Lesson 12: Infinitive or -ING Game Show (Part 1) Round 1: Verbs about feelings, desires, and plans

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1 Lesson 12: Infinitive or -ING Game Show (Part 1) When you construct a sentence, it can get confusing when there is more than one verb. What form does the second verb take? Today's and tomorrow's lessons will focus on typical English verb patterns. The first important thing to understand is that there are no definite "rules" when it comes to which verbs follow which patterns. It's impossible to know, just by looking at a verb, which category it will fall into. Thus, the only way to learn these is simply by familiarity. Instead of trying to memorize the lists of verbs that fall into each pattern, I believe it's best to simply see lots of examples and also create your own - so that eventually you'll naturally use each verb in the correct way. For this lesson, it s very important to do the Put it into practice writing exercises! Now let me explain how the game show will work. There are four rounds of 10 sentences each. I ll show you a sentence, and you ll have 5 seconds to guess whether the verb should be in the infinitive or the ING form, before I show you the answer. Give yourself one point for each correct answer you can keep track of your score on a piece of paper. Round 1: Verbs about feelings, desires, and plans 1. I can't stand waiting / to wait in line. 2. Do you mind turning / to turn down the music a bit? 3. They're planning adopting / to adopt a child. 4. I look forward to seeing / see you next week. 5. My parents expect me being / to be successful. 6. I miss hanging / to hang out with my college friends. 7. We intend opening / to open a new branch of the company next year. 8. I hope getting / to get a good grade on the test. 9. I enjoy sleeping / to sleep late on the weekends. 10. I'd like introducing / to introduce you to my husband.

2 Now let s take a closer look at these verbs: Both enjoy and dislike are followed by the -ing form, as well as the expressions feel like (which is an informal way of saying you are in the mood to do something) and can't stand (meaning you strongly dislike something, or it really annoys you). I enjoy sleeping late on the weekends. I dislike driving long distances. Do you feel like seeing a movie tonight? I can't stand being put on hold for 45 minutes when I try to call my bank. Like is different - it can be followed by the -ing form or the to form: I like running. = I like to run. The verbs mind and don't mind are also followed by the -ing form. Do you mind turning down the music a bit? I don't mind working late, as long as I'm paid for the extra hours. The verb miss, when talking about the feeling you have when you're sad about something that was part of your life in the past but is not anymore, is also followed by the -ing form: My friends and I had a lot of fun in college. I miss hanging out with them. Finally, the expressions look forward to (meaning to be happy or excited about something in the future) and be/get used to (meaning to be or become accustomed to) are followed by the -ing form and NOT the base form: I look forward to seeing you next week. I look forward to see you next week. I'm not very hungry yet. I'm not used to eating lunch so late in the day. It took me a few days to get used to working with the new software.

3 Note: There's a difference between "I'm used to eating" (talks about current habit) and "I used to eat" (talks about past habit) - for more information, see this lesson: We use the infinitive after desires such as hope, expect, intend, plan, and want: I hope to get a good grade on the test. My parents expect me to be successful. We intend to open a new branch of the company next year. They're planning to adopt a child. I want to learn how to cook. One common error that students make is forgetting the word to : I hope get a good grade I want learn how to cook There are very few verbs in English that are followed directly by the base form (we ll learn these a little later). The verbs hate, love, prefer, and like can be followed by either "to" or the "ing" form of the verb. However, the expressions would hate, would love, would prefer, and would like are always followed by the infinitive with to : I like to play tennis. / I like playing tennis. (in general) I'd like to play tennis this afternoon. (= I want to play tennis this afternoon)

4 Round 2: Verbs about Speaking 1. He didn't mention having / to have a girlfriend. 2. I promise taking / to take good care of the book you lent me. 3. The student admitted cheating / to cheat on the test. 4. I recommend taking / to take a jacket. 5. Let's discuss hiring / to hire a new employee. 6. She always offers helping / to help me with my homework. 7. The director denied stealing / to steal money from the company. 8. The taxi driver agreed picking / to pick me up in an hour. 9. I punished my kids after they refused cleaning / to clean their room. 10. He claims having / to have experience in this area. Now let s take a closer look at these verbs: The verbs agree, claim, demand, offer, refuse, promise, and threaten are followed by to + verb: The taxi driver agreed to pick me up in an hour. He claims to have experience in this area. The investors are demanding to see the company's financial information. She always offers to help me with my homework. I had to punish my kids after they refused to clean their room. Thanks for lending me your book. I promise to take good care of it. The kidnappers threatened to kill the little girl unless her parents paid a $100,000 ransom. The common verbs regarding speaking that are followed by the -ing form are: admit, deny, discuss, mention, recommend, and suggest: The student admitted cheating on the test. The director denied stealing money from the company. Are we going to discuss hiring someone to manage the project? He didn't mention having a girlfriend.

5 I recommend taking a jacket; it's going to be cold. Do you suggest applying early to that college? Many English students make mistakes with recommend and suggest. There are actually a few different correct structures we can use with these verbs: I recommend/suggest taking a jacket. I recommend/suggest that you take a jacket. I suggest you take a jacket. (we don't usually use recommend in this case) I recommend/suggest to take a jacket. Round 3: Thinking & State Verbs 1. He appears being / to be a soldier. 2. I'm thinking about dyeing / to dye my hair blonde. 3. Imagine winning / to win the lottery and never having to work again! 4. She always seems knowing / to know what to do. 5. We anticipate spending / to spend $100,000 on training. 6. I don't recall meeting / to meet him before. 7. We need taking / to take action now! 8. Would you consider going / to go back to school? 9. You deserve enjoying / to enjoy your success. 10. We can't afford losing / to lose this opportunity. Now let s take a closer look at these verbs: Verbs involving "thinking" that are followed by the -ing form include anticipate, consider, imagine, recall, and think about:

