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1 qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyui opasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfgh jklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvb nmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwer GRAMMAR tyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopas dfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzx Leisure Time (Part I) cvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmq Module 4, Lesson 1 wertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuio pasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghj klzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbn mqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwerty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc vbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmrty uiopasdfghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdf ghjklzxcvbnmqwertyuiopasdfghjklzxc

2 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Part A: What are adjectives? (a) Adjectives describe nouns and pronouns. Examples: (b) She liked the suspenseful movie. (Suspenseful is an adjective describing the noun movie) It was scary. (Scary is an adjective describing the pronoun it.) You can have more than one adjective before a noun. Example: She liked the long, suspenseful movie. (c) Adjectives can follow linking verbs. Linking verbs: be, become, appear, look, seem, remain, feel, smell, sound, taste Examples: Trina is emotional. Trina became emotional. Trina sounds emotional. Trina appears emotional 2

3 Leisure Time Exercise 1 Underline the adjectives in the following sentences. Be careful. Some sentences may have more than one adjective. 1. The dog seems unhealthy. We should take it to the veterinarian. 2. My holiday is important. I will go by myself if you don't come. 3. Lubka wants to walk along the wooden boardwalk and look at the deep, blue water. 4. The shy, little girl was very talkative. I thought she would be quiet. 5. The coffee smelled so good we ordered a large cup. 6. It tastes wonderful. We want a second cup. 3

4 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Exercise 2 Knowing the opposites of adjectives can improve your vocabulary. Rewrite the sentences putting in the opposites for the underlined adjectives. Example: The theatre was small and the hosts appeared unfriendly. -> The theatre was large and the hosts appeared friendly. 1. The old actor with white hair was in his last movie. 2. This is the worst movie. It is very boring. 3. I prefer non-action films. This movie is too fast. 4. Wow! That dog is really ugly. 5. The rich actor drove a new car and wore expensive clothes. 6. I knew he was innocent as soon as I heard what he said. 4

5 Leisure Time Exercise 3 Choose the correct adjective from the ones provided to complete the sentences. Make sure the sentences make sense. loveliest tourist Silver old energetic sloping 1. Our first and trip was along the wonderful Shabo Trail. 2. The beautiful route takes you through picturesque Bloomsville, a prosperous, town. 3. Landon is a sleepy town, but has impressive homes, hills and a natural harbour. 4. There are lots of clean, friendly hotels available during the season. 5. Tired but tourists visit this beautiful area. 6. harbour is quaint and peaceful. 5

6 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Part B: What order do adjectives follow? When there is more than one adjective in a sentence, adjectives usually must go in a particular order. Example: We say: a large, green, dirty hat. We don t say: a green, dirty, large hat. When we use more than one adjective, we separate them using commas. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) noun number opinion size age color origin material purpose noun four lovely tiny old white African diamond wedding rings Example: Four, lovely, tiny, old, white, African, diamond, wedding, rings 6

7 Leisure Time Exercise 1 Rewrite the sentences putting the underlined adjectives in the correct order. 1. She bought an fur/expensive/ long/ brown coat. 2. I have a red/ plastic/ new pen. 3. She bought large/ Tim Horton /six coffees. 4. Sergio has a red /10 year- old /brick/ small home. 5. Did you see Ali s sleek / black /imported/ new /sports car? 6. They ordered hot /seven/italian pizzas. 7. She made a delicious /French/thick soup. 8. Maria ordered bouquets of colorful /indoor/ fresh flowers 9. You look great in your wool/ lovely /red/ new sweater. 7

8 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Part C: What are adverbs? Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives and other adverbs DESCRIBING A VERB Example: Michelle drives carefully. -drives is the verb -carefully is the adverb that describes the way she drives (the verb) DESCRIBING AN ADJECTIVE Example: Yesterday we went to a reasonably cheap restaurant. -cheap is the adjective -reasonably is the adverb describing how cheap (the adjective) DESCRIBING ANOTHER ADVERB Example: Basia learns languages incredibly quickly. -quickly is the adverb -incredibly is the adverb that describes how quickly (the adverb). Adverbs answer these questions: WHEN? WHERE? HOW? We went to the movies yesterday. (The adverb tells when.) He came here yesterday. (The adverb tells where.) He talked quietly. (The adverb tells how.) 8

