of notes. When I wrote my first draft of this article, I realized I wanted to focus on the search for the living giant squid. Some of the interesting facts I had in my notes about the squids themselves just did not fit into the article. I always revise my articles several times until they read the way I want them to. When I revised this one, I got some of those extra facts out of the article itself. I put them into a separate box. Now the interesting facts did not get in the way of the main idea of the article. Suppose Steve O Shea wanted to let Clyde Roper know what it was like to take that giant squid to the lab. Draw a picture or a diagram of this experience. Imagine that someone cannot see the picture of the giant squid but wants to know what it looks like. Write a detailed description of a giant squid, using the picture, the information in the article, and any other details you can find. Write your own story about a giant squid. Include some of the facts you know about giant squids that other writers do not. Make sure your story has a beginning, a middle, and an end. Make it exciting. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
11 6 A Safety Net for Salmon TOM & PAT LEESON/NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY/PHOTO RESEARCHERS 6 P acific salmon have a wonderful childhood. They wiggle around in cool creeks with their brothers and sisters. When they are bigger, they head for the ocean, where they grow up. But after a few years in the ocean, life gets tough for salmon. Something in their nature tells them that it s time to go home. They push their way upstream, back to their birthplace. Some travel hundreds of SALMON EGGS miles! They swim and The fish lay eggs in shallow jump against the pools, then die. powerful currents that once carried them out to sea. When they finally arrive, they lay eggs and then die. It s a hard life. But the people who share the salmon s habitat in Washington State and GOING HOME Oregon have made it Salmon swim upstream to even harder. Too much their birthplace. fishing, pollution, and habitat destruction have killed too many salmon. A Salmon s Amazing Life Cycle SAVE THE SALMON! Last week an agency of the government announced that seven kinds of salmon will be protected under the Endangered Species Act. There s no way to keep people away from the Columbia and Willamette river systems, where the salmon swim. At least 5 million people live near these waterways, including those in the big cities of Portland and Seattle. Protecting salmon will change the way people farm, fish, harvest wood, build homes, use water and chemicals, and work. All those things can affect the salmon rivers. Some of the fish-saving plans may cost residents a lot of money. But people say they will meet the challenge. The salmon is an important part of our lives, said Seattle Mayor Paul Schell. We understand that preserving our environment has a direct impact on our GO, FISH! Young salmon, called smolts, head out to sea. ALL GROWN UP In the ocean, salmon grow to full size. quality of life. Local leaders are making plans to follow the new rules. Some groups are already taking steps to help the salmon. After all, both people and salmon need the same things: clean water, shady trees, and a safe place to call home. PHOTO CREDITS GOING HOME: TOM & PAT LEESON/NATIONAL AUDUBON SOCIETY/PHOTO RESEARCHERS SALMON EGGS AND GO FISH: NATALIE B. FOBES ALL GROWN UP: JOYCE & FRANK BUREK/ANIMALS ANIMALS Level TIME Inc.
12 Reader s Response Writer s Response Based on the information in the article and the diagram, do you think salmon have many days in which they are not on the move? Why or why not? What part of the salmon s life cycle do you think is most exciting? Why? How do you think the new laws protecting the salmon will change the way people in this area fish? Why did the writer include the map? What does the map help readers understand in the article? The writer describes the salmon s life cycle in the first two paragraphs. So why does the writer include the diagram of its life cycle too? What does the diagram show clearly that the text cannot? Why do you think the author compared the salmon to children in the first paragraph? Comparisons can be very important in writing. They often make my writing livelier and more COMPARISONS interesting. And they help readers understand ideas I am trying to get across. For example, when I started to write this article, I knew kids wouldn t know much about how salmon live or why the pollution of the rivers was dangerous for them. So I thought if I compared the salmon to people, kids would get it. Just like people, salmon have a childhood. When they grow up, their life gets tougher. They need some of the same things people do in order to have a healthy life. And just like people, the health of salmon is affected by pollution. Besides, I think saving the salmon is important and I wanted the kids who read the article to think so, too. So I figured that if I made the salmon sound like brothers and sisters, everyone would feel sorry for them! Add to your knowledge about the salmon. Find out how many salmon are used as food in the United States in a year. Or find out how big salmon tend to be when they are caught. Make a graph or a chart showing the information. Write a caption to go with it. Find a copy of the book Red Tag Comes Back. Read it and then make a chart comparing the book to this article. Suppose you and your family make your living by fishing for salmon. Write a letter to your local newspaper explaining what you think of the new laws protecting salmon. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
13 A Cereal Shake-Up Post makes the cost of cereal easier to swallow. T he maker of Honeycomb and Grape-Nuts is about to give cereal lovers a real bonus. But don t dig through the box for the surprise. The good news will be on your grocery bill. Post, the third largest cereal company, announced that it will cut the cost of its cereals about a dollar a box. That s great news for American shoppers, who buy.7 billion packages of cereal a year. If those boxes were put end to end, they would reach all the way to the moon and back! THE COST OF ONE BOX 7 Just where does that $.9 go when you buy an 8-ounce box of Kellogg s Corn Flakes? Americans have been complaining about the high price of cereal for years. Although the cereal in a box costs only about 50 to make, boxes often sell for $4 or more. The steep prices have made people suspicious. More than 85% of cereal sold in the U.S. is made by four companies: Kellogg s, General Mills, Post, and Quaker. Members of Congress want an investigation to see if these companies are secretly agreeing to keep prices high. So far, no investigation has been made. WHY IS IT SO EXPENSIVE? The cost of cereal includes more than just the flakes or O s you eat. The basic ingredients are similar in every box: grains and sugar. So big cereal makers work hard to convince buyers that their brands are special. To catch your eye, these companies Grain: 8 Other ingredients: create colorful boxes with cartoon characters on the front, games on the back, and maybe a prize inside. TV ads and coupons are also attempts to get your interest. Ads and fancy packaging cost money, and that adds to the cereal s price. 7 Making the cereal: 4 The cereal package: Cerealcompany workers: 8 Profit for the company: 45 Advertising and promotion: $.0 Grocery store s portion: 68 WILL CORN POPS BE CHEAPER? The Post company decided to act after its own survey showed that 59% of shoppers were angry about high cereal prices. We re responding to consumers who have gotten very upset, says Mark Leckie, general manager of Post Cereal. But Post isn t cutting prices just to be nice. It hopes that its lower prices will attract buyers away from other brands of cereal. So far, the makers of Corn Pops and Lucky Charms don t seem worried. Neither Kellogg s nor General Mills has announced plans to cut prices. Just wait, says Ken Shae, an expert on U.S. food-buying habits. For Kellogg s and General Mills, it will only be a matter of time, he says. Eventually those cereal makers will feel the crunch and cut prices too. Level TIME Inc.
