COMPARE AND CONTRAST. A type of literature Appeals to head Logical

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1 POETRY

2 COMPARE AND CONTRAST Poetry A type of literature Appeals to the heart Appeals to emotions/feelings Uses verses/stanzas Ideas are expressed in shorter, more powerful form Prose A type of literature Appeals to head Logical Uses sentences/ paragraphs Ideas expressed using a lot more words

3 POETRY TERMS Poetry A written expression of ideas in a concentrated, imaginative, and rhythmical terms Sound and meaning of words are combined to express feelings, thoughts, and ideas The poet chooses words carefully Poetry is usually written in lines Usually contains rhyme and a specific meter, but does not have to Stanza A division of a poem based on the form Named and numbered by the number of verses they contain Couplet: 2 lines Tercet: 3 lines Quatrain: 4 lines Cinquain: 5 lines Sestet: 6 lines Verse One line of poetry Three kinds based on rhyme and meter Rhymed verse- Verse with end rhyme and regular meter Blank verse- No end rhyme but a definite meter Free verse- No end rhyme and no meter

4 Diction Poet s distinctive choices in vocabulary Form Refers to the shape of the poem, the way the words and lines are arranged on the page Speaker The imaginary voice assumed by the writer of the poem The poet Human character Object or animal More than one speaker

5 Rhyme The likeness of sound existing between two or more words Words do not have to be spelled the same to be considered rhyming This is the most common sound device in poetry End rhyme- Same sound at the end of the verse Hat and cat Cloud and allowed Internal rhyme- Same sound within a verse Near or slant rhyme- Words that appear to rhyme, but don t Great and treat These words are assigned the same rhyme scheme letter A, B, C, etc Rhyme Scheme The pattern/sequence in which rhyme occurs. Uses the letters of the alphabet to show pattern

6 Meter A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables Foot Stressed Emphasized word part Unstressed Un-emphasized word part Angel- AN-gel (not an-gel) Complete- com-plete (not COM-plete) A group pf syllables constructing a metrical unit consisting of stressed and unstressed syllables da DUM da DUM da DUM

7 FIVE MAIN PATTERNS FOR FEET Iambic 1 unstressed syllable followed by 1 stressed syllable Repose (re- POSE) Belief (be-lief) Complete (com- PLETE) Trochaic 1 stressed syllable followed by 1 unstressed syllable Garland (GAR- land) Speaking (SPEAK- ing) Value (VAL- ue) Anapestic 2 unstressed syllables followed by 1 stressed syllable On the road Interrupt (in-ter-rupt) Unabridged (un-a-bridged) Dactylic 1 stressed syllable followed by 2 unstressed syllables Happiness (HAP-pi-ness) Galloping (GAL-lop-ing) Spondaic All syllables have equal stress Heartbreak Out, out Heartburn

8 COMBINATIONS OF POETIC FEET Monometer: 1 foot per line Dimeter: 2 feet per line Trimeter: 3 feet per line Tetrameter: 4 feet per line Pentameter: 5 feet per line Hexameter: 6 feet per line

9 TYPE + NUMBER = METER Type of Feet Iambic Trochaic Anapestic Dactylic Spondaic Number of feet per Line Monometer Diameter Trimeter Tetrameter Pentameter Hexameter

10 STRESSED syllable Unstressed syllable PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER Whose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village, though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snow. My little horse must think it queer To stop without a farmhouse near Between the woods and frozen lake The darkest evening of the year. He gives his harness bells a shake To ask if there is some mistake. The only other sounds the sweep Of easy wind and downy flake. The woods are lovely, dark, and deep, But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep. A A B A B B C B C C D C D D D D Verse/Line Meter: - Unstressed followed by stressed = - Four feet per line = Tetrameter - Therefore: Iambic Tetrameter Stanza

