# Kaytee s Contest. Problem of the Week Teacher Packet. Answer Check

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2 did you explain your work as well as you could? did you make any mistakes along the way? If so, how did you find and fix them? what hints would you give another student? Revise your work if you have any ideas to add. Otherwise leave us a comment that tells us how you think you did you might answer one or more of the questions above. Our Solutions Method 1: Guess and Check I need to find out how much Bertha weighs how much Billy weighs I know that Bertha weighs 848 lbs. more than Billy. What if I first guess that Bertha weighs 848 lbs. since she would then weigh that much more than Billy as it states in the problem. Billy would weigh 0 lbs. Wups, that s way too low! What if Bertha weighs 1000 lbs.? Billy would weigh 152 lbs. (because = 152) and that s still too low. I know their total weight is 1696 lbs. This guess of 1000 lbs. is about 500 lbs. too low. Next I m going to try half of the 500 added to the 1000 guess. If Bertha weighs 1250 lbs., Billy would weigh 402 ( = 402). The total needs to be 1696 but 1250 plus 402 is only 1652 but I m really close now! Somehow I need Bertha and Billy to each weigh a little more to take care of those 44 lbs.! If Bertha weighs 1270, then Billy weighs 422 and combined that gives I m still 4 lbs. away from having it work. If Bertha weighs 1272 lbs., then Billy weighs 424 lbs. ( = 424). Those are the two weights because = 1696! Method 2: Make a Table Using Bertha s Weight Possibilities I know from the problem that Bertha weighs 848 lbs. more than Billy. I also know that their combined weight is 1696 lbs. If I try a weight for Bertha (list in the first column of my table) I can calculate Billy s weight (list in the second column). I can combine those two weights (list in the third column) and then compare that to 1696 lbs. to see how close I am. Here s what I tried: Bertha s weight (in lbs.) Billy s weight (in lbs.) Total weight (in lbs.) Is total too low, too high? is 848 lbs. too low is 448 lbs. too low is 48 lbs. too low is only 8 lbs. too low just right! I know that Bertha weighs 1272 lbs. and Billy weighs 424 lbs. Method 3: Making a Table Using Billy s Weight Possibilities I know from the problem that Billy weighs 848 lbs. less than Bertha. I also know that their combined weight is 1696 lbs. If I try a weight for Billy (list in the first column of my table) I can calculate Bertha s weight (list in the second column). I can combine those two weights (list in the third column) and then compare that to 1696 lbs. to see how close I am. Here s what I tried:

3 Billy s weight (in lbs.) Bertha s weight (in lbs.) (Billy s weight + 848) Total weight (in lbs.) (Billy s weight + Bertha s weight) Is total too low or too high? is 448 lbs. too low is 48 lbs. too low is only 8 lbs. too low just right! I know that Billy weighed 424 lbs. and Bertha weighed 1272 lbs. Method 4: Proportional Reasoning and Drawing a Diagram After reading the problem I know that: Bertha weighs 848 lbs. more than Billy. Together Bertha and Billy weigh 1696 lbs. I notice that the first weight ends in 8 and the second weight ends in 6 and that leads me to confirm that: = 1696 So the difference between their weights is half of the sum of their weights. I wonder if I can use that to solve the problem. I decided to draw a picture to help me visualize the relationships (Billy and Bertha combined: 1696 lbs) (Difference between Billy and Bertha: 848 lbs, half of the total) I wasn t sure how long the line should be for Billy, but that didn t matter because I just wanted to see the relationships (Billy s weight: unknown) (Bertha s weight: Billy s weight) (Total weight: Billy s weight + Bertha s weight) Now I know that the total of the two, 1696 pounds, is made up of Billy s weight Billy s weight Billy s weight should be 1/4 of the total weight, like this: (Billy s weight + Bertha s weight) Billy 848 Billy (Total weight: 1696 lbs) 1696 Billy s weight should be 1696 / 4 = 424 lbs. That means Bertha s weight is = 1272 lbs. Check: = 1696 lbs. That must be right! Extra: Billy s weight is 1/4 of their combined weights and Bertha s weight is 3/4 of the combined weight. That means the proportion of Bertha s weight to Billy s weight is 3:1. The proportions for the butter cows would be 600:200 and the slices of toast would be 19200:6400 and the lifetimes would be 2:2/3. The butter cow Billy s size would cover 6400 slices of toast It would take 2/3 of a lifetime to eat them all. Method 5: Algebraic Reasoning I know that I need to find Billy s weight. I know that I also know that Billy s weight equals Bertha s weight Billy s weight + Bertha s weight equals 1696 lbs. Using those two thoughts together, I know that Billy s weight + Billy s weight lbs. equals 1696 lbs.