14 Reader s Response Writer s Response Do you think other companies will cut cereal prices as Post did? Why or why not? What surprised you most about the cost of a box of cereal shown in the graph? Why? How important are the decorations on a cereal box to you? Have you ever bought cereal because you liked the box? If so, when? Why did the writer think it was important for kids to know about this subject? The graph takes up a lot of space on the page, so it must be important. How does the graph help readers understand the main point of the article? Why did the writer use a cereal box as a chart? When I write an article for a magazine, I include information for DESIGNING any graphs or charts. A PAGE Usually I draw a simple one to show how I think it should look. But basically what you see on the page is the job of the designer and art director. An editor on the staff of the magazine is usually the one who writes the headline and even the subheads between paragraphs, although sometimes I do that. The designer and the editor decide, for example, how big the graph should be. They choose what kind of font, or style of type, will be a good choice for the article. For this article, the designer chose the cereal box, got a picture of it, and cut the picture up to make the graph. (She had help from a computer.) Sometimes the editor calls me to cut some lines and sometimes to add a few. More often, the editor does that. I m always a little surprised by the way the article looks when it is published! How would you show in a graphic that.7 billion packages of cereal could reach to the moon and back? Try it! Make a picture or graph that you could add to this article. Write a letter to the company that produces your favorite kind of cereal. Explain why you think the price is too high. Tell the company what you want it to do. Tell what you plan to do. Use the graph to decide where you think the cereal company can reduce the cost of cereal. Explain your reasoning in a presentation to the general manager of the cereal company. Make your own graph to use in your presentation. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
15 8 8 Top Five: Temperatures Top 5 Lowest Temperatures in the World Think your town can t get any c-c-c-colder this winter? Don t complain! Temperatures in the U.S. probably won t drop as low as they do in Antarctica. There the average winter day is around 70. Even summer days in Antarctica are chilly: 0 is considered warm! Here s a look at the frostiest temperatures (in degrees Fahrenheit) ever recorded around the world: SNOWMAN:EDEL RODRIGUEZ, MAP:RICK NEASE Top 5 Highest Temperatures Ever Recorded on Earth RICK NEASE Level TIME Inc.
16 Reader s Response Writer s Response What two record-breaking temperatures took place in the United States? What does the answer to question tell you about the climate of the United States? Would you want to live in any of the places shown on the charts? Why or why not? Why did the writer choose to provide the information in graphics instead of written articles? What can pictures do that sometimes text cannot? Why did the writer include maps in presenting the information? Why are maps important for this kind of information? Why did the writer include an illustration of a snowman in the Top 5 Lowest Temperatures in the World? People are always complaining about the GRAPHICS weather. It s too hot; it s TELL THE too cold; it s too windy; STORY it s too stormy you name it, we complain about it. So I thought kids would like to know exactly what are the hottest and coldest temperatures ever recorded and where they took place. The facts weren t too hard to find. Then I had to decide how to present the information. The more I thought about it, the more I realized that simple graphics were best. After all, once you ve given the temperatures and where they took place, what more is there to say? The editor helped me decide that we could just put the temperatures on outlines of the world map so that all the information was immediately clear. I think it works. Find out the five highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded in your town. Make a chart or other graphic to provide the information in easy-to-read fashion. See what you can find out about the place with the highest recorded temperature and the place with the lowest. Are those places known for being especially hot and especially cold? How do people live in those climates? Create a chart comparing these two places. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
17 9 9 It s Outta There! M ark McGwire bent over home plate. The bat looked tiny in his big hands. Then he swung with all his might. The ball flew 458 feet over the fence. The crowd roared with joy. It was his 59th home run of the season. McGwire plays for the St. Louis Cardinals. He and Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs made it one hot summer for homers. Both McGwire and Sosa hoped to break a baseball record. CHASING MARIS In 96, New York Yankee Roger Maris broke Babe Ruth s record of 60 home runs in a season. Maris hit 6. For 7 years, folks have wondered who would break Maris record. McGwire looked like a sure bet. But Sosa was right behind with 57 homers. Quite amazing, isn t it? says McGwire. What s going on now is pretty big! Fans sure thought so. Thousands turned up just to watch McGwire practice batting. No one rooted harder for McGwire than his son Matthew, 0. He often gets to be the Cardinals bat boy. Two others were in the homer race. Ken Griffey Jr. of the Seattle Mariners and Greg Vaughn of the San Diego Padres also had a shot at the record. HOW HIGH WILL THEY GO? By the time you read this, McGwire will probably be the new home-run champ. Someday you may tell your own kids about the amazing season of 98. Race for the Record Sluggers McGwire, Sosa, and Griffey were all trying to break Maris record for the most home runs in a season. This graph shows how many homers each player hit each month through August 998. ILLUSTRATION FOR TIME FOR KIDS BY BOB STAAKE Level TIME Inc.
18 Reader s Response Writer s Response In what year was this article written? How do you know? Who was winning the home-run race in May? Do you think it is fair that Matthew McGwire gets to be the bat boy? Why or why not? Why did the writer include the graph? What does it add to the information in the article? In the article, how did the writer make you feel that you were watching Mark McGwire as he hit his 59th home run? How did the illustrator make you feel you were watching the home-run race? I write news articles; I don t write fictional detective or mystery BUILDING stories. So you might think SUSPENSE that suspense isn t part of what I do. You would be wrong! My job is to make sure my readers are interested in what is going to happen. That s where the suspense comes in. Of course, the trickier part is when you don t know yourself what s going to happen! That s one thing fiction writers have over article writers. They know how their stories will end. Sometimes the end to my article hasn t happened yet! To keep the suspense going in this article, I had to make sure readers knew why baseball fans are interested in the race. So I explained that for the first time in 7 years a record might be broken. And it looks possible that not just one but two baseball players might break it in one season. And two other players have a chance at the record, too. Now, that s news! What happened in the homerun race the year this article was written? Find out and draw your own graph to show the results. Make your graph look like the one in the article, only with updated information. Suppose you are Matthew McGwire. Write a journal entry that tells what it would be like to be the bat boy for the St. Louis Cardinals on the day your father, Mark McGwire, breaks the home-run record. Describe the event as it happens. The Chicago Cubs are famous for not winning a pennant race in years and years. Write a television commercial for the Cubs. Get people to buy tickets for a Cubs game at Wrigley Field, their home stadium. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
19 0 An American Hero Flies Again BILL RAY/LIFE MAGAZINE 0 T housands of Americans cheered when John Glenn blasted into space aboard the shuttle Discovery. Among the cheering fans were Dan and Zach Glenn. They are John s grandsons. It s a little scary, says Dan, 6. But it s pretty neat that he went up again. 96 Back in 96, Glenn was the first American THE ASTRONAUT to orbit, or circle, the Height 5 feet 0 inches Earth. Glenn made his historic flight just 0 Hair color Red months after a Russian, Age 40 Yuri Gagarin (Your-ee THE SPACECRAFT Gah-gair-in), became Name Crew size Windows Computers Friendship 7 0 the first person to orbit Earth. The U.S. was racing against the Russians to be the first to explore space. When Glenn returned to Earth, he was honored as a hero. He had made America proud. TERRY RENNA/AP STUDYING AN AGING ASTRONAUT In 998, Glenn, a U.S. Senator from Ohio, made America proud again. He spent months training for the trip. Glenn admited that it was harder for him than for young crew members. I don t bend in the same directions they bend, he said. Glenn s age was put to use. Some effects of growing older, including loss of balance, are similar to what happens to astronauts in space. Throughout the flight, Glenn was hooked up to machines that measured changes in his body. Scientists hoped to learn more about what happens when people get older. Not everyone believed Glenn s flight was about science. Some thought it was NASA s way of getting attention for its space program. 998 THE ASTRONAUT Height Hair color 5 feet 0 inches White Age 77 THE SPACECRAFT Name Discovery Crew size 7 Windows 0 Computers 5 But millions of fans were just glad Glenn was flying again. Said his grandson Zach,, He is a great guy and a really nice grandpa. He s an American hero. Level TIME Inc.
