CRCT Study Guide 6 th Grade Language Arts PARTS OF SPEECH. 1. Noun a word that names a PERSON, PLACE, THING, or IDEA

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1 CRCT Study Guide 6 th Grade Language Arts PARTS OF SPEECH 1. Noun a word that names a PERSON, PLACE, THING, or IDEA Singular Noun refers to ONE person, ONE place, ONE thing, or ONE Idea. (teacher, store, tree) Plural Noun refers to MORE THAN ONE person, place, thing, or idea. (teachers, stores, trees) Common noun names any one of a group of persons, places, things, or ideas. WOMAN, MAN, TEAM, CITY, etc. Proper noun names a PARTICULAR person, place, things or idea. Alicia Keys, Marshall Mathers, Atlanta Braves, Atlanta. Possessive noun is a noun that shows OWNERSHIP or RELATIONSHIP by using an APOSTROPHE. Singular possessive noun - to form a singular noun possessive add an apostrophe followed by an s { s }. Jeff s shirt, Anderson s apartment. Plural possessive noun - to form the possessive case of a plural noun that does not end in s, add an apostrophe followed by an s { s}. men s clothing, children s books. To form the possessive case of a plural noun ending in s, add only the apostrophe {s }. boxes lids, beetles legs. 2. Verb a word that expresses an ACTION or a STATE OF BEING. Linking verb is a verb that expresses a state of being. Connects the subject with a word in the predicate that explains or describes the subject. Gennifer Choldenko is a writer. Dr. Bell sounded happy about the results. Helping verb helps the main verb to express an action or state of being. I can speak. The dog will learn. 3. Adjective a word that modifies a noun or a pronoun. Modifies a noun/pronoun by telling WHAT KIND, WHICH ONE, HOW MANY, or HOW MUCH. My students are in sixth grade. 4. Pronoun a word used in place of one noun or more than one noun. TAKES THE PLACE OF A NOUN. Ex: When Mr. Higdon refers to DGP, he often mixes up the letters. Pronoun Antecedent - the word that a pronoun stands for. (Mr. Calhoun sold his car. Antecedent = Mr. Calhoun / pronoun = his) 5. Adverb a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. If you see a word ending in LY the word will usually be an adverb. Reports quickly gather the news. Our lunch break is too long. 6. Preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. 7. Interjection words or phrases used to exclaim or protest or command. They sometimes stand by themselves, but they are often contained within larger structures. 8. Conjunction word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. The simple, little conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions. You can use the acronym, FANBOYS, to help remember all of the coordinating conjunctions that you will be responsible for.

2 Coordinating Conjunction for and nor but or yet so FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE 9. Simile comparison of two UNLIKE things using LIKE OR AS. Ex: She is as sweet as candy. 10. Metaphor comparison of two things WITHOUT using like or as. Ex: He has a stone heart. 11. Alliteration Repetition of initial consonant sounds in words/phrasing. Ex: Peter Piper Picked a Pack of Pickled Peppers. 12. Hyperbole Exaggerating to show strong feeling of effect. Ex: I will love you forever. 13. Personification Giving human traits to objects or ideas. Ex: The sunlight danced. 14. Idiom expression that cannot be understood from the meanings of it separate words but has an accepted understanding when used together as a phrase. Ex: It s raining cats and dogs. 15. Onomatopoeia using words that mimic action or natural sounds. Ex: The boom of the dynamite made everyone jump. 16. Understatement - the presentation of something as being smaller, worse, or less important than it actually is. Ex: There is no reason to study before a major test. WRITING 17. Writing Process the steps that should be followed when writing a formal piece for sharing or in an academic setting. There are 5 steps that should be used, they are; prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing. Review your graphic organizer in the INB to become more familiar with the definitions for each step. 18. Persuasive Writing - is a piece of writing in which the writer uses words to convince the reader that the writer's opinion is correct with regard to an issue 19. Narrative Writing - is the telling of a story or events in a personal way. 20. Expository is a piece of writing that explains something. Sentence Types

