Adjectives and Adverbs

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1 Adjectives and Adverbs Check point Tick the correct answer The owner thinks the flat is: perfect warm and cosy Chart Check Circle T (true) or F (false) T F Adverbs often come before nouns. T F Adjectives often come after action verbs. T F Adverbs often end in ly- Adjectives They are quiet tenants. There's a fast lift. The flat sounds nice. It s absolutely perfect. The flat felt warm. Adverbs They work quietly. It moves very fast. She described it nicety. It s absolutely perfect. The owner greeted the tenants warmly Express Check Complete these sentences with the correct form of slow. A: There s a lift. It moves very B: it s not it just seems

2 Grammar Explanations 1. Use s to describe nouns orpronouns (for people. places. and things). Adjectives usually come immediately before the noun they describe. Adjectives can also come after stative verbs such as be, look, sound or seem. Examples Noun pron. Adjective The houses are beautiful. They are new. Noun This is a small flat. Verb. This flat seems small. 2. Use adverbs to describe verbs, s and other adverbs. Adverbs that describe s and other adverbs usually come immediately before the word they describe. Verb adverb They furnished it nicely. Adverb It s an extremely nice house. Adverb adverb They found it very quickly. 3. Use adverbs of manner to describe action verbs. These adverbs often answer How? Questions. They come after the verb they describe. Be careful! Do not put an adverb of manner between the verb and its direct object. It ll sell quickly. (Quickly describes how fast it will sell.) Verb direct object She ll rent this flat quickly. Not she ll rent quickly this flat. 4. Adverbs of manner are often formed by adding-ly- to s. - Be careful! Some s also end in -ly, for example, silly, friendly, lovely and lonely. We need a quick decision. Adverb You should decide quickly. It's a lovely flat. 5. Some common adverbs of manner do not end in-ly. a. The adverb form of good is well. b. Some adverbs have the same form as their related s, for example, early, fast, wrong, late, and hard. Be careful! Lately is not the adverb form of late. Lately means 'recently'. Hardly is not the adverb form of hard. Hardly means 'almost not', Adjective Adverb She's a good writer. She writes well. Adjective Bob was late She's a hard worker. Adverb Bob came late. She works hard She hasn't met any new people lately. There's hardly enough time to prepare for her classes. Her part-time job takes up most of her time. Check it out! For a discussion of adverbs of frequency, see Unit 2.

3 Adjectives and Adverbs Check Point Tick the things the boy and girl have in common. cycling speed width of shoulders control of bike length of anus Chart Check Tick the correct answers. Which words are always used in comparisons with as as? Not A verb An or adverb. The girl s Verb *(not) as as Is fast as The boy She good He is Her bike as big His. The girl s bike Isn t heavy The boy s *stative verbs like be, look, seem The girl adverb Verb *(not) as adverb as Cycle fast as The boy She well He is Doesn t Her bike as smoothly His. cycle The girl s bike consistently The boy s *Action verbs

4 Express Check Complete these sentences with as as and tile words in brackets. A: My old bike wasn't my new one. Of course, it didn't (Expensive) Perform the new one. (Well) B: And it didn't look the new one, either. (Good) Grammar Explanations 1. You can use as + + as to compare two people, places or things. Use as + + as to compare two people, places or things that are equal in some way_ Use just to emphasise the equality. Use not as + +-as to talk about two people, places or things that are different in some way. Examples Trax bikes are as expensive as Gordos. (The Trax bike costs a lot of money. The Garda bike costs the same amount of money.) The Trax bike isn t as light as the Gordo, though. (The two bikes are not the same weight.) This helmet is as good as yours. It's just as expensive as yours, too. The new adverts are not as effective as the old ones. They aren t as funny as the old ones, either. 2. You can' also use as+ adverb +as to compare two actions. Use as + adverts + as to talk about two actions that are the same or equal. Use just to emphasise the equality. Use not as+ adverb + as to talk about two actions that are not the same or equal. He rides as fast as she does. (They ride equally last.) He doesn t ride as safely as she does, though. (They don't ride the same way. She rides mare solely than he does.) Kleen brightens as thoroughly as brite. It removes stains just as effectively as brite. 3. You do not always have to mention both parts of a comparison. Sometimes the meaning is clear from the context. Trax and Gordo are both great bikes but Trax isn t as light (as Gordo). Jake and Christopher both ride fast but Christopher doesn t rude as skilfully.

5 Adjectives: Comparatives Check Point Check the correct answer The new restaurant will be Different from the old restaurant. The same as the old restaurant. Chart check Circle T(true) Or F( false) T F the comparative form always and in er. T F You can use the same comparative twice in a statement to show a change in a situation The new restaurant is Comparative Comparative Than Brighter better than The old one. More Comfortable less beautiful The food is getting Repeated comparatives Comparative and comparative Better and better Worse worse More more delicious less less interesting Double Comparative the comparative the Comparative the More crowded The restaurant The slower The service Express Check Complete this sentence. Mo's is bigger and popular Val's.