20 Reader s Response Writer s Response Why do you think John Glenn wanted to go back into space? Which spacecraft is bigger, Friendship 7 or Discovery? How did the charts help you answer this question? Compare the charts. What is the only entry that did not change between 96 and 998? What other information could the writer have included on the two charts? Why might this information be interesting to the reader? Why did the writer compare Glenn s space flights using two charts? How do you think the writer feels about John Glenn and his second trip into space? What makes you think so? A HOOK When I started to write this article about John Glenn s second flight into space, I realized that my audience might not even know who Glenn was. His first trip took place long before these kids were born. So I needed a way to get them interested in the story right away. I needed what we in the writing business call a hook. That means something that will grab readers and hook them into reading the rest of the piece. One of the best kinds of hooks is to give the readers something they already know about or can identify with. So I talked to John Glenn s grandsons. They re kids. It was their very own grandfather who was doing this. How would you feel if it was your grandfather going up there? That s the hook. Did it work? Did it get you interested in reading the rest of the article? Friendship 7 orbited the Earth three times at an altitude of 6 miles. Discovery was scheduled to orbit the Earth 44 times at an altitude of 5 miles. Put this information into a graph or chart that could be added to this article. Find out what has happened to John Glenn since his space trip in October 998. How did the trip go? Is he still a United States Senator from Ohio? Write an update for this article. Suppose you were John Glenn. Write two journal entries one written during the 96 Friendship 7 flight and the other written during the 998 Discovery flight. Be sure to include some interesting facts in each entry. Also mention how you feel about the flight. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
21 A New Viking Voyage RUSSEL KAYE I n August 998 a wooden ship with a puffy square sail glided north along Greenland s west coast. Writer and explorer W. Hodding Carter was onboard. From the time he was 0, he has dreamed about the Vikings. I was always reading history books and imagining I was a Viking, he said. Carter, 5, decided to make his dream come true. He got a wooden-boat builder named Robert Stevens to build a knarr (nar) a Viking merchant ship with oars and a square sail. Carter, Stevens, and eight other sailors followed the route of Viking Leif Eriksson. Eriksson came to North America,000 years ago, about 500 years before Columbus arrived. The map below shows where he traveled. TRY, TRY AGAIN The voyage was the second try for Carter s crew. A journey in July 997 came to an end MAPS FOR TIME FOR KIDS BY RITA LASCARO Boat builders work on the ship, following an old Viking design. when the boat s rudder broke. The crew members couldn t steer without a rudder. They started this trip in Nuuk (rhymes with book), where the last trip ended. They had a new rudder, and Carter was wearing Viking clothes! Vikings didn t have good instruments to judge direction or distance. They found their way by spotting landmarks. They watched for birds, a sign that land was near. At night, they steered by the North Star. Vikings believed the earth was flat. Still, they sailed bravely into the unknown. Carter s crew tried to sail the way Vikings did. But they also had modern compasses, a lifeboat, and a medical kit in case of an emergency. Like the Vikings, they didn t know what adventures awaited them on their journey. DID YOU KNOW? VIKINGS came from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden in Scandinavia. From 800 to 050, they set out, looking for land. VIKINGS worshipped many gods. Their chief god was Odin, god of war, wisdom, and poetry. VIKINGS were feared by many other Europeans. Viking warriors invaded England, France, and Ireland. They set up colonies there. VIKINGS were the finest sailors of their day. Viking chiefs were sometimes buried underground in their ships. VIKINGS are often pictured wearing helmets with horns. These helmets were worn only during celebrations and in battles. Level TIME Inc.
22 Reader s Response What kinds of games do you think W. Hodding Carter played as a child? According to the map, in what direction did Leif Eriksson begin his travels to North America? What other things in nature could the Vikings have used to help them with directions? WORD MEANING When we read an article, we may not know the meanings of some of the words. Sometimes a writer will tell the meaning of an unfamiliar word in the text. Sometimes the writer will give hints about a word s meaning somewhere near the word. This is called giving context clues. Look at the word knarr. You probably would not know what that word means, so the author put the meaning right after the word. In the fourth paragraph, the author says,... the boat s rudder broke. In the sentence that follows, you find out that the crew couldn t steer without a rudder, so you figure out that a rudder must be the part of the boat that lets sailors steer the boat. Either directly through definitions or indirectly through context clues, writers give the meanings of words that they think readers will need to know. Writer s Response Note the details that the writer gives about Carter. How do these details help readers know what kind of a man he is? How does the map on the left help readers understand both the original and the present-day voyages? Why do you think the writer wanted to include a picture of the boat? The Vikings came from Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Look at maps of these countries. Then draw a map, similar to the one in the article, showing the route that the Vikings traveled from Scandinavia to Greenland. Imagine you are a crew member on the present-day Viking voyage. Write a letter to a friend describing the ship and your daily schedule. Use vivid words to describe the experience. Pretend you are a shipbuilder. Design a ship. Put in all the things you think are necessary for a voyage. Label the parts of the ship. Be creative. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
23 Saving the Swordfish With a dish off the menu, more fish may swim the sea stopped some fishermen from reeling in more than their limit. The limits are too little too late, says environmentalist Carl Safina of the National Audubon Society. He favors a return to harpooning. Once, only full-grown swordfish were caught. Now long lines hook many small, young fish. PHOTO: MORGAN/GREENPEACE A mericans are hooked on swordfish. But the popular dish will no longer be served at some top restaurants. Swordfish populations are shrinking fast, especially in the North Atlantic Ocean. To draw attention to the problem, 7 U.S. chefs promised to take swordfish off their menus for at least a year. HUNDREDS OF HOOKS Until the 950s, fishermen caught swordfish mostly by harpoon. Large fish, weighing 00 to,00 pounds, make easy targets and ended up on dinner plates. Small fish were left in the sea to grow and reproduce. During the 960s, fishermen began using long lines with hundreds of hooks. These lines trap many more swordfish, including small fish and females who have not yet given birth. The result? North Atlantic populations have dropped by more than half since 978. Many nations have set limits on the number of swordfish their fishermen can take from the Atlantic. But this has not TOSSING BACK A TASTY CATCH Environmentalists and restaurants teamed up to make 998 comeback time for the swordfish. Meanwhile, the United Nations battled the overfishing of many species by naming 998 the International Year of the Ocean. We depend on the supply of fish and have a responsibility to ensure that it continues, says New York City chef Rick Moonen. He and others won t serve Atlantic swordfish and hope to educate diners on the issue. But a swordfish comeback depends on the cooperation of more restaurants, and not everyone is ready to let the catch go. The large seafood chain Red Lobster has no plans to stop serving swordfish. And some chefs claim the swordfish boycott is unfair to U.S. fishermen. Restoring populations of Atlantic swordfish could take up to 0 years, even if many restaurants join in. Says Lisa Speer of the Natural Resources Defense Council: We just want to give the fish a break, so that future generations can enjoy them. Level TIME Inc.