3 21. Declarative sentence - A sentence in the form of a statement 22. Imperative sentence - is a sentence that gives advice or instructions or that expresses a request or command. 23. Interrogative sentence a sentence that asks a question. 24. Exclamatory sentence - a sentence that expresses strong feelings by making an exclamation. PARTS OF A SENTENCE 25. Subject - is the part of a sentence or clause that commonly indicates (a) what it is about, or (b) who or what performs the action 26. Predicate - The predicate identifies and describes the action of the sentence. 27. Simple Subject the main word in the complete subject. 28. Simple Predicate the main word or group of words in the complete predicate. 29. Prepositional Phrase - They tell the position of people or things in relation to where other people or things are located. They can show relationships between objects in space (where one thing is in relation to another), and they can show relationships in time (when an event occurred in relation to another event). begin with a preposition and end with a noun or pronoun which is the preposition s object (the word that the preposition is in relation to). 30. Appositive a noun or pronoun that follows and renames another noun or pronoun. My son Charlie like trains. 31. Coordinating Conjunction - connect words, phrases, and clauses Examples: F = for, A = and, N = nor, B = but, O = or, Y = yet. S = so 32. When do we use a coordinating conjunction? a. connect words (Jim AND john ran in the race.) b. connect phrases (Tim likes to read books OR play Xbox.) c. connect clauses (I wanted to call, BUT it was late.) 33. When do we use Capitalization? a. First word in a sentence b. Proper Nouns c. Pronoun I d. Proper adjectives (Mexican carvings, Martain landscape) e. Certain abbreviations (M.D., Mr., Mrs., FBI, U.S.) f. Titles (Mayor Reed, Senator Chambliss, Principal Bell, Doctor Bell, President Obama) 34. When do we use commas? a. to separate items in a series of words (Leaves, branches, roots, and trunks can be found on a tree.)

4 b. to separate two or more adjectives that come before a noun (I found an old, rusty bicyle.) c. before and, but, for, or nor, so, and yet whey they join the parts of a compound sentence. (Congress passed the bill, but President O Bama vetoed it.) d. to set off an expression that interrupts a sentence (How did you do in class today, Sarah?) (The basketball star, Reggie Miller, retired from basketball many years ago.) ** We also use commas when writing a date (July 1, 2013) addresses 111 Main Street, Atlanta, GA 30316) 35. When do we use Quotation Marks? a. to enclose a direct quotation a person s exact words. (Mr. Higdon said, Finish your study guide. b. to enclose the titles of short works such as short stories, poems, newpaper or magazine articles, songs epsoides of television programs, and chapters from a book. c. when writing dialogue 36. Characters individuals in a story ELEMENTS OF LITERATURE 37. Characterization - is the process by which the writer reveals the personality of a character. Direct Characterization occurs when the author tells the audience the personality of the character Indirect Characterization occurs when the text shows things that reveal the personality of a character. 38. Protagonist main character in a story, general the good guy 39. Antagonist the character in conflict with the protagonist, usually the bad guy 40. Dynamic character character that changes during the story (beliefs, personality, behavior, or attitude) 41. Static character a character who stays the same throughout the story 42. Round character a fully developed character, reader has a good picture of what this character looks like and their personality. 43. Flat character minor character that does not change and we know very little about (an extra) 44. Conflict - A conflict is an opposing force that faces a main character in a story. There are two types of conflicts in a story namely, the internal and external conflicts; a. Man vs. Man - external conflict c. Man vs. Self - internal conflict b. Man vs. Society external conflict d. Man vs. Nature external Internal conflict conflict between a character and him/herself External conflict - between a character and outside forces. 45. Dialogue conversation between two or more people. 46. Flashback - a narrative technique that allows a writer to present past events during current events

5 47. Foreshadowing - words/phrases and hints that set the stage for a story to unfold and give the reader a hint of something that is going to happen without revealing the story or spoiling the suspense 48. Mood - atmosphere from a literary work with the intention of creating a certain emotion or feeling for the reader 49. Tone - attitude of an author toward hi/her subject matter and/or audience 50. Theme - general idea or meaning of a literary work. THEMESSAGE 51. Setting - The location, time, and CONTEXT in which the ACTION of a literary work takes place 52. Exposition beginning of the story, introduces reader to setting and characters 53. Rising action events, conflicts, complications that lead us towards the climax 54. Climax most exciting point of the story, a turning point 55. Falling action events that happen after the climax that lead us towards our natural or surprise ending 56. Resolution (Denouement) end of the story, part where the problems are solved and the story ends Draw and Label a Plot Diagram in the Space Below. LITERATURE GENRES 57. Fiction story based on the imagination of the author 58. Nonfiction written work based on facts, written to inform 59. Realistic fiction story using made-up characters that could happen in real life 60. Historical fiction fictional story that takes place in a particular time period in the past. Often the setting is real, but the characters are made up. Story borrows from true events/places and blends with fictional elements.

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