MORALITY, SENSUALITY AND EROTICISM IN THE LYRICS OF KOPLO DANGDUT S SONG AND ENGLISH SONG: AN ANALYSIS OF CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING

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1 MORALITY, SENSUALITY AND EROTICISM IN THE LYRICS OF KOPLO DANGDUT S SONG AND ENGLISH SONG: AN ANALYSIS OF CROSS CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING Festi Himatu Karima Universitas PGRI Semarang Abstract This study is aimed at describing the morality, sensuality and eroticsm in dangdut koplo s song ang western song which be analyzed by CCU approach. And at the end of this analysis, the writer found some lyrics containing morality, sensuality and eroticsm which are different between dangdut koplo and western song. The reason for these differences is the cultural background of each is different. Keywords: morality, sensuality, eroticism, lyric, Cross Cultural Understanding Introduction This research is based on many dangdut koplo s songs which have erotic elements that are not suitable with the politeness of the language, especially when the government is being intensively promoting character education. As we know, that the circulation of dangdut koplo s songs and western songs with erotic lyrics spreads in society widely and massively, and of course it will be the obstacle that we can not just ignore. This is supported by Dr. A. Brian Primack who said that today's teenagers have a tendency to prefer the kind of songs that have erotic lyrics, and erotic songs have a destructive effect for adolescents, because it triggers them to actively engage their sexual activity, if they heard the lyrics of the song too often. Furthermore, there are many problems faced by adolescents related with free sex that threatens the moral degradation of our teenagers. Based on the problems, the writer tries to answer the question as follow: a. how is the form of erotic lyric of dangdut koplo s song and western song? b. What makes difference between dangdut koplo s song and western song lyric in CCU approach? Based on the formula, then compiled a research design to prove the erotic forms that appear in the text dangdut koplo song. Language: Definition and Function Gorys Keraf summed up language as a communication tool produced by a human speech tool in the form of sound symbols to communicate in society (1997: 1). According to these conclusions, it can be said that language is a tool of interaction a person in the community. While the community has its own characteristics, therefore between people with each other also has a different language. 140

2 There are five language functions formulated by Gorys Keraf, those functions are as a means of communication, social control, social adaptation, integration, and self-expression. These five functions play an important role in the use of everyday language. More on these five functions will be explained below. a. Language as Communication It is clearly proven that language is used as a means of communication between people. Language plays a very important role for human survival. From the language, humans can interact with others. Language is also used for the benefit of science and technology. As a means of communication, language is a basic need for human that can not be avoided. b. Language as Social Control Language is a very effective means of social control, because all forms of news in the form of information, and education are conveyed through language. This social control can be applied to self as well as to society. c. Language as Social Adaptation and Integration Language as a cultural product plays an important role in the attachment between a person within his social environment. Without language, the person can not adapt socially to the community in which he lives. Therefore, the language in each social group has different characteristics, so it takes a certain language in a particular social environment. The language user is required to use the language according to the circumstances and situations he or she encounters. d. Language as Personal Expression Next is the language function that is very subjective, because the function of this language does not need to pay attention to whom and where the language users use it. Language as a means of self-expression is often used by children to express what they want. After we grow up, language is used in addition to self-expression but also for communication. Just like a writer. The author expresses himself by creating a paper that can be enjoyed by the reader. From the several functions of the language above, one of the language functions are closely related to the behavior and mindset of the writer of the song is as a means of selfexpression. Sensuality and Eroticism in Lyric of the SongText Song Erotism There are two kinds of language, spoken and written language. One of the examples of the written language is lyric of the song. Song lyric become the most enjoyable written language today. And they spread massively among song lover all over the world. The government, who should take charge for this situation seem cannot do anything. If we look closer, many songs should not be exposed freely and easily, because the content is not appropriate for every age. Most of them are associated with sensuality and erotism. Sensuality is a term that encompasses everything related to sex, which is divided into two aspects: 1) sex in the narrow sense, associated with the genitalia and 2) sex in a broad sense that is related to the consequences of the difference of sex (Sarlito WS and Amisiamsidar: 1986: 7) 141

