GERUNDS INFINITIVES GRADE X. Compiled by : Aquilina Yunita, S.Pd

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1 GERUNDS INFINITIVES GRADE X Compiled by : Aquilina Yunita, S.Pd 1

2 gerund Gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading." You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. Examples: a.reading helps you learn English. subject of sentence b.i'm excited about reading novel. object of preposition c.i enjoy reading. object of sentence There are some functions related to the use of gerund. 1. As subject of a verb Teaching is a very challenging job. Being a soldier requires physical strength and bravery. 2.As object of a verb Do you like cooking? He loves singing. 3.The complement of to be His favorite activity is watching television. My dream is travelling all around the world. 4.After preposition I am not interested in reading romantic novel. Nobody was impressed by his doing the job all by himself. 5.After determiners (a, the, this, some, a lot of) The bombing of civilians horrified everyone. 6.After possessive adjectives, object pronouns, or nouns Nobody likes his/him/jack boasting about his achievements. 2

3 7. After a verb INFINITIVE Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. 1. subject of sentence The most important thing is to learn. 2. complement of sentence He wants to learn. 3

4 3. after certain verbs + person (object) He called me to ask about his test result. I asked her to come here. 4. Indicating intention or purpose To win the final match, the players have to work every hard in training. He came here to tell the good news. 5. After to be My first thought was to phone you. 6. After the first/second/last/ only/ best (and other superlative adjectives) + noun or pronoun one He was the only one to die. 7. After a noun/pronoun. The verb in the infinitive relates to the preceding noun/pronoun There are a lot of work to do. I ve got a few people to see. 8. After an adjective/adverb or an adjective/adverb with too, enough, and so... It is very dangerous to let a child with a gun. He didn t speak clearly enough for me to understand what he was saying. Nobody is crazy enough to drive a car at high speed in such a heavy traffic. 9. After certain verbs Everybody finally agrees not to involve the police in this matter They managed to defeat my team. 4

5 START, CONTINUE, LIKE, LOVE, HATE These verbs can be followed by either a gerund or a to-infinitive and there is no change in meaning. I like drinking a glass of hot chocolate before going to school. I like to drink a glass of hot chocolate before going to school. I began to learn Germany when I was fifteen He began using this software three years ago. 5

6 REMEMBER, FORGET, REGRET, TRY, STOP We can use either a gerund or a to infinitive after these following verbs but there is changes in meaning. Find out the use of gerund and infinitive in each verb. Then complete the rule with gerund or infinitive. Remember + means thinking of a past experience you ve had. Remember + means don t forget to do something. Forget + means to no longer think of something you did. Forget + means to not think of doing something you should do or should have done. Regret + means feeling sorry of something you said or did in the past. Regret + means feeling sorry of something you are going to say or do in the future. Try + means try hard to see if you can do something that is really not easy. Try + means do it and see what the results are. Stop + means to not continue doing a certain activity. Stop + means make a pause in one activity in order to do another activity. I. Put the verbs in brackets into the full infinitive or the gerund. 1. Michael loves... (learn) Maths so he joined Math Olympiad. 2. I don t know what I have to do. I need... (talk) to my parents now. 3. They have promised... (deliver) the package this afternoon. 4. You always push me to do what you want. Now I m growing up. I ve decided... (study) abroad. It s end of story. 5. My aunt doesn t mind... (stay) at home to look after the children. 6. Has she decided... (take) that job? 7. He s always complaining about... (work) too hard. 8. Sometimes i think you enjoy... (upset) me. 6

7 9. Why are you blaming me for... (get) lost? You ve got the map. 10. I know you don t approve of... (smoke) so I won t smoke here. 11. The doctor told me... (stay) in bed but it s so boring. 12. I don t mind... (spend) everyday with you. 13. Our teacher got mad at you as you kept... (talk) when he s explaining. 14. It s raining outside. Would you prefer... (stay in)? 15. Mrs Young told me... (not leave) before three. 16. The students in my new school are kind and generous but I still miss... (see) my old friends. 17. I regret... (not keep) in touch with my parents. 18. I always dream of... (live) in a penthouse. 19. My sister suggested... (do) my homework now. 20. She s hoping... (finish) writing her annual report soon. II. Complete the following dialogue with the verbs in brackets in the correct form. Harris : Did you remember 21)... (book) the tickets for two of us? Valen : Yes, I did. But the problem is how 23)... (get) there. My dad says I m not allowed to borrow his car this Sunday. He suggested using your motorbike. Harris : You know what. The tire of my motorbike was leaked when I went home yesterday. Now I m afraid it continues 24)... (leak). But I could try 25)...(ask) my sister if we can have hers. She might agree. Valen : I m not sure. Moreover, the tickets were pricey. I regret 26)... (buy) them. I think we ve just wasted the money. Harry : I don t think so. I remember 27)... (walk) there once. It took about one hour. Please stop 28)... (worry) and start 29)... (think) the good times we re going to have. Valen : All right. So we can just walk if there s no other choice. But don t forget 30)... (ask) your sister about the car. 7

8 III. Use the words in the box to complete the sentences. same here right away too right right up to descend awkward guilty puzzled haggle leap climb hop stagger hilarious fascinating 1. After an... moment, she said, "I hope you know that I would never do anything to hurt you." 2. Mercy taught me how to... with used furniture dealers. 3. The stairs that... into the basement were recently painted. 4. It was... for most people to see the clown slip on stage, but for me it was painful because the clown was my brother. 5. That was a bewildering and... place to live. 6. He wants to see you Why did she feel... about this whole mess, when she hadn't done anything to get herself into it? 8. Robert and I will run and jump and... and dance and swing and talk about birds and flowers and trees and grass and Jumbo and Pearl will go with us. 9. His sudden... to the side unseated her, sending her out of the saddle and rolling off the trail. 10. She struggled up from the blankets and... through the living room. 11. It was the first Christmas tree she had ever seen, and she was..., and asked many questions. 12. Tree snakes, which are able to... bushes or trees with facility or pass even the greater part of their existence on trees. 8

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