24 Reader s Response What impact do you think 7 chefs can have on helping to save the swordfish? What do you think happens to fishermen who go over the limit of fish they are allowed to catch? What do you think should happen to them? Why? After reading this article, would you order swordfish in a restaurant? Why or why not? Graphs, maps, pictures, and diagrams are often used by writers to explain or support VISUALS ideas in their text. These graphics can be used to illustrate information mentioned in the article. They can also be used to add information to what is written in the article. When you see a visual in an article, read the title and other written information around it. For example, the title of the graph in this article is Emptying the Sea. The information under the title explains that the graph shows statistics about overfishing. The graph presents the statistics visually. It supports the writer s view that swordfish, along with other fish, are disappearing at an alarming rate. A good visual supports and extends the information in the article. Writer s Response The writer uses a play on words in the opening sentence. What is the word play and how does this technique capture the attention of the reader? The writer gave additional information about overfishing in the graph and the text with it. Why is this information important? How does it support the writer s main idea? What is the tone of the last three paragraphs? Does the writer sound very hopeful about the swordfish s chances? Imagine you are on the committee to help save the swordfish. Write a letter to chefs persuading them to take swordfish off their menu. Use facts from the article to back up your statements. Design a poster for the Save the Swordfish campaign. Write copy for the poster that will hook the readers into reading the poster and joining the campaign. Pretend you are a fisherman who supports a return to harpooning swordfish. Write an editorial addressed to your fellow fishermen. Tell them how you feel about what is happening to the swordfish population. Explain how fishermen are responsible for the problem. Share your solution. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
25 Top Five: Animals TOP 5 LAZIEST ANIMALS JOHN CANCALOSI/NATURAL SELECTION ERWIN & PEGGY BAUER/NATURAL SELECTION JOHN CANCALOSI/NATURAL SELECTION 5 DANIEL J. COX/NATURAL SELECTION So you ve always wanted a koala for a pet. Well, wake up to the truth: koalas are a snooze! They top the list of the sleepiest sleepyheads in the animal kingdom. The critters shown here spend more than half the day in dreamland. How long do you sleep? 4 ERWIN & PEGGY BAUER/NATURAL SELECTION. Koala up to hours. Sloth 0 hours. Armadillo 9 hours 4. Opossum 9 hours 5. Lemur 6 hours TOP 5 FASTEST ANIMALS On your mark, get set, go! Not even the fastest runner can keep up with this fourlegged crowd. The best a human can do is about 7 miles per hour. That s nothing compared with the top speeds of the world s fastest land animals:. Cheetah 70 m.p.h.. Pronghorn Antelope 6 m.p.h.. Wildebeest 50 m.p.h. 4. Lion 50 m.p.h. 5. Thomson s Gazelle 50 m.p.h. STEFAN MEYERS/ANIMALS ANIMALS 4 TIM DAVIS/PHOTO RESEARCHERS RON KIMBALL/NATURAL SELECTION 5 WYMAN MEINZER/NATURAL SELECTION PETER SKINNER/PHOTO RESEARCHERS Level TIME Inc.
26 Reader s Response What might be the possible result if the wildebeest, the lion, and the Thompson s gazelle had a race? Based on how many hours a koala sleeps a day, how much time does it have for eating and other activities? Are you surprised that each list contains different animals? For example, would you expect to see one of the laziest animals also listed as one of the fastest? Why or why not? FEATURING FUN FACTS Often magazines and newspapers have features that appear on a regular basis. Such features usually follow a very predictable format. Often they are amusing or interesting. Some people might say that the information in the features is not very important. But many readers look forward to reading the feature each time it appears. A regular feature in Time for Kids presents the top five of some subject. Sometimes the subject is serious: garbage producers or recyclers. Sometimes the subject is less serious: favorite ice cream flavors, or as shown here, the laziest or fastest animals. At the very least, writers hope such fun facts will be interesting to readers. Perhaps the facts will motivate readers to find out more. Writer s Response How did the writer capture the reader s attention in the introduction to the top five fastest animals? Why did the writer include pictures of all the animals? How interesting would the words be without the pictures? Why did the writer number the animals in each feature? How else might the writer have presented the information in each feature? Choose five other animals and create a graphic that compares them. You might want to show the Top 5 Biggest Animals or the Top 5 Smallest Animals. Be sure to write an introduction and to include pictures. Choose one of the animals from either Top 5 and find out more about it using the library or the Internet. Prepare a presentation about the animals that you can give to your classmates. As a reader of Time for Kids, you think the Top 5 is one of the magazine s best features. Write a letter to the magazine stating your opinion and giving reasons that tell why you think as you do. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
27 4 Winds of Destruction A fierce hurricane rips across the Caribbean and slams into Florida T he howling winds and the sheets of rain came first. Palm trees pounded by wind and water bent over and touched the ground. Roofs lifted off buildings. Raging waters flooded roads. Twenty-foot-high waves sent boats crashing into one another. Next came the calm weather. A bright sun and clear blue skies showed the terrible damage that the storm had left behind. Electric-power lines, trees, and pieces of homes lay scattered everywhere like matchsticks. This scene was played over and over again as LYNNE SLADKY/AP Hurricane Georges tore up homes and tipped over this boat in Puerto Rico. Hurricane Georges (Zhorzh) roared through the islands of the Caribbean and headed toward Florida. The hurricane wove a path of destruction as it moved west and north. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico were hit especially hard. A MONSTER STORM Not an inch of Puerto Rico was spared the storm s fury. As Georges whipped across the island, 0-mile-an-hour winds ripped up power lines and peeled off roofs. This thing was a monster, said Pedro Juan Morales. His home in the capital of San Juan was badly damaged, but he was luckier than many. The storm left many houses without electricity or running water. Thousands were homeless. Said Governor Pedro Rossello: Our people have very difficult days to come. The storm lashed into Florida. People were told to leave their homes and seek shelter. Said one worried woman in Miami Beach: When I return, I may not have a home. Georges was blamed for billions of dollars worth of damage and for the deaths of more than 00 people. 4 FLORIDA CUBA JAMAICA HAITI/DOMINICAN REPUBLIC PUERTO RICO How Hurricanes Get Started Caribbean hurricanes form when high storm clouds move over warm tropical waters. Fed by warm water and hot air, a column the eye forms in the center. Winds spin counterclockwise around the eye. When the winds reach a speed of 74 miles an hour, the storm is called a hurricane. Storms pick up speed over water and weaken when they hit land. NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER Level TIME Inc.
28 Reader s Response Look at the larger photo. Where is the hurricane located? How would you describe its size? Besides downed power lines, what other dangers might be present after a hurricane? (Hint: Use the smaller photo to help you.) Have you ever experienced a hurricane or another kind of violent storm? What was it like? VIVID WORDS Writers choose their words carefully. They want their words to help the reader picture what they are writing about. Look at the subtitle. What does the word fierce add to the word hurricane? What if the writer had said the hurricane crosses instead of rips across and slams into? Don t those words give you a more vivid picture of the power of this hurricane? The writer goes on to use words like howling, pounded, raging, crashing, terrible, roared, whipped, ripped, peeled, and lashed to describe the hurricane and its effects. These words help the reader see both the hurricane as it moves across land and the damage it leaves behind. The use of such words also makes the article more interesting for people to read. Writer s Response Why did the writer include the larger photo? How is it important to the article? Why did the writer include the smaller photo? What does it show that the larger photo does not? What are some words the writer used in the first paragraph to describe the hurricane? How do these words help readers picture the storm? Research hurricanes. Draw a diagram titled How Hurricanes Form. Label it and provide a short written explanation to go with it. Imagine you are a meteorologist on a local television station. You have just received word that a hurricane, worse than Georges, is on its way. Prepare a short weather report that tells your viewers about the storm. Use words that will paint a picture of the storm s power. Pretend you are a member of a Red Cross team going into one of the storm-damaged areas. Write a letter to a friend explaining the kind of damage you see and what you are doing to help. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
29 5 Champions of the Ice and Snow A dream came true for the U.S. women s hockey team. The women beat Canada and won the first Olympic gold medal ever given in women s hockey. Later, U.S. figure skater Tara Lipinski, 5, wore the biggest grin of all. She leaped past Michelle Kwan to win the gold medal. She is the youngest Olympic figure-skating champion ever. The power of hockey and the beauty of skating were just two of the wonders seen at the 998 Winter Games in Nagano (Nahgah-no), Japan. Heavy snows delayed many events. But the wait was worth it! DEITHER ENDLICHER/AP Street wore a tiger on her helmet. But she skied more like a speedy cheetah. Good sports: Gold medalist Lipinski kisses Kwan, who won the silver medal. ERIC DRAPER/AP THOMAS KIENZLE/AP 5 THE MEDAL COUNT What country won the most Olympic medals in Nagano? Countries with chilly climates came out on top. Here are the medal totals as of /0/98: Country Gold Silver Bronze Total. Germany Norway Russia Austria Canada United States Netherlands Finland Italy Japan 4 8 U.S. skier Picabo Street smashed her knee a year ago. She won gold in Nagano. The U.S. earned two medals in snowboarding, a new Olympic sport. In the sledding sport called luge, Americans won medals for the first time. We re not Michael Jordans, said luger Gordy Sheer. But I hope this brings some awareness to our sport. REACHING FOR NEW HEIGHTS Athletes set many new records on the ice and snow. Speed skaters broke at least six world and Olympic records! Cross-country skier Bjorn Dahlie (Be-orn Day-lee) of Japan s soaring ski jumpers celebrate an amazing gold-medal win. Norway won his seventh gold. That brought his Olympic-medal total to (in three Games) the most for any Winter Olympian. OLYMPIC SOUVENIRS The sound of,000 drums brought the Games to an end. Some 00 athletes carried home medals. All left with Olympic memories. Skating for the gold was pure joy, said Lipinski. I will always remember it. Level TIME Inc.