4 That means that Two of Billy s weight will equal 848 lbs. and so Billy s weight would be 424 lbs. If Billy s weight is 424 lbs. then Bertha weighs 1272 lbs. Method 6: Algebra If I let then I know that I know that: but I also know x = Billy s weight x = Bertha s weight x + (x + 848) = Billy s and Bertha s weight (total weight) 1696 = total weight So, I can write this equation and solve for x: x + (x + 848) = x = x = 848 x = 424 If Billy weighs 424 lbs., then Bertha weighs 1272 lbs. Standards If your state has adopted the Common Core State Standards, you might find the following alignments helpful. Grade 6: Ratios & Proportional Relationships Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. Grade 7: Ratios & Proportional Relationships Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. Grade 7: Expressions & Equations Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. Mathematical Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. Additional alignment information can be found through the Write Math with the Math Forum service, where teachers can browse by CCSS, NCTM, and individual state standards to find related problems. Teaching Suggestions As is the case in many of our problems, Kaytee is a real person, though not really a farmer. She s a photographer who, like Max, got to go to the Iowa State Fair in Max was looking for pictures of some awesome rides that might be included in a future GeoPoW when he saw those cows and immediately thought they could be the subject of a guess and check problem or a proportional reasoning problem. When Kaytee gave Max this photo she told him that her caption for it would be: Rule of cuteness: any animal pictured with a smaller version of itself is automatically cute. We agree! As we talked about this problem in the office we debated whether we should use the idea of a guess the weight contest since Bertha s and Billy s weights had constraints given in the problem. Some on staff thought it would be more accurate to say calculate the weight or determine the weight. We decided, however,

5 that using guess the weight might just hint to students the idea of using a guess and check strategy. As you can see in the solution paths above and in the Activity Series document for this problem, guess and check provides opportunities for students to understand the relationships in the problem, organize their thinking carefully, and even notice some patterns that lead to algebraic thinking. In general, there are many opportunities for students to use logical reasoning, drawings, or even beginner variables to help them understand the problem. Any time students are noticing things like, hey, Bertha s weight is made up of Billy s weight or the total weight is made up of Billy s weight Billy s weight again they are doing important algebraic thinking. If students get stuck solving the problem, we often use guess and check language to help students diagnose where they are stuck. We ask students to diagnose if they can t make a guess, if they don t know what calculations they could do, or if they don t know how they could check if their guess was right. This might help students who say, I just don t know what to do! In case you would like a copy of the problem without the question to either project for the class or to print for individuals or groups, we ll be providing one for most of the problems this year, including this one. Just look for Scenario Only listed under the Teacher Support Materials for this problem. The Problem Solving and Communication Activity Series document for this problem contains ideas and activities to help students experience get better at the Guess and Check strategy. The Online Resources Page for this problem contains links to related problems in the Problem Library and to other web-based resources. If you would like a calendar of the Current Problems, consider bookmarking this page: Sample Student Solutions Focus on Clarity In the solutions below, I ve provided scores the students would have received in the Clarity category of our scoring rubric. My comments focus on areas in which they seem to need the most improvement. Novice Apprentice Practitioner Expert Explanation is very difficult to read and follow. Another student might have trouble following the explanation. Long and written in one paragraph. Many spelling errors/typos. Explains the steps that they do explain in such a way that another student would understand (needn t be complete to be clear). Makes an effort to check formatting, spelling, and typing (a few errors are okay). Format and organization make ideas exceptionally clear. Answer is very readable and appealing. Garrett, age 12, Novice billy weighs 352 and bertha weighes =1696 I notice that Garrett seems to have understood that Billy and Bertha s weight needed to equal 1696 but I wonder what units Garrett was thinking would be attached to that number. More importantly I m wondering what is thinking was about the numbers he added.