3 According to KBBI, erotic is related to the sensation of sex that has a stimulus or is stimulating lust. While eroticism is a state of arousal lust, the desire for continuous sex appetite (2005: 307). Eroticism in the lyric of the song means that the lyric of the song has the desire or lust because the text full of the words with sexual sensation. The writer found many sensuality and eroticism in the lyric of dangdut koplo and western song. As we know, those kinds of songs are heard by many level of people in society, so it should be controlled by government wisely. For example in dangdut koplo s song, there are many title which seems very erotic, such as Cucak Rowo, Tragedi Tali kutang, Sarinten, Jambu Alas and many more. Morality Morality comes from the word "moral", while the moral comes from the word "mos" which means habit, and "mores" which means decency. Morality itself means the doctrine of good and bad that is accepted by the public concerning deeds, attitudes, duties and others. Emile Durkheim (1973) argues that morality is a system of rules or norms about rules that determine our behavior. Those rules determine how we should do. On the other hand, Imanuel Kant said that morality is concerned with a man's bad behavior. So from the two opinions of the philosopher above can be concluded that morality is the provisions that apply in society which regulate our behavior as a human in society. Cross Cultural Study Culture is characteristic of a country or region. Because there is a culture then every country and region can survive. Nevertheless some cultural experts try to formulate it. One of them is Levin. Levin said "culture includes communication style, customs, beliefs, attitudes, and values. People who share their own culture use this knowledge to guide their own actions (1987: 221), which means that people use their knowledge to share cultures. On the other hand Wyer thinks the same as Levin. He reveals that "culture is unique to the knowledge that is shared between a collection of interconnected, individuals, who are often demarcated by race, ethnicity, or nationality. (2009: 25) Based on the theory, the writer tries to analyze the differences of two songs from two different cultures, namely Indonesia and America which the authors are confident of the magnitude of the differences that they have. Methodology This study was conducted using two methods, the analytic descriptive method and qualitative method. According to Ratna, these two methods can be done together as long as the support each other (2004:53). First, the writer described the facts from the data which followed by analysis. Then, the qualitative intended to explain the analysis to be more accurate with the stages as follows. 1) preliminary study with analyzing the conditions on two different songs; 2) finding the data analysis from the songs; 3) describing the result; 4) comparing the difference result between two different songs with CCU theory. 142

4 Finding and Discussion Findings Indonesian Song Based on the results of the authors' research on two selected songs representing the dangdut koplo and western song titled "Ngidam Pentol" and "Locked Out of Heaven", the writer find forms of sensuality, eroticism and moral perversion. Several lyrics expressed in denotative meaning but there is also connotative meaning. Here the lyrics which contain sensuality and eroticism from Ngidam Pentol Iki ngono perbuatanmu mas Wetengku ciliki mbok gawe lemu Kowe seneng nggugahi wong turu Ra diwehi mengko kowe nesu Sing tak pengeni gampang-gampang Janji kudu keturutan Aku pengin pentol sing enek endok e Aku pengin pentol sing enek endok e Aku pengin pentol pentol pentol pentol endok Sing okeh emine Based on the lyric which is written in italic, the writer wants to emphasize the sentence that lead the opinion to erotic thinking, because it contains sensual elements. The sentences are also considered inappropriate and immoral if they are presented in a song, because of the great potential of generating negative assumptions from the listener. In the lyric of dangdut koplo songs, the sensual lyric is not delivered directly. However, for those who hear will be able to understand what the author wanted to convey is not as presented in the lyric of the song, but more than the textual meaning. Furthermore, it will be described further in the discussion. Western Song Here are the lyric of the song containing sensuality and eroticism entitled Locked Out of Heaven. Never had much faith in love or miracles Never wanna put my heart on the line But swimming in your water is something spiritual I'm born again every time you spend the night Cause your sex takes me to paradise Yeah your sex takes me to paradise And it shows, yeah, yeah, yeah Cause you make me feel like, I've been locked out of heaven For too long, For too long You bring me to my knees 143