30 Reader s Response Writer s Response Why would countries with chilly climates come out on top in winning medals during the Winter Olympics? Which country won half as many gold medals as Germany did? Which country came in second for winning the most bronze medals? Why is the table a good way to show the medal count? Why does the writer talk about hockey, figure skating, skiing, snowboarding, and luge in the first section? What do those sports have in common? In a caption, what does the writer compare Picabo Street to? How does the technique help readers? As a writer, I try to include as USING TABLES much information as necessary. I do this so the reader understands what I am writing about. If you look at the table I used in my article Champions of the Ice and Snow, you will notice that I listed all the countries that won medals in the order of most to least in total medals. I put it in a table so that I could use most of the page to tell you about some of the wonderful people who won the medals. If I had written the medal information out in paragraph form, it would have taken up too much space. A table helps me summarize information into a neat, well-organized package for the reader. The table in this article shows the medal count for the Winter 998 Olympics. Find out the final medal count for another Winter Olympics. Write an article about the results. Include a table showing the medal count. Imagine you are Sarah Tueting, the goalie from the U.S. women s hockey team, or another Olympic gold medal winner. You are giving an interview to a hometown television reporter to be shown locally. Write notes in which you tell the viewing audience how you feel about winning the gold medal. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
31 6 6 A WHALE OF A TRAIL Keiko s journey began in the Atlantic Ocean near Iceland. In 98 he was taken to a marine animal park in Canada. Then he went to Mexico and in 996 to Oregon. Last stop: back to Iceland! Keiko Goes Home K eiko probably didn t know what to think! There he was, covered in skin cream and wrapped in a big sling. Next a giant crane lowered the 0,000- pound killer whale into a water tank. It was put on a jumbo jet. The world s most famous whale didn t know it, but he was finally going home! Keiko s home is in the Atlantic Ocean near Iceland. He was born there about 0 years ago. For two years, he swam freely with his whale family, called a pod. Then Keiko was captured and taken to an aquarium (ah-kware-e-um) in Iceland. He never swam with the whales in his pod again. Keiko was later moved to Mexico, where he performed in shows. He won fame in 99, when he starred in the movie Free Willy. But in real life, Keiko s life was sad. He lived in a tank that was too small and too warm. Finally, fans raised money to send him home. ILLUSTRATION FOR TIME FOR KIDS BY MERLE NACHT TOO SMALL Keiko spent years at this theme park in Mexico. The water was way too warm, and he didn t have enough room. KEIKO UP CLOSE Keiko grew healthier as soon as he moved to a bigger, cooler pool in Oregon. Thousands of children visited him there. DARIO LOPEZ MILLS/AP JACK SMITH/AP DON RYAN/AP WILL HE FIND HIS FAMILY? Keiko returned to Iceland. He is living in a special floating pen in the ocean. It is too risky to set him free in the ocean right now. He needs to learn how to hunt for food and avoid his enemies. Keiko s pod may still live nearby. Every pod has its own system of noises. Maybe Keiko will hear his pod or they will hear him. They re his family, says scientist Naomi Rose. I d like to think they re gong to remember him. HOME, SWEET HOME Keiko now lives in this ocean pen near Iceland. The pen is made of nets so fish and small sea creatures can swim in and out. Level TIME Inc.
32 Reader s Response Writer s Response Why would warm water and not enough room be bad for Keiko? How do you know that Keiko was loved by children and fans? Look at the photos. Why do you think Keiko is so appealing to people? Why did the writer use a map to show readers Keiko s travels? Why was the map a good way to do this? Using photographs and captions, the writer compares the different places that Keiko has lived. Why is this an effective way to compare things? What details did the writer use to show that moving Keiko was a huge task? SIGNALING SEQUENCE Sequence is the order in which events in a story happen. To understand the order of events in this story, look for clues or signal words. In the first paragraph, the writer starts out in the middle of the story. Keiko is getting ready to go home. In the second paragraph, the writer uses the words about 0 years ago to go back in time to when Keiko was born. The next event, which is discussed in the third paragraph, shows that Keiko was captured. Notice how the writer used the signal word then at the beginning of the paragraph. In the fourth paragraph, the signal word later is used. So you know that he was first captured and then moved. In the fifth paragraph, the word finally signals what happens at the end. Think of another graphic that could be used to show Keiko s travels. A chart? A diagram? Another kind of map? Sketch the graphic and write a caption to go with it. Create a time line showing the events in Keiko s life from his birth 0 years ago to his return home to Iceland. Write the years along the line and write or sketch the events above the line at the appropriate places. Imagine you are a fan of Keiko and you are trying to raise money to help send him home. Write a letter to be passed out in school explaining why you want to send Keiko home and asking people to contribute money to pay for his trip. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
33 7 7 No Helmet? Pay Up! Stop, kid! Get off that bike! Kids in Florida who ride a bicycle without wearing a helmet could hear those words from the police. They might even have to pay $7 for breaking the law! Florida has joined many other cities and states by passing a helmet law. Florida s law is for kids 5 and younger. Helmet laws are meant to save kids from head injuries caused by bike accidents. Unlike a bruise or a scrape, a head injury can take many years to heal. A serious head injury can kill you. Simon Crider,, knows how important a helmet can be. Two years ago, he was riding his bike near his house in Gainesville, Florida, when he hit a rock and fell. His helmet cracked when ARIEL SKELLY/THE STOCK MARKET he hit the ground, but it protected his head. A lot of kids think helmets aren t cool. Says Mighk (Mike) Wilson, a bikesafety leader in Florida: A big part of it is that kids think helmets are dorky. Not Simon. He thinks his helmet is plenty cool. A helmet saved my life, he says. Sometimes they mess up your hair, but it s worth it. This map shows which states require kids to wear bicycle helmets. Level TIME Inc.