6 In our budget projections, we anticipate spending on additional training for our staff. Would you consider going back to school to get another degree? Imagine winning the lottery and never having to work again! I don t recall meeting him before. I'm thinking about dyeing my hair blonde. Some state verbs are followed by "to": appear, seem, deserve, need, can/can't afford: He appears to be a soldier. She always seems to know what to do. You've worked hard. You deserve to enjoy your success. We need to take action now! We can't afford to lose this opportunity. Round 4: Other Actions 1. This job involves taking / to take calls from customers. 2. He pretends being / to be an expert, but he's not. 3. I tend waking / to wake up at the same time every day. 4. Let's finish writing / to write the article tomorrow. 5. The soccer player attempted scoring / to score a goal. 6. Try to avoid taking / to take the bus after 11 PM. 7. Do you think she'll manage breaking / to break the world record? 8. We've been spending time volunteering / to volunteer at the local homeless shelter. 9. You risk losing / to lose all your money if you invest it all in a single company. 10. We decided going / to go to the zoo instead of the park.

7 Now let s take a closer look at these verbs: Some common verbs for actions that are followed by the -ing form are: avoid, delay, can't help, finish, involve, keep (in the sense of "continue" or "do repeatedly"), practice, risk, and spend time: Try to avoid taking the bus after 11 PM; it's not safe. She delayed going to the doctor until her symptoms got too serious to ignore. I can't help thinking that he's lying. Let's finish writing the article tomorrow. This job involves taking calls from customers. My dog keeps chewing up my shoes! Every morning, he practices listening to English. You risk losing all your money if you invest it all in a single company. We've been spending time volunteering at the local homeless shelter. Some common verbs involving that are followed by to + verb: attempt, choose, decide, hesitate, manage, pretend, fail, learn, prepare, and tend The soccer player attempted to score a goal. We chose/decided to go to the zoo instead of the park. I hesitate to argue with him; I don't like conflicts. Do you think she'll manage to break the world record? He pretends to be an expert, but he s not. We failed to prepare adequately for the meeting. I tend to wake up at the same time every day even without an alarm. Special Case: Verbs + either TO or ING Finally, there are a few verbs that can be followed by either TO or the -ing form with no change in meaning: begin, continue, hate,* like, love, prefer, and start. The baby started crying. = The baby started to cry. I love reading. = I love to read.

8 The word "hate" has a little bit of a difference. Use hate + -ING for something you always or generally hate, and hate + infinitive for something you are going to do (but you dislike it or don t want to do it): I hate waiting in line. (in general) I hate to ask you for money yet again but could you lend me $10? (expressing regret for something you are going to do) You ve finished Lesson 12! How many points did you get? The maximum total possible score was 40. If you want, you can send me your score along with your writing task. Also, make sure to do the exercises for this lesson, so that you really reinforce your knowledge of which verbs are followed by ING and which are followed by the infinitive.

9 Quiz Lesson 12 Infinitive or ING? Complete each sentence with the verb indicated in either the infinitive or the ING form. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. 1. We really enjoyed (chat) with you. 2. I don't feel like (go) out tonight. 3. Everyone was expecting you (arrive) on time. 4. When we switched on the machinery, the gears began (turn). 5. If you confront him, he ll deny (have) anything to do with it. 6. Let's agree (put) this little problem behind us. 7. Why do you keep (ask) me? I don't know the answer! 8. I recommend (order) dessert. The chocolate cake is delicious. 9. My son is thinking about (change) his major to economics. 10. They intend (become) the best in the business. 11. I prefer (work) the early morning shift. 12. Make sure to write down the address. I can just imagine (get) into the city and not knowing where to go! 13. He's difficult to work with because he always refuses (cooperate). 14. Somehow, he managed (take out) a loan even though he had terrible credit. 15. They finished (clean) the house at 4 PM. 16. She pretended (not care), but I know she was upset.

10 Writing Task Write one sentence in response to each question remember, the next word should be a verb in the ING or infinitive form. Try to answer from memory, without looking back at the lesson to find out which form the verb should be in! 1. What's one action you're considering? I m considering 2. What's something you attempted, but failed? I attempted 3. What's one activity you recommend in your city? I recommend 4. What's one thing you dislike? I dislike 5. What's an important decision you've made in your life? I decided 6. What's one plan you have for next week? I m planning 7. What's an offer someone has made you in the past? He/she offered 8. What's one thing you enjoy? I enjoy 9. What's a habit you have? I tend 10. What's one future thing you're excited about? I m looking forward to 11. What's one activity you miss from when you were younger? I miss

11 12. When was a time you succeeded even when the situation was difficult? I managed 13. What's one errand or chore (housework) you don't mind? I don t mind 14. What's one goal you have for the next year? I hope 15. What's one activity you try to avoid? I try to avoid Answers Quiz Lesson 12 Infinitive or ING?. 1. We really enjoyed chatting with you. 2. I don't feel like going out tonight. 3. Everyone was expecting you to arrive on time. 4. When we switched on the machinery, the gears began to turn / turning. 5. If you confront him, he ll deny having anything to do with it. 6. Let's agree to put this little problem behind us. 7. Why do you keep asking me? I don't know the answer! 8. I recommend ordering dessert. The chocolate cake is delicious. 9. My son is thinking about changing his major to economics. 10. They intend to become the best in the business. 11. I prefer working / to work the early morning shift. 12. Make sure to write down the address. I can just imagine getting into the city and not knowing where to go! 13. He's difficult to work with because he always refuses to cooperate. 14. Somehow, he managed to take out a loan even though he had terrible credit. 15. They finished cleaning the house at 4 PM. 16. She pretended not to care, but I know she was upset.

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