5 You make me testify You can make a sinner change his ways Open up your gates cause I cannot wait to see the light And right there is where I want to stay Based on the lyric of the song above, the phrases marked with italics are the lyric that can lead listeners and readers to think erotic, because the lyric produced by the author with high sensuality. This songwriter uses a language that has a real meaning, so it can be known directly what the message from the author who wants to be delivered to the listener. To be more clearly, it will be further explained in the following discussion. Discussion In this discussion, the writer wants to explain more about the findings of the research. First, the writer describes the sensual and eroticism and then explain the background of the culture with CCU. a. "Ngidam Pentol" In the lyric of the song of Ngidam pentol, if we observed the lyric based on the denotative meaning, so it will not be found the eroticism side. However, when we interpret the lyric with the connotative meaning, we can assume that there is eroticism and sensuality in the lyric. It begins in the lyrics "Kowe seneng nggugahi wong turu, Ra diwehi mengko kowe nesu". The sentence implies that "kowe" refers to a husband who likes to wake his wife up to ask for making love. On the next lyric Aku pengin pentol sing enek endok e Aku pengin pentol sing enek endok e Aku pengin pentol pentol pentol pentol endok Sing okeh emine If we observe the lyric, what the craving wife wants? If only pentol (meatball) but why she ask for an egg (red: endok), especially two eggs. Because normally, meatball does not have egg, and also does not have noodles. So the lyrics bring up other assumptions or other meanings of the listener. Actually what message does the wife say to her husband by using the lyrics? Because the meaning that finally appears to the listener sounds inappropriate to be expressed in a song, because the writer of the song is actually that the wife is craving to have sex with her husband. The writer uses the term "pentol sing dobel endoke, sing akeh emine". The writer use connotative in his lyric, so only certain person will understand about the meaning. b. "Locked Out of Heaven" Different from "Ngidam Pentol" which presented in connotative meanings, the western song "Locked Out of Heaven" is presented with denotative meaning. The writer of the song looks very easy in describing what he wants to express. 144

6 I'm born again every time you spend the night Cause your sex takes me to paradise Yeah your sex takes me to paradise It shows, yeah, yeah, yeah Cause you make me feel like, I've been locked out of heaven In the first line of the song, it is said that the subject of the song feels reborn every time they spend the night together. In the next lyric, it is more clearly explained about the activity when they spend the night together. "Cause your sex takes me to paradise", means they are making love, and the subjects in the song feel in heaven every time they do that making love activity. In the next lyrics the subject in the song continues to assert that he felt like locked in heaven every time they are making out together. The lyric should not be expressed freely in the song, because sometimes the listeners, especially the young one, cannot choose the right song for them. But, the writer of the song really wants to express his feeling, so the song can be well received by the listeners. There is no worry from the writer about the consequences he would receive, because the society where he lives, gives him a freedom in expressing his mind. That is why; the writer assumes that the lyric is full of erotic and sensual elements. The meaning of the song is unusual and too vulgar to be enjoyed by the listeners. For those who do not know the meaning, it may not be problematic or affected, but for those who know and understand the meaning of the song, they have the chance to think negatively. Moreover, if the song listened by teenagers who are still unstable and cannot differentiate between good and bad, so that will plunge them on things that are not good for them. In other word, that kind of the song can influence the way of thinking. "Ngidam Pentol" and "Locked Out of Heaven" with Cross Cultural Understanding Approach Basically, both songs have the same level of eroticism and sensuality. Both of them also tell about the intimate relationship between male and female. However, the kind of relationship in Ngidam Pentol is legitimate relationship, which means they are married. It can be seen from the first line of the song, it is written "Bojoku meteng telung wulan" which means my wife is three months pregnancy. This indicates the legalization of their relationship, so when they have sex as husband and wife are considered reasonable according to social and religious laws which applied in their society. What makes the song incompatible with moral rules and sounds sensual and erotic is when the wife as the subject in the song, try to sue her husband. In the next lyrics, it is told that his wife crafting of pentol (meatball) which has two eggs. While in real life, there is no such type of food. This is the erotic and sensual side of the song "Ngidam Pentol", because the real coveted by the wife is having sex with her husband. 145

