Sentence Elements Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Business English, 11e, by Mary Ellen Guffey and Carolyn Seefer 2-2

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1 Chapter 2 Sentences 2014 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website or school-approved learning management system for classroom use.

2 Sentence Elements 2-2

3 Sentence: a group of words that includes three things: a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought Subject Sentence Elements Predicate Completeness 2-3

4 Sentence Elements Subject Simple subject: a noun or a pronoun that tells who or what the sentence is about Complete subject: includes all modifiers 2-4

5 Locating Subjects To locate a sentence subject, ask Who or what is being discussed? Who or what is doing the action? The manager hires all new employees. Training programs educate new employees. 2-5

6 Sentence Elements Predicate Simple predicate: a verb or verb phrase that tells or asks what the subject is doing or what is being done to the subject Complete predicate: includes modifiers, objects, and complements 2-6

7 A manager from ComStar has been calling you. TRY YOUR SKILL What is the 1. Complete subject? 2. Complete predicate? 3. Simple subject? 4. Simple predicate? 2-7

8 Sentence Elements Completeness In addition to having subjects and predicates, sentences must be complete and make sense. 2-8

9 Sentence Elements Completeness Examples: A set of guidelines was developed. (This sentence has a subject and a predicate and is complete.) To be used in ordering computer supplies. (This fragment, broken off from another sentence, is incomplete and doesn t make sense.) 2-9

10 Phrases and Clauses Complete Sentences Phrases Clauses Phrase: a group of related words WITHOUT both a subject and a verb Kim came to the interview in the morning. She had been told to arrive at 10 a.m. 2-10

11 Phrases and Clauses Complete Sentences Phrases Clauses Clause: a group of related words WITH both a subject and a verb Independent clauses can stand alone as sentences. Dependent clauses rely on independent clauses for their meaning. When she arrived, she introduced herself. If she was afraid, she didn t show it. 2-11

12 Four Sentence Varieties Simple sentence: has one independent clause that is, one clause that can stand alone Compound sentence: has more than one independent clause. Each interviewee sent a résumé. Kim spent many hours preparing her résumé, and she practiced her answers to typical interview questions. 2-12

13 Four Sentence Varieties Complex sentence: has one independent clause and one dependent clause When Kim arrived for the interview, she introduced herself to the receptionist. 2-13

14 Four Sentence Varieties Compound-complex sentence: has more than one independent clause and one dependent clause. Because she had prepared well, Kim felt confident; she answered all questions fully and enthusiastically. 2-14

15 Sentence Patterns 2-15

16 Pattern No. 1: Subject-Verb This is the most basic sentence pattern subject first, verb second EXAMPLES Charlie called. He is working. All employees work. 2-16

17 Pattern No. 2: Subject-Action Verb-Object The subject is followed by an action verb and the verb s direct object. The object usually answers the questions What? and Whom? EXAMPLES ComStar created a website. (tells what) A law office hired her. (tells whom) 2-17

18 Pattern No. 3: Subject-Linking Verb-Complement The subject is followed by a linking verb and its complement. Complement Noun or pronoun that renames the subject or an adjective that describes the subject Completes the meaning of the subject 2-18

19 Complement Examples Our receptionist is Patricia. (Noun complement) identifies receptionist (thereby renaming the receptionist) The winner of the award is he. (Pronoun complement) uses nominative case for the pronoun Their website is attractive. (Adjective complement) describes website 2-19

20 Pattern No. 4: Inverted Order Verbs may occasionally come before subjects. EXAMPLES Chairing the committee is Renee Cornell. There are three items we should discuss. Here is my business card. 2-20

21 TRY YOUR SKILL Rearrange these inverted sentences to place them in normal subject-verb order. 1. Serving on the task force is Cathy Formusa. 2. There are two candidates we are considering for the position 3. Here is your authorization form. 1. Cathy Formusa is serving on the task force. 2. We are considering two candidates for the position. 3. Your authorization form is here. 4. This is your authorization form. 2-21

22 Sentence Punctuation 2-22

23 Statements Exclamations Punctuating Four Sentence Types Questions Commands 2-23

24 Punctuating Statements Statements: make assertions and end with periods Many companies now use social media for marketing and communication. 2-24

25 Punctuating Questions Questions: finish with question marks Can you avoid social media while on vacation? 2-25

26 Punctuating Commands Commands: end with periods or, occasionally, with exclamation points (You) Check your messages at least twice a day. (The subject is understood to be you.) You come straight home. 2-26

27 Punctuating Exclamations Exclamations: show surprise, disbelief, or strong feelings Oh, no! I made a huge mistake! 2-27

28 1. One of my friends and I are preparing for job interviews. TRY YOUR SKILL What is this group of words? Statement Question Command Exclamation Name the subject. 2-28

29 2. Wow! What a presentation! TRY YOUR SKILL What is this group of words? Statement Question Command Exclamation 2-29

30 4. Prepare carefully by practicing questions and answers. TRY YOUR SKILL What is this group of words? Statement Question Command Exclamation Name the subject. you (implied) 2-30

31 Sentence Faults 2-31

32 Fragment Sentence Faults Comma Splice Run-on Sentence 2-32

33 Sentence Faults Fragment Fragment: an incomplete sentence; should not be punctuated as if it were complete May be broken off from a preceding or following sentence 2-33

34 Sentence Faults Fragment FRAGMENT Because we have all come to depend on . That s why we must find a solution. REMEDY Because we have all come to depend on , we must find a solution. 2-34

35 Sentence Faults Comma Splice Comma Splice: when two complete sentences are incorrectly joined with a comma 2-35

36 Sentence Faults Comma Splice COMMA SPLICE Text messaging is popular, it s even used in offices. REMEDIES Text messaging is popular. It s even used in offices. Text messaging is popular; it s even used in offices. Text messaging is popular, and it s even used in offices. 2-36

37 Sentence Faults Run-on Sentence Run-on (Fused) Sentence: when two complete thoughts are run together 2-37

38 Sentence Faults Run-on Sentence RUN-ON Text messaging was once used by teenagers now it s also used by business professionals. REMEDIES Text messaging was once used by teenagers; now it s also used by business professionals. Text messaging was once used by teenagers. Now it s also used by business professionals. Text messaging was once used by teenagers, but now it s also used by business professionals. 2-38

39 TRY YOUR SKILL 1. Unless I hear from you to the contrary. I'll assume you agree with me. Identify any sentence faults: Fragment Comma splice Run-on Suggest remedies. REMEDY Unless I hear from you to the contrary, I'll assume you agree with me. 2-39

40 2. No stock market prices were available, the market was closed for the holiday. TRY YOUR SKILL Identify any sentence faults: Fragment Comma splice Run-on Suggest remedies. REMEDY No stock market prices were available; the market was closed for the holiday. 2-40

41 3. The report that you said you would finish in the near future. It's still lying on your desk. TRY YOUR SKILL Identify any sentence faults: Fragment Comma splice Run-on Suggest remedies. REMEDY The report that you said you would finish in the near future is still lying on your desk. 2-41

42 TRY YOUR SKILL 4. Some employees work Sunday other employees come in early Monday. Identify any sentence faults: Fragment Comma splice Run-on Suggest remedies. REMEDY Some employees work on Sunday, and other employees come in early Monday. 2-42

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