34 Reader s Response Writer s Response Why might some kids think helmets are dorky? Why do you think Simon Crider s story might influence other kids to wear helmets? Do you think wearing bicycle helmets is a good idea? Why or why not? Why is the map an important part of the article? How does the map support the writer s text? Why did the writer tell the story of Simon Crider? How might the writer have been influenced by the audience of kids? What did the writer do in the opening sentence to grab the reader s attention? Was this a good way to begin? Why or why not? SHOWING BY EXAMPLE Draw designs for two or three bicycle helmets you think kids will want to wear. Create an advertisement for one of your helmets. Remember, some kids think bicycle helmets are dorky. When I was asked to write an article about bicycle safety, I looked at what had already been written. There were articles on obeying traffic signals, articles on keeping your bike in working condition, and articles on choosing the right bike. During my research, I came across the story about Simon Crider. I think I took for granted that all kids had to wear helmets. I was wrong. Simon s story about his helmet helping to save his life encouraged me to dig deeper into helmet laws. I was shocked to find out that only a few states have passed laws. I decided to use a map to show what the states are doing. When I saw the finished map, I was concerned that we are not doing enough. I wrote the article in hopes that kids who read it will take Simon s advice and wear a helmet. Also, if they see that their state has no helmet law, maybe they could do something about it. Imagine you are Simon Crider. Your state has not passed a helmet law. You have just had this very scary accident. Write a letter to the governor of your state telling what happened to you and explaining why you think a bicycle helmet law should be passed. Design a poster that promotes wearing helmets as part of bicycle safety. Include a slogan that will catch viewers attention and help them remember this issue. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
35 8 The Planet Pluto? 8 A lmost one hundred years ago, a mathematician named Percival Lowell figured out the existence of a body in the solar system. He called it Planet X. In 90, an astronomer named Clyde Tombaugh actually spotted the planet for the first time in space photos. Since then, the planet has been known as Pluto, named after the Greek god of the underworld. Because Pluto is smaller than Earth s moon and is extremely cold, scientists have long argued about whether Pluto is really a planet. Some think it is actually a comet that got sucked into the sun s gravitational pull. Recently, the Hubble Space Telescope gave us clearer pictures of Pluto. The pictures confirm that Pluto is quite different from the other planets. The frozen gases sweeping across Pluto s icy surface add to doubts about its planethood. Tombaugh still insists that Pluto should be considered a planet. He thinks people will be upset if we change Pluto s status in our solar system. Level TIME Inc.
36 Reader s Response Do you think this cartoon might upset scientists? Why or why not? What is funny about the NASA officials shown in this cartoon? How does your personal knowledge of cartoons and planets help you understand the humor in this cartoon? USING DOUBLE MEANINGS TO CREATE HUMOR When the cartoonist first heard about the Pluto debate, he must have recognized the name Pluto as a great way to make people laugh. The misuse of a word s definition is often funny. This trick is called using double meanings. It works only when the misuse is obvious. But in this case, the cartoonist knew that most children are familiar with the Disney character, Pluto. So to make the reader laugh, the cartoonist shows the wrong picture of Pluto coming from the Hubble telescope. He adds a few details like the NASA name tag to make sure readers know he is really talking about the planet, Pluto. Then to bring out even more humor in the cartoon, he contrasts a very silly-looking Pluto with the very serious scientists. The cartoonist counts on these details along with the double meaning to give readers a good laugh. Writer s Response Do you think the comment in the speech bubble adds to the humor of this cartoon? Why or why not? Why did the cartoonist decide to show this particular dog in the Hubble picture? How is that part of the joke? What other details did the cartoonist use to make the reader laugh? Think of a word that has a double meaning such as bulb, which is both something that you plant and something that gives light. Draw (or describe) a cartoon that gets its humor from misusing the word s meanings. Write a news release telling about the latest pictures from the Hubble Space Telescope. Be sure to explain what you think the photos of Pluto indicate. Imagine you are Clyde Tombaugh, the first person to spot Pluto in space photos. Write a letter to NASA explaining how you feel about changing the status of Pluto from a planet to a comet. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
37 9 Top 5: Trash Talk Top 5 Garbage Producers and Recyclers Where in the world is all the trash? Here are the top five garbage-producing and paper-recycling nations: Top producers Top recyclers Pounds of waste per person per day: Top 5 Producers Which countries crank out the most trash? Unfortunately, the U.S. is on top of the heap. Here s how the others pile up. 9 Percentage of paper recycled: Top 5 Recyclers Some nations work hard to turn their garbage into useful stuff. Here are the paper-recycling champs of the world. CHARTS FOR TIME FOR KIDS BY MARTY BAUMAN Level TIME Inc.
38 Reader s Response Writer s Response Are you surprised that the United States produces the most trash? Why or why not? Would you expect to see the same countries on the lists of producers and recyclers? Why or why not? How do you think the top paperrecycling country gets its people to recycle? Why did the writer include a world map showing the locations of the top five producers and top five recyclers? Aren t the graphs alone enough? Why do you think the writer showed only paper recycling? What other recyclable materials could the writer have illustrated? How does the writer feel about the United States being at the very top of the list of garbage producers? How can you tell? VISUALS TELL THE STORY Why did I use a map and graphs to tell a story about garbage and recycling? I included the map first of all because I wanted to make sure readers knew where all the countries are located. The graphs tell the main story: Who are the top producers of garbage? Who are the top recyclers of paper? Notice that there is no overlap between the two lists. Imagine how I felt when I saw the United States at the top of the garbage-producing list! In this case being number one is not a good thing! Of course, the United States does recycle, but it is not one of the top five. Do you like the symbols I chose for the graphs? Garbage bags and cans for the garbage, stacks of paper in bins for the recycling. Notice how I ranked the countries, too least to most for the garbage, most to least for the recycling. These kinds of graphs make it so much easier to compare information. I didn t have to use very many words. The graphs tell the story! How else might the information in the graphs and map be presented? Illustrate the information shown in one of the graphs on an outline map of the world. Choose one of the top five recyclers. Write a letter to the head of that country explaining what you have found out about his or her country. Congratulate the country on a job well done. What do you think the United States could do to reduce the amount of garbage it produces? Write a report in which you offer your ideas. Level Teacher Created Materials, Inc.
39 0 ANTENNA This sends information back to Earth. MAIN ENGINE SOLAR PANELS SOLAR PANELS These stretch 40 feet wide to gather power for Surveyor s instruments. SCIENCE INSTRUMENTS Surveyor can study Martian rocks by examining the light they reflect. It also measures the height of surface features. CAMERA One lens zooms in to show details as small as 6 / feet on Mars surface. Another will take shots similar to weather-satellite photos. Circling about 50 miles above Mars, Surveyor records conditions on the Red Planet. A New Set of Eyes on Mars 0 H ow does it feel to lose a billion dollars and 0 years of hard work? NASA scientists know all too well. In 99, the Mars Observer a fancy spacecraft designed to map the Red Planet went flying beyond the sun, gone forever. Recalls NASA s Alan Ladwig: It just disappeared. The mood was much happier at NASA when the Mars Global Surveyor, traveling at about,000 miles per hour, slammed on its brakes and slipped neatly into its orbit, circling Mars. We are at Mars to stay! exclaimed NASA science chief Wesley Huntress, Jr. Surveyor, a low-cost replacement for the lost Observer, had spent 0 months traveling to Mars. For two years it will map Mars surface from about 50 miles away. Surveyor will add to the wealth of new information about Mars gathered by the Pathfinder mission. Pathfinder thrilled scientists and millions of others with its snapshots of dusty valleys and rocks nicknamed Casper and Barnacle Bill. Why is Mars such a hot spot? Although its temperature can dip to a freezing cold, minus 00 F, the hills and clouds are similar to some of Earth s features. Water seems to have flowed through deep cuts in the land. And where there is liquid water, there is the possibility of life. Back on Earth, Surveyor s findings may not be as exciting as Pathfinder s incredible photos. But for scientists, Surveyor is part of an important phase in space exploration. For at least the next 0 years, many more orbiters will head to Mars, spying on the planet most like our own. Level TIME Inc.
mclass List A yellow mclass List B blue mclass List C - green wish care able carry 2 become cat above bed catch across caught add certain began against2 behind city 2 being 1 class believe clean almost
Group 1 the a is you to and we that in not for at with it on can will are of this your as but be have the a is you to and we that in not for at with it on can will are of this your as but be have the a
Level B Complete each sentence. Use words in the box. their travel under hidden trash protects shines hatch when flies Where Do Insects Go In Winter? In the summer, flies and ants bother people. In the
9 Adventures Focus Grammar Vocabulary personal experiences present perfect ever/never adventurous activities adjectives to describe experiences 1 Warm-up a Talk about the pictures with a partner. Where
Writing 6 Name: Quiz 4 Practice I. Writing Narrative Essay. Write a few sentences to accurately answer these questions. 1. What is the goal of a narrative essay? 2. What makes a good topic? (What helps
Suffixes -ous, -sion, -ion, -ation Generalization When adding -ous, -sion, -ion, and -ation, some base words change. A final e or y may be dropped: famous, furious. Some words have other changes: decision.