9 Leisure Time Part D: How do we form adverbs? 1) Adverbs formed by adding ly. Many adverbs are formed by adding ly to adjectives Examples: Adjective Adverb quick quickly quiet quietly heavy heavily careful carefully 2) Adverbs that do not end in ly. Below are a list of adverbs that do not end in ly Examples: soon hard late fast then now up very there always late often too never seldom sometimes well early down also 3) Adjective and adverb forms that are the same. A few adjectives and adverbs have the same form: Adjective Fast Hard Late Adverb fast hard late Examples: Adjective Adverb John is a fast driver. John drives fast. Susie is a hard worker. Susie works hard. The plane was late. I got up late yesterday morning 4) Good/Well. Good is an adjective. Well is an adverb Examples: Your English is good. Bob is a good drummer. You speak English well. He plays the drums well 9

10 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Exercise 1 Underline the adverbs in the following sentences. (Be careful - one sentence has two adverbs in it.). 1. The program was poorly organized. 2. She simply could not understand the grammar lesson. 3. They will completely redecorate their house soon. 4. He very clearly explained how to use the Internet. 5. I think the use of computers and the Internet will inevitably increase. 6. Cindy is a fast reader. 7. I paid my telephone bill late. 8. He often arrived late and went about his duties lazily. 9. She looked forward to her vacation enthusiastically. 10. He completed the work easily. 10

11 Leisure Time Exercise 2 Complete the sentences by using the ADJECTIVE or ADVERB in italics. 1. My neighborhood is small and. a) quiet b) quietly 2. Terry spoke. while in the library. a) quiet b) quietly 3. The teacher asked an question. a) easy b) easily 4. Jane answered the teacher s question. a) easy b) easily 5. When Ted writes letters he makes many mistakes. He s a writer. a) careless b) carelessly 6. Ted writes. a) careless b) carelessly 7. Your English speaking skills are very. a) good b) well 8. You speak English very. a) good b) well 11

12 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Exercise 3 Circle the correct answer (adjective or adverb) in each sentence 1. Igor is a driver. a) careless b) carelessly 2. He drives. a) careless b) carelessly 3. You must pay your bills. a) regular b) regularly 4. It is wise to make payment on your bills. a) regular b) regularly 5. Eman was a very student. a) serious b) seriously 6. She studied. a) serious b) seriously 7. Sergio measured the house. a) exact b) exactly 8. They were measurements. a) perfect b) perfectly 9. The bridge was to walk on. a) safe b) safely 10. She was able to walk on the bridge. a) safe b) safely 12

13 Leisure Time 11. Maria can speak English very. a) good b) well 12. She has very pronunciation. a) good b) well 13. Her style of learning is than mine. a) different b) differently 14..She learns than me. a) different b) differently 15.. My little brother is very. a) stubborn b) stubbornly 16..He refuses to eat any vegetables although he knows they are good for him a) stubborn b) stubbornly 13

14 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Exercise 4 Choose the answer that tells what question the underlined adverb answers. The first one is done for you. 1. Bao finally knows how to use a computer. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 2. At first he thought he might learn slowly. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 3. He learned how to use the Internet easily. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 4. He went to the library frequently to use the computer. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 5. Bao went there early every morning. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 6. Now Bao can surf the web comfortably. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 7. Bao always wanted to learn how to use the computer. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 8. Soon he will get a computer of his own. a) when c) how b) where d) how much 14

15 Leisure Time Exercise 5 In the following sentences, the adjectives are underlined. Follow the example and rewrite these sentences positively using adverbs instead of adjectives. Underline the adverb in your sentence Example: I m not a very graceful swimmer. I think you swim very gracefully. 1. I m not a good guitar player. 2. I m a quick learner. 3. I m not a careful driver 4. I m a fast writer. 5. I m not a careful house cleaner. 6. I m not a smooth dancer 7. I m not a very hard worker. 15

16 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Part E: What is a gerund? A gerund is a verb that functions as a noun. To form a gerund, add ing to the base form of the verb. Examples: David swims every day. (swims verb) Swimming is fun. (swimming gerund) David loves swimming. (swimming gerund) Caution: David is swimming in the pool. In this sentence, swimming is not a gerund. It is part of the present continuous verb. Part F: What are the functions of gerunds? Function A gerund can be used as a subject of a verb. A gerund can be used as an object of a verb. A gerund can be used to complete an idea after the verb "to be. A gerund is used after a preposition. Some verbs are followed by the gerund form of the verb (appreciate, avoid, consider delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, insist, keep, miss, practise, remember, risk, save, suggest, understand Examples Exercising is good for you. I like exercising One thing I like doing is exercising. I am interested in exercising every day. I avoid exercising whenever I can. I enjoy watching old movies. I remember seeing that movie. I suggest taking a holiday in the winter. I save eating dessert until the last.. 16