11 POETIC DEVICES Alliteration Deliberate repetition of consonant sounds Black gloves, a broad black hat Assonance Deliberate repetition of vowel sounds And so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side Consonance The repetition o final consonant sounds in stressed syllables with different vowel sounds Hat and sit Tone The poet s attitude toward the subject Mood Atmosphere of a piece of writing The emotions a selection arouses in a reader Trailer Horror

12 Rhyme Repetition of the same sounds Rhyming couplet A pair of lines whose end rhyme expresses one clear thought Rhythm The internal feel of beat and meter perceived when poetry is read aloud

13 Figurative language Writing or speech not meant to be interpreted literally Simile Metaphor Hyperbole Personification Metaphor A comparison not using the word like or as He is a snake Simile A comparison using the word like or as She is like a rose Hyperbole An exaggeration fro dramatic effect I am so hungry, I could eat a horse Personification Attribution of human motives or behaviors to impersonal agencies (non-humans) The stars danced in the sky

14 Onomatopoeia Use of words resembling the sounds they mean Buzz, woof, bang, slurp Echo/Repetition Repetition of key word or idea Creates a pattern Increases rhythm Imagery Using words to create pictures (images) in your mind Appeals to the five senses Sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell Oxymoron A seeming contradiction by putting two words together Jumbo shrimp

15 Allusion A reference to a well-known person, place, event, or artistic work Christy didn t like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities. Refers to Scrooge, the famous penny-pinching character of Charles Dickens classic novel A Christmas Carol Harry Potter Roman mythology Remus Lupin The founders of Rome, Romulus and Remus, were said to be raised by wolves, which Remus name and anamagus form allude to. Also, in The Deathly Hallows, his codename is Romulus, another direct allusion to this Greek mythology Fluffy, the three-headed dog guarding the Sorcerer's Stone in The Sorcerer's Stone Mythological creature Cerberus: a three-headed dog that guarded the Underworld Greek hero Orpheus was able to put Cerberus to sleep by playing music on his lyre Fluffy s weakness is music Hagrid claims to have purchased Fluffy from a Greek man

16 AUTHOR S PURPOSE o The poet has an author s purpose when he writes a poem. The purpose can be to: Share feelings (joy, sadness, anger, fear, loneliness) Tell a story Send a message (theme - something to think about) Be humorous Provide description* (e.g., person, object, concept)

17 TYPES OF POEMS

18 NARRATIVE POETRY Narrative Poetry Poetry that tells a story Follows the plot diagram of narrative literature The Highwayman

19 LYRIC POETRY Lyric Poetry Poetry that is written in highly musical language that expresses the thoughts, observations, and feelings of a single speaker

20 TANKA Tanka A verse form poem with five unrhymed lines of five, seven, five, seven, and seven syllables Conveys a single vivid emotion Beautiful mountains Rivers with cold, cold water. White cold snow on rocks Trees over the place with frost White sparkly snow everywhere.

21 LIMERICK Limerick A funny five line poem Lines 1, 2, and 5 rhyme Lines 3 and 4 rhyme Lines 3 and 4 are shorter Line 5 refers back to line 1 There Seems to Be a Problem I really don t know about Jim. When he comes to our farm for a swim, The fish as a rule, jump out of the pool. Is there something the matter with him? By John Ciardi

22 CONCRETE POEM Concrete Poem Can also be called a shape poem Written in the shape of its subject

23 HAIKU Haiku A Japanese poem form Written in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables Captures a moment in time Little frog among rain-shaken leaves, are you, too, splashed with fresh, green paint? by Gaki

24 COUPLET Couplet Poem written in two lines Usually rhymes The Jellyfish By Ogden Nash Who wants my jellyfish? I m not sellyfish!

25 TERCET Tercet Poem written in three lines Usually rhymes Lines 1 and 2 can rhyme Lines 1 and 3 can rhyme Sometimes all three lines rhyme Winter Moon By Langston Hughes How thin and sharp is the moon tonight! How thin and sharp and ghostly white Is the slim curved crook of the moon tonight!