1. Complete the sentences using will or won t: a) There be more cars in the future. b) I be twenty years old on my next birthday. c) I do an English test today. d) I eat lunch tomorrow. e) There be robots
1 5 Male Actors: Jack King Farmer Male TV Reporter Know-It-All Guy 5 Female Actors: Jack s Mama Princess Tammy Serving Maid Know-It-All Gal 2 or more Narrators: Guys or Girls Narrator : At the newsroom,
First Grade Unit 1 Unit 1.1 Pam and Sam Unit 1.2 I Can! Can You? Unit 1.3 How You Grew Unit 1.4 Pet Tricks Unit 1.5 Soccer man hat ran cat mat can up down dad back tap sad nap sack man mat too over pin
Bob was an avid fly fisherman and loved fishing the streams of Oregon. I met Bob when he moved into our facility after being diagnosed with Alzheimer s. He had a wonderful relationship with his wife. I
School Days 10 Talk About It What is it like to start a school year? What is the same and what is different from last year? Find out more about school days at www.macmillanmh.com 11 Vocabulary tomorrow
Table of Contents Introduction 3 Good Writing Traits 5 Sample Scoring Rubric 8 Standards for Writing 10 Ideas and Content11 The Giraffe A Linny All About You My Friend How to Smile Happy Ways Space Log
Summary On the windy prairies of the Southwest, Reba Jo meets a horned toad who makes a deal with her. When Reba Jo doesn t hold up her end of the bargain, the horned toad is offended and asks for a simple
State of Kuwait Ministry of Education Al- Asema Educational Area 2015/2016 Ma'EN Int. School Department Of English Written Work 9 th Grade 4 th Period I. VOCABULARY A) FROM A, B AND C CHOOSE THE CORRECT
Summary In late summer, a farmer hits a man in the road with his truck. The speechless stranger then spends several weeks on the farm. The weather stays warm into autumn, and the leaves around the farm
Contents Using This Book.... 4 Comprehension Skills At-a-Glance.... 4 Meeting the Common Core State Standards.... 6 Passages 1. In the Band...7 2. Animal Ways...8 3. Doris Practices...9 4. Wise About Words....
English Language Arts Scoring Guide for Sample Test 2005 Grade 7 Contents Standard and Performance Indicator Map with Answer Key...................... 2 Question 8 Reading Rubric Key Points.........................................
STARS series C S TA trategies o chieve R S eading uccess Name TABLE OF CONTENTS Lesson 1 Finding Main Idea..................................... 4 Lesson 2 Recalling Facts and Details.............................
P3 Hold On Tight Do you want to have some fun? Dah dah dah dah Do you want to have some fun? Then come along with me. The rollercoaster goes up The rollercoaster goes down Ahh ooh whee Come on let s ride
Look at the pictures. Can you guess what the topic idiom is about? IDIOMS 1B EXERCISE A: Match the idioms in column A with their meanings in column B. A B 1. keep up with the Joneses a. to spend more money
English Exam B2 Name D.N.I. 1. USE OF ENGLISH Exercises adapted from Carne, Paul, Louise Hashemi & Barbara Thomas, 1996. Cambridge Practice Tests for First Certificate 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Daily Vocabulary Practice (Week 1) Word of the Week: apprehensive Apprehensive means to be nervous or worried about something bad happening. : I was apprehensive about the math test because I knew I had
Nouns Name Date Block Practice 1: People, places, and things. A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. Some of the things named by nouns can be seen; some cannot. People Places Things mother teacher
General aim Notes for teachers D2 / 31 D: COMPOSE A WRITTEN MESSAGE Level of difficulty 2 Intermediate aim 3 Write a message Operational aim 1 Write complex sentences. Pre-requirements Number of exercises
Where the Red Fern Grows By Wilson Rawls Yearling, New York, 1996 QAR: Response Strategy Statement of Purpose: This strategy will help students think beyond what is specifically written in the text. It
Make the Big Time Where You Are by Frosty Westering (ISBN: 0-962940003) Book Notes by Bert DeSalvo Chapter 1 A Hammer & Chisel Make the Big Time Where You Are (MTBTWYA) Just knowing about them has no real
Introduction The three poems that I have chosen are The Road Not Taken and Stopping by Woods On a Snowy Evening, both by Robert Frost, and Dive For Dreams by E.E. Cummings. The Road Not Taken is all about
ВСЕРОССИЙСКАЯ ОЛИМПИАДА ШКОЛЬНИКОВ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ 2016 2017 уч. г. ШКОЛЬНЫЙ ЭТАП. 5 6 КЛАССЫ Part 1 (10 minutes) Maximum points 5 Listening Listen to Matthew talking to his aunt about his friends.
1 Cambridge English, Preliminary English Test Listening. There are four parts to the test. You will hear each part twice. For each part of the test there will be time for you to look through the questions
Related Words Generalization Related words often have consonants that are spelled the same but pronounced differently: music, musician. Word Sort Sort word pairs by the consonant that is pronounced differently.