17 Leisure Time Exercise 1 A gerund as a subject: Use a gerund from Column B to replace the underlined word/ phrase in Column A. Column A Column B 1. Exercise will keep you healthy. a. lying down 2. Humor makes everyone laugh. b. drawing 3. Cigarettes are terrible for your health. c. exercising 4. Weights build healthy strong muscles. d. body-building 5. Silence is golden. e. dancing 6. Rest helps relax the mind and body. f. keeping quiet 7. TV is sometimes educational for children. g. smoking 8. Art develops the creative mind. h. telling jokes 9. Ballet develops muscle. i. watching T.V. Exercise 2 A gerund as an object Underline the gerund in the following sentences Example: Bart quit smoking last year. 1. I enjoy watching old movies in the evening. 2. Lucy likes reading on quiet Sunday afternoons. 3. Jacob loves playing chess with his friends. 4. Mary hates swimming in a pool. 5. Jim avoids working late whenever he can. 6. Julie can t stand eating vegetables. 7. I detest practicing the piano. 8. My parents love golfing in the summer 17

18 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Exercise 3 Make questions by putting the words in the correct order Example: you/ avoid/reading/ books/ Do/ English/ in/? Do you avoid reading books in English? 1. enjoy/ Do / reading/ newspaper/ you/the/? 2. prefer/ a/ or / at/ eating/ Do/ restaurant/ home/ you/ at /? 3. hate/ Does/ his/ housework / doing/ Sergio/? 4. like/ shopping/ Teresa/Does /? 5. avoids /exercising / Who/? Exercise 4 (using a gerund to complete an idea after to be ) Complete the sentence by using the gerund form of the verb below. writing wearing saving swimming 1. My favorite sport is. 2. My main concern is money. 3. One thing I enjoyed when I was single was new clothes. 4. One thing I don't like is tests. 18

19 Leisure Time Exercise 5 A gerund after a preposition. The gerund form of the verb comes after prepositions. Choose the correct gerund from those listed in order to complete the sentences. Example: I always look forward to relaxing on the weekend. deciding changing beginning gathering working getting locating checking earning writing making selecting 1. I have been thinking about jobs for a long time now. 2. I finally succeeded in a new job. 3. I m looking forward to my new job as a journalist. 4. I m excited about for a large newspaper. 5. A journalist must work at information. 6. A journalist is also responsible for the facts to make sure they are correct. 7. A journalist s success depends on good articles. 8. They are sometimes accustomed to large salaries. 9. The editor s job consists of corrections. 10. An editor must also concentrate on attention-grabbing stories. 11. Editors are also responsible for what goes on each page. 19

20 LINC HOME STUDY Module 4 Lesson 1 Exercise 6 Choose the correct preposition + gerund to complete the sentence. 1. I insist to Paris for a holiday. a) of going b) in going c) on going 2. Janet is worried the plane on time. a) on catching b) for catching c) about catching 3. The teacher apologized late for class. a) to being b) for being c) in being 4. The students were bored everyday. a) for studying b) about studying c) with studying 5. He spoke across Canada this summer. a) on traveling b) to traveling c) about traveling 6. The employees were working the machine on schedule. a) in finishing b) at finishing c) on finishing 7. Do not try to stop me that movie. a) from seeing b) to seeing c) on seeing 20

21 Leisure Time Exercise 7 Fill in the blanks in the following sentences. Remember to use the gerund form of the word. The words are listed below to help you. You may use each word more than once decide work write begin check gather get make choose create 1. I finally succeeded in a new job. 2. I m looking forward to my new job as a journalist. 3. I m excited about for a large newspaper. 4. A journalist must work at information, the facts and a good article. 5. Journalists who work for large newspapers are used to long hours. 6. They are sometimes accustomed to large salaries. 7. The editor s job consists of corrections, good stories and what goes on each page. 8. Editors are also responsible for good editorials. 21

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