26 QUATRAIN Quatrain A poem written in four lines Most common stanza used in poetry Usually rhymes Can be written in a variety of rhyming patterns The Lizard By John Gardner The lizard is a timid thing That cannot dance or fly or sing; He hunts for bugs beneath the floor And longs to be a dinosaur.

27 CINQUAIN Cinquain Poem written in five lines Does not rhyme Contains 22 syllables Line 1 = 2 syllables Line 2 = 4 syllables Line 3 = 6 syllables Line 4 = 8 syllables Line 5 = 2 syllables Oh, cat are you grinning curled in the window seat as sun warms you this December morning? By Paul B. Janezco

28 FREE VERSE Free Verse Poem that does not use rhyme or pattern Can vary in length, stanzas, and subject matter Revenge When I find out who took the last cooky out of the jar and left me a bunch of stale old messy crumbs, I'm going to take me a handful and crumb up someone's bed. By Myra Cohn Livingston

29 Blank Verse Poem written with a regular meter Almost always iambic pentameter Does not rhyme Villanelle A nineteen line lyric poem Written in five three line stanzas and ending in a four line stanza Sonnet A lyric poem consisting of fourteen lines Written in three four line stanzas called quatrains and ending with two rhymed lines known as a couplet

30 TPCASTT

31 This is a process to help you organize your analysis of poetry. We have already learned the vocabulary, now it s time to put it into practice! Together, we are going to analyze Dreams using T-PCASTT. Now, please copy the next chart in your notebook Getting Started

32 Add your analysis of Dreams to this sheet!

33 DREAMS BY LANGSTON HUGES Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow.

34 T is for TITLE Analyze the title first. ( Dreams ) What do you predict this poem will be about? Write down your predictions. We will reflect on the title again after we have read the poem. The next step is often omitted, but it is the most important!!!!

35 READ THE POEM

36 DREAMS BY LANGSTON HUGES Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly. Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow.

37 P is for PARAPHRASE Paraphrasing is putting something in your own words. After reading the poem, rewrite it in your own words. This may be three sentences or a page, depending on the particular poem.

38 C is for CONNOTATION Analyze the figures of speech and sound effects of the poem. These are the poetry vocabulary we have already studied. These elements add to the meaning.

39 A is for ATTITUDE Tone is the attitude of the speaker toward the subject of the poem.

40 S is for SHIFT If there is a change in Time Tone Mood Speaker This should always be noted as this will also affect the meaning.

41 T is for TITLE (again) At this time, you should reconsider the title. Were you right in your predictions? What other meanings might the title have in light of your analysis? Next, the biggie.

42 T is for THEME As you already know, theme is the general insight into life conveyed by the author through his/her work. It does not make a judgment. example: Don t do drugs is not a theme. It merely states something that is true to life and the human condition.

43 How do I find the THEME? Look at the other parts of TPCASTT. What insight are all of these working together to convey? What is the poet trying to say about life?

44 DREAMS BY: LANGSTON HUGES Title The poem is about dreams Paraphrase Hold tight to dreams Because if dreams die Life is like an injured bird That cannot fly. Hold tight to dreams Because when dreams are lost Life is like a field with nothing in it That is frozen with snow

45 Connotation Attitude Personification Dreams die Dreams go Metaphor Life is a broken winged bird Life is a barren field Imagery Broken winged bird that cannot fly Barren field frozen with snow End rhymes Die and fly Go and snow Repetition Hold fast to dreams The author s tome is cautionary and somewhat melancholy

46 Shift The poem has two full sentences ending in periods and stanzas are broke up into short 3 to 5 word lines Title The title is very indicative of what the poem will be about The poem is about dreams and continuing to dream and the title clearly represents that

47 Themes Plot: The speaker is telling the audience to keep dreaming because it makes life better and essentially makes life worth living. Subjects: Dreams/ Dreaming, Life, Value Theme(s): Continuing to dream will lead to a good life. Lack of dreaming, or not having dreams, makes life empty

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