Study Guide The House on Mango Street by Sandra Cisneros Student Name 1 Study Guide Standards It helps to know WHY we are reading or learning. This study guide was written to help students learn specific
The Adventures of Ali Baba Bernstein Use this selection to answer questions 1 10. 1 Why does David Bernstein change his name to Ali Baba Bernstein? A He is tired of having the same name as so many other
Listening skills Unit 2 The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Teaching notes Starter: Clue in a box: Prepare a cardboard box filled with the words printed and cut up from Resource 1 Pass the parcel words: slippers,
UNIT 7 A CLOSE SHAVE UNIT OVERVIEW: In this unit students will talk about close call experiences. Conversation Starters: Did you hear about? Friends recall close call experiences. Building Fluency Beginning
Grade 5- Term 2 1 Wksht 1: Parts of a Paragraph Date: Most paragraphs have 3 main parts: 1. A topic sentence 2. Several supporting sentences 3. A conclusion sentence 1. The topic sentence is the most important
8 Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation A GRAMMAR 1 Make first conditional sentences. Example: If we / not leave / now / we / miss / the last bus If we don t leave now, we ll miss the last bus. 1 If Mark
Welcome to KRELLE s Extended Donor Profile KRELLE voluntarily provided the following information which will be disclosed to future parents as an aid in their selection General information and characteristics
1 KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION ALFLAH PRIVATE SCHOOLS RFFA BOYS BRANCH June 2014 English Exam DURATION: 40 minutes Read the instructions: Use the blue pen only. Read the instructions of the
STUDENT READER MODULE 2 PART 2 UPDATED 2010 Student Reader Module 2 Part 2 i MODULE 2 CONTENTS LESSONS 21-40 Lesson 21 Terry Fox, even though, although, "un" to form negative 41 Lesson 22 Terry Fox Run,
Lesson 21 Day 4 Question of the Day How would your life be different if you lived in a place with extreme weather all year long? If I lived in an extreme climate, I. Purpose: for enjoyment to learn what
Petra, Calder, and Tommy Grades 4 7 Library Lessons by Lynne Farrell Stover Mixing literature, architecture, history, and art with a perplexing problem, Blue Balliett takes her readers on another adventure
UNDERSTANDING OUR ENGLISH LANGAUGE PACKET #2 VERBS, ADVERBS Name: WHAT IS A VERB? A NOUN is a word used as the NAME of something. It names a: PERSON, PLACE, THING, or IDEA COMMON NOUN Examples: boy, girl,
READING AND USE OF ENGLISH (1 hour 15 minutes) Part 1 For questions 1 8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or D) best its each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0). Mark your
Unit 1 Language at work Present simple Present simple Positive: Add -s or -es after the verb with he / she / it. I / you / we / they specialize in Latin American music. He / She / It specializes in high-tech
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MAKING READING CONNECTIONS Book E Provides instructional activities for 12 reading strategies Uses a step-by-step approach to achieve reading success Prepares student for assessment in reading comprehension
St. Anthony s School Worksheet for Class Suspension P.4 Time allowed: 3 minutes Name: ( ) A. Robin from Australia is writing in his blog. Read the blog. http//www.blogworld.com/robinhood photos Robin s
Suggested levels for Guided Reading, DRA, Lexile, and Reading Recovery are provided in the Pearson Scott Foresman Leveling Guide. The Super Secret Surprise Society by Gary Miller illustrated by Mick Reed
Word Processing Day 3 Introduction to Descriptive Adjectives Daily Objectives (Students will be able to) Computer Skills: Type and navigate in a Word document Highlight, change font and style of words.
Julie, a Nevada fourth grader, prepared for her state writing examination by composing and revising the following piece of narrative writing seven months before having to take her test as a fifth grader.
Taking Flight Who: Where: When: What: Why: TF Resource 1a Describe these characters Tony Grandpa Dad TF Resource 2a Complete the table below to show how the words you use to describe something can be improved.
7 Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation A GRAMMAR 1 Underline the correct word(s). Example: You won t pass the exam unless / if you study harder. 1 After / Until we move into the house, we re going to
Name Per. Walt Whitman American Poet By Eleanor Hall Most of the time when we hear the words poem and poetry, we think of verses that have rhyming words. An example is the opening lines of Henry W. Longfellow
Celebrating are I can t tell who you are. blow Blow out the candles on your cake. light Please light the candles on the cake. measure Mom, measure how tall I am, okay? sing Ty can sing in a trio. taste
Vocabulary incentive horizons recreation unfettered Finish each sentence using the vocabulary word provided. 1. (unfettered) I let my dog out of its cage. 2. (incentive) My mother said she would take me
Charlie & the chocolate factory willy wonka s contest Final project As you may know, Willy Wonka wants to retire and give the factory to Charlie. However, before going, he wishes to find a new partnership
Week 1: Day One Circle the nouns in each sentence. 1. The subways in Toronto were crowded with tourists. 2. Tom expects honesty and kindness from his boss. Write the nouns that were circled above in the
Name Class If I Won the Lottery Before we begin reading The Peal by John Steinbeck, please complete the following journal prompts. You have just won one million dollars in the WCA lottery. What would you
I don t think I like boys, answers the Swallow. There are two rude boys living by the river. They always throw stones at me. They don t hit me, of course. I can fly far too well. But the Happy Prince looks
Upper Intermediate AK Unit b is currently being run was completed wasn t reached were announced 5 was built 6 are still being added 7 has become 8 can even be seen 9 carry out 0 are regularly tested has
Look at the pictures. Can you guess what the topic idiom is about? IDIOMS 1H EXERCISE A: Match the idioms in column A with their meanings in column B. A B 1. strike it lucky a. a slight chance 2. don t
Table of Contents Tricky Phonics pyramid page: children have trouble putting these lessons into action as they read. This book will help you help your child with these very important rules. Leopard picture
Classroom Video with Stacy Hoeflich Fourth Grade Teacher John Smith Map Lesson: Introduction Stacy Hoeflich: I am going to give you a primary resource and it is a primary resource that you have already
GLOSSARY Lost and Found a place that holds lost items for people until they come to find them * I left my glasses at the theater last night, and I m hoping someone turned them in to the Lost and Found.
NAME DATE Agreement: Subject and Verb, Pronoun and Antecedent A. IDENTIFYING CORRECT SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT Underline the correct word or words in parentheses in each of the following sentences. Example
High Frequency Words KS1 (bold=tricky words) Phase 2 Reception a an as at if in is it of off on can dad had back and get big him his not got up mum but the to I no go into Phase 3 will that this then them
The Office of English Language Programs O. Henry s The Gift of the Magi and other stories Student Learning Materials Published by The Office of English Language Programs Bureau of Educational and Cultural
The Cello of Mr. O Here we are, surrounded and under attack. My father and most of the other fathers, the older brothers even some of the grandfathers have gone to fight. So we stay, children and women,
Non-fiction: About You: How Music Affects Your Moods About You: How Music Affects Your Moods Music can change how you feel. Learn the keys to how music connects with your mind and body. It had been a hard
2 Grammar, Vocabulary, and Pronunciation B GRAMMAR 1 Complete the time expressions with for or since. Example: for many years 1 Monday 2 the lecture began 3 a really long time 4 a couple of weeks we met
THE TWENTY MOST COMMON LANGUAGE USAGE ERRORS Lie and Lay 1. The verb to lay means to place or put. The verb to lie means to recline or to lie down or to be in a horizontal position. EXAMPLES: Lay the covers
Summary and the Case of the Slippery Salamander A salamander has been stolen from the Den of Darkness in the town aquarium., the police chief s son, solves the mystery that has his dad stumped. Activity
Lisa Mladinich Page 1 Sister Thea Bowman Puppet Show (this show follows the show on St. Mary Magdalen) (flying around again) Take that EVIL! I am a follower of Jesus Christ! I am the great, the fast, the
Part I For questions 1-5, mark the correct letter A-H on your answer sheet. 0. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B 0. You will pay less for a pair of swimming shorts here this weekend. 1. Make sure you arrive at the pool
Welcome to MILTON s Extended Donor Profile MILTON voluntarily provided the following information which will be disclosed to future parents as an aid in their selection General information and characteristics
September NF families. friends. NF summer. poem school. Mo Willems. restaurant menu. NF something that flies. respect. with no words, use your own words to tell the. Laura Numeroff. first grade. NF apples.
Lesson 1 Mixed Present Tenses In today's lesson, we're going to focus on the simple present and present continuous (also called the "present progressive") and a few more advanced details involved in the
ISTEP+ Fall 2008 Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress English/Language Arts Mathematics Grade 4 Indiana Department of Education Web Version Use only a Number 2 pencil to respond to the questions
GRADE 11 SBA REVIEW AFTER YOU VED STOOD ON A LOG AT THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE, WHAT IS THERE LEFT TO DO? Analyze plot, conflict* Inferences* After You ve Stood on the Log at the Center of the Universe,
Pierson Middle School Summer Reading Summer is a great time to relax, have fun and read a good book. Reading over the summer is critical to helping maintain good reading skills. Below you can find Pierson
ESL Unit by Road To Grammar roadtogrammar.com 1 Warm-up Questions Discuss the following questions: 1 What kind of food do you like to eat? 2 Is there any kind of food that you can't stand? 3 What did you
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