6 Earl, age 11, Novice bertha wegth 1272 and billy wegth 424 I took 1696 and cut it in hafe and I got 848 and I cut that in hafe and I got 424 and I add 424 and 848 and it adds up to 1272 that s how much bertha Wight and billy weighs 424 I notice that Earl decided to halve 848 and then add it to itself. I wonder what prompted that thinking. I would encourage Earl to tell me more! Sue, age 12, Apprentice Billy weighs 424 lbs. Bertha weighs 1,272 lbs. 1. The first thing I did was put down that Billy and Bertha = 1, Then I wrote that Billy = Bertha. 3. After that I put down that 2 Billys = 1, I then subtract 848 by 848 and 1,696 by = 2 Billy I like how Sue has used steps to explain what she was thinking. I would encourage her to use units with her numbers and tell me a little bit of the why behind what she did. Kristin, age 11, Practitioner Bertha's weight was 1272 pounds and Billy's weight was 424 pounds. Extra: Billy's butter cow would cover 6400 slices of toast and that would take a person 2/3 of a lifetime to consume. As I read the problem two things jumped out at me, 1696 and 848 more than billy. So I decided to divide 1696 by / 2 = 848 At first I thought that it was a trick question, because they can't be the same weight. Then I thought that can't be right so I looked at the problem again and thought "Why don't I divide 848 by 2?" 848 / 2 = 424 Kristin has done a nice job explaining each of her steps in a way that another student could easily follow along. She s used line breaks, in particular for her equations. I might encourage her to capitalize Billy and Bertha but that detail doesn t detract from understanding her thinking. Then I added 424 to = 1272 After that I checked my work. The way I did that was I added 424 to = 1696 And that is how I got my answer which is bertha weighing 1272, and billy weighing 424. Extra: when I looked at it I saw that I needed to use porportion.so I made a fraction out of Billy's and Bertha's weights next to x over Bertha's butter wieght. That was my first porportion. 424 X = Then I cross-mutiplied. 424 x =

7 424 * 600 = * X = 1272x Next I divided x = = X = 200 Then I did my next porportion using billy and bertha's butter weights and bertha's toast amount. 200 X = I cross-mutiplied again. 200 X = * = Next I divided...again x = X = 6400 Then I divided twice / 2 = / 9600 = 2/3 And that is how I got my answer. Neer, age 9, Practitioner Berta weighs 1,272 pounds and Billy 424 pounds. EXTRA- Billy's butter cow 6,400 slices of toast. Billy's slices of toast takes a person 2/3 of a lifetime to eat. I used a guess and check table to solve the question. Bertha 1,09 6 1,396 1,296 1,270 1,269 1,271 1,272 Billy Total 1,69 6 1,696 1,696 1,696 1,696 1,696 1,696 Difference 496 1, Neer has used formatting to her advantage. Including a nicely formatted table makes it clear what she guessed. The color coding makes each category of numbers stand out. In addition she s used short paragraphs to make it easier to follow along with what she was thinking at each step. For each column I added Bertha and Billy and should have gotten 1,696 which I did. Then, I subtracted Bertha and Billy and got the difference which should be 848. As you can see I got 848 on the last one. One suggestion I might make is that she include some labels to her chart.

8 EXTRA- I did 1,272 divided 424 and got 3. Then, I wrote if you times Billy s weigh (424) by 3 you will get Bertha s weight (1,272). This means if you divide the weight of Billy s butter cow, the slices of toast, the number of by 3 you will get an answer. This is what I did to get my answers. I knew Bertha s butter cow covers 19,200 slices of toast so I did 19,200 divided by 3 and got 6,400. Then, I knew Billy s butter cow covers 6,400 slices of toast. knew Bertha s butter cow slices of toast takes a person two lifetimes to eat I did 2 divided by 2 and got 2/3. Then, I knew Billy s butter cow slices of toast takes a person 2/3 of a lifetime to eat. Scoring Rubric A problem-specific rubric can be found linked from the problem to help in assessing student solutions. We consider each category separately when evaluating the students work, thereby providing more focused information regarding the strengths and weaknesses in the work. A generic student-friendly rubric can be downloaded from the Teaching with PoWs link in the left menu (when you are logged in). We encourage you to share it with your students to help them understand our criteria for good problem solving and communication. We hope these packets are useful in helping you make the most of Pre-Algebra Problems of the Week. Please let me know if you have ideas for making them more useful. and

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