6 Grammar Explanations a. Use the comparative form of s to focus on a difference between people, places and things. Examples The new menu is bigger than the old menu. The new waiters are more experienced than the old waiters. 2. There is more than one way to form the comparative of s. a. For one-syllable s and twosyllable s ending in y, use + -er. Be careful! There are often spelling changes when you add er. Be careful! Some s have irregular comparative forms. b. For most other s of two or more syllables, us more/less+. c. For some s, use either er or more/ less Adjective Comparative Bright Brighter Friendly Friendlier Nice Nicer Big Bigger Pretty Prettier Good Better Bad Worse comfortable More comfortable Less comfortable The river Inn is quitter than Joe s The river Inn is more quiet than Joe s 4.Use the comparative with than when you mention the things you are comparing. Use the comparative without than when it is clear which things you are comparing. The apple pie is better than the cake. The new desserts are better. (The new desserts are better than the old desserts.) 4.Repeat the same comparative to talk about change - an-increase or a decrease: Comparative +and + comparative Adjective Or More/less+ and + more / less+ It's getting harder and harder to find an inexpensive restaurant. The prices of mobile phones are going lower and lower. It s getting more and more difficult. Cars are becoming less and less expensive. 5.Use a double comparative to show cause and. effect: The+ comparative +the +comparative The shorter the queue, the faster the service. (when he queue is shorter, the service is faster) The more expensive the restaurant, the bigger the bill.

7 Adjectives :Superlatives Check Point Tick the correct answer. The sender of this card thinks his wife is very: typical special NOTE: On Valentine's Day (14 February), many people send cards to special people in their lives to tell them how much they love them. Chart Check Tick the correct answer Which letters do you add to the end of a short to form the superlative? a or an the most Which letters do you add to the end of a short to form the superlative? -er -est Which words do you add before a long to form the superlative? More or less Most or least You are That s Superlative Superlative Adjective form The swelest The funniest The best The most wonderful The least selfsh The nicest The loveliest The worst The most amusing The least original Person in the word Card I v received

8 Express Check - complete the chart nice Beautiful Warm happy superlative Grammar Explanations 1. Use the superlative form s to single out people, places and things. 2. There is more than one way to form the superlative of. a. For one-syllable, or two-syllable s ending in y, use the + -est. Be careful! There are often spelling changes when you add est. Be careful! Some s have irregular superlative forms. b. For most other s, of two or more syllables, use the most/the least+. c. For some s use either the.est or the most/the least. Examples You are the best parents in the world. You are the most wonderful friend I ve ever had. Bright Friendly Nice Big Pretty Good Bad Comfortable superlative The brightest The friendliest The nicest The biggest The prettiest The best The worst The most comfortable The least comfortable The third hotel was the quietest The third hotel was the most quiet 3. The superlative is often used with expressions beginning in or of such as in the world and of all. You're the best mother in the world. He s the cleverest one of us all. 4. The superlative is sometimes followed by clause. Often the clause uses the present perfect with ever. That s the nicest card I ve ever received. You have the loveliest smile I ve ever seen.

9 Adverbs: comparatives and superlatives Check Point Circle T(true) or F (false) T F Jordan improves every time he plays. Chart Check Tick the correct answer: What do you add to long adverbs to form the comparative? More or less -er or est Which word do you always add to form the superlative? Most the Comparative Comparative adverb Form than Harder Jordan played better More Aggressively than steve less consistently He threw The fastest The best The most The least Superlative Superlative Adverb Form Express Check Circle the correct words to complete these sentences. Sims threw faster than / of Jones. He played better / the best of all. Of anyone in the game

10 Grammar Explanations 1. use the comparative form of adverbs to focus on differences beteween actions. use the comparative without than when it is clear thing you are comparing. Examples The Bull played better than the Lakers. Jordon played more skilfully than O Neal. He played less aggressively, though. 2. Use the superlative form of adverbs to single out something about an action. We often use the superlative with expressions beginning with of, such as of any player. Steve tried the hardest. He scored the most frequently of any player on the team. 3.there is more than one way to form the comparative and superlative of adverbs. a. for one-syllable adverbs, use aderveb+ - er or the+ adverb +-est Be careful! some adverbs have irregular comparative and superlative forms. b.for most adverbs of two or more syllables, use more/less +adverb or the most/ the least +adverb. c.some adverbs use either more/less or er and the most/the least or the -est adverb Fast Hard Well Bady Skilfully Quickly comparative Superlative Faster Harder Better Worse More/less skilfully More quickly quicher The fastest The hardest The best The worst The most/ the least skilfully The most quickly The quickest 4.Repeat the same comparative to talk about change - an increase or a decrease: Comparative + and + comparative Adverb Or adverb More/less+ and+ more/less +adverb Steve is playing better and better as the season continues. (His performance keeps improving) He is shooting more and more accurately. (His shooping keeps getting more accurate.) 5.use a double comparative to show cause and effect: The+comparative adverb+the +comparative adverb The harder he played, the better he performed (When he played harder,his performance improved.) The more you practise, the better you became.

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