7 Actually it is a legitimate wishes, but it will sound very vulgar if it is poured in a song, and symbolized by the male genitalia. The song writer of "Ngidam Pentol" has actually used connotative meaning. But it can be easily guessed by the listener. Because the wife's behavior in her song, as if she was disturbed by her condition which make her crafting of making love with her husband. The writer gives double impression to the listener in order to make an alibi. In Indonesia, it is not polite and immoral if people describing their private activity. Indonesian still have norms and culture which influence the citizen. Unlike the case with the song "Locked Out of Heaven". The song was written with confidence. This can be seen in the lyrics of the song. Never had much faith in love or miracles Never wanna put my heart on the line But swimming in your world is something spiritual I'm born again every time you spend the night Cause your sex takes me to paradise Yeah your sex takes me to paradise And it shows, yeah, yeah, yeah Cause you make me feel like, I've been locked out of heaven The word spoken by the subject in this song is "Never had much faith in love" which means beforehand he has never felt such a feeling with his new girlfriend. And in the next lyrics it is said that the subjects in the song feel reborn every time they spend the night together. Of course spending the night means that they have sex with his lover who makes it like being in heaven. The erotic and sensual elements are clearly shown from their relationship, and it raises questions about the status of both of them. As we know, western country has different norms with Indonesian. They are more open-minded and respect others privacy, but it does not mean that is good in everything. Something that can give bad influence for our young generation is about free sex and hedonism. They live their life too free, so it can danger their young generation. Most of them living together without any commitment, because they live for fun. They do not care about norms or religion. And it can be seen from the lyric of Locked out of heaven song. It is stated in "I'am born again everytime you spent the night", the songwriter uses the word "everytime", so we can conclude here that his lover is not staying every night in his home just like husband and wife should be. Moreover, in the lyric "Can t I just stay here spend the rest of my days here" which states that the subject in the lyrics of the song asked, whether he can live with his girlfriend and spend the days together forever. According to the morality, it is not appropriate and forbidden for women and men live together without any status at all. Both songs are clearly different from each other. The thing that most affected both types of songs is the cultural background of the writer of the song. In "Ngidam Pentol" was 146

8 created by Indonesians, while the song "Locked Out of Heaven" was created by Americans. They totally have different cultural background, so the sound of the lyric also different. According to Indonesians, the relation between women and men must be tied up with marriage so they can live together. Although sometimes, Indonesian live together with their lover without any status, but they feel ashamed to show it to others, because deep in their heart, they still have norms. They are too afraid facing the sanction that will be accepted from the society. This is also influence the way they write the lyric of the song. In the other side, "Locked Out of Heaven" sounds very straightforward and confident. We can see the background of the songwriter who came from the United States which is a free country. His country gives him a freedom to express his feeling and opinion, so the writer feels free to write the kind of song. As long as this kind of freedom does not harm others, so they can do whatever they want to do. While we know that sexual activity is a private thing, and it cannot be touched by any legal sanctions, so the writer of the song "Locked Out of Heaven" can write the song without any fear. The song is a message of freedom of speech in United States. From the song we understand that the songwriter's social background is become the main reason why he can write the song very wild and does not fit with our culture. They regarded this kind of freedom with modernity, because all the nations of the world recognize that America is a modern state and the center of attention. United States becomes the benchmark for the nations of the world. In the other hand, Indonesia, which is considered as a poor country, is affected by fundamentalist mindset (due to religion-oriented) and introverts. The United States has laws that protect its citizens to freely express themselves. While the Indonesian, religion and norms are the supreme law. We have to know the worst effect that can be made by hearing the song with erotic and sensual lyric, which leads the young generation into free sex. Conclusion Based on research the writer concludes that both of the songs have erotic and sensual elements which are not appropriate with our morality. The difference between Ngidam Pentol and Locked out of Heaven placed in the way the writer of the song deliver their idea. In western song, the writer can easily write his emotion and express his feeling freely without any doubt, such as in this lyric I'm born again every time you spend the night, because your sex takes me to paradise, Yeah your sex takes me to paradise". But in Indonesia, the writer still tied up with the norms, so that make he writes his work with connotative meaning, or has double meaning. The difference between the two songs lies in the background of the songwriter. Indonesian writers seem to be very careful in delivering their ideas and feeling. They are too afraid in making mistakes, so his works can survive in the ear of listeners. It tends to use connotative rather than denotative language to create multiple meanings. This is influenced by the prevailing norms in Indonesia, especially the religious and social norms. While western writers look more confident in delivering their ideas and emotions. They brave enough in 147

9 expressing their feelings and emotions, although it is not appropriate to be consumed to others. Referrences Akhmadi, Mukhsin Strategi Belajar-Mengajar Keterampilan Berbahasa dan Apresiasi Sastra. Malang: Yayasan Asih Asah Asuh Malang (YA3 Malang). Arikunto, Suharsimi Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Barker, Chris Cultural Studies: teori dan Praktik. Yogyakarta: Kreasi Wacana Damono, Sapardi Djoko Sosiologi Sastra. Semarang. Magister Ilmu Susastra. Durkheim, emile Morality and Society. Chicago. University of Chicago Press. Endraswara, Suwandi Metodologi Penelitian Sastra: Epistemologi, Model, Teori dan Aplikasi. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Widyatama. Fatoni, Abdurrahmat Antropologi Sosial Budaya Suatu Pengantar. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta. Gall, Meredith D., Joyce P, Gall, dan Walter R Borg Education Recearch An Introduction. New York: Pearson Education. Haviland, William A Antropologi. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga. Jabrohim (Ed) Metodologi Penelitian Sastra.Yogyakarta: Hanindita Kartadinata, Sunaryo Mencari Bentuk Karakter Bangsa. Artikel Internet diunduh 13 Februari Koentjaraningrat pengantar Ilmu Antropologi. Jakarta. Rineka Cipta. Keraf, Gorys Dikisi dan Gaya Bahasa. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Kridalaksana, Harimurti Kamus Linguistik. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Moleong, Lexy J Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: Remaja Rosda Karya. Miles, Mathew B. dan A. Michael Huberman Qualitative Data Analysis. Terjemahan Tjejep Rohendi Rohidi Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia. Ramelan Penguasaan dan Keterampilan Berbahasa. Lembaran Ilmu Pengetahuan VII.2:22. Semarang IKIP Semarang Press. Ratna, Nyoman Kutha Teori, Metode, dan Teknik Penelitian Sastra. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar. Subana dan Sunarti. Tth. Strategi Belajar Mengajar Bahasa Indonesia: Berbagai Pendekatan, Metode, Teknik, dan Media Pengajaran. Bandung: Pustaka Setia. Sutrisno, Mudji Teori-teori Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. Tampubolon, Daulat P Peran Bahasa dalam Memajukan Bangsa. Jurnal Ilmiah Masyarakat Linguistik Indonesia XIX. Jakarta: Pusat Kajian Bahasa dan Budaya. Wierzbicka Emotions Across Language and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Yahya, Khan Pendidikan Karakter Berbasis Potensi Diri Mendongkrak Kualitas Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Pelangi Publishing. Jaszczolt.K Language and Thought. 148

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