1 IMPORTANT REMINDERS: 1. Before responding to questions ALWAYS look at the TITLE and pay attention to ALL aspects of the selection (organization, format, punctuation, capitalization, repetition, etc.). 2. Circle or highlight key words in each question. If a question has TWO key terms within it, respond to and explain EACH in your answer. (Ex: Discuss how tone is created through the use of diction). 3. Read the selections at least TWICE before responding to questions, making NOTES as you go. 4. Always provide TWO QUOTES in your answers, even if you are not directly asked for them. (Ex: An example of effective diction in the poem is exasperated.) 5. Always EXPLAIN exactly HOW your TWO references (QUOTES) help answer the question (Ex: The word exasperated helps create the tone since it conveys a feeling of anger to the audience, pointing to the reality that the speaker is frustrated with their life). 6. Check the space (line, stanza, etc.) above/below text that is referenced in a question for hints. 7. When in doubt, look to the title, or other questions for clues to help with difficult questions. 8. Titles of visuals and poetry pieces go in quotation marks (Ex: Beyond Pastel ); novels and plays are underlined and/or italicized (Ex: King Oedipus). 9. Review the handouts referencing Key Terms, responding to 6-point questions, writing 5 paragraph essays, writing narratives, etc. Because remember, you CAN study English you can, you REALLY can 10. After answering a question, re-read the question and make sure you have responded to ALL parts of the question and followed the proper format for responding to questions: 1. State the author & title of the selection 2. Answer the question (2 Points) 3. Provide a QUOTE (1 Point) 4. Explain how the QUOTE helps answer the question (1 Point) 5. Provide a 2 nd QUOTE (1 Point) 6. Explain how the 2 nd QUOTE helps answer the question (1 Point)
2 Please review all of the following information in preparation for your English 1201 Mid- Term Exam. All additional handouts/worksheets that are referenced and others that are useful for review are found on my website: hcooperenglish.weebly.com 1. VISUAL LITERACY SECTION 6 marks (Suggested time: 10 minutes) FORMAT: 1 constructed response question Study Tips - Review the format for responding to 6 point questions. - Review common elements used in 6 point questions for artistic visuals: mood, message, title (create one), purpose, target audience. - Review important visual elements: focal point contrast colour/lighting background foreground focus lines scale balance whitespace 2. POETIC STUDY SECTION 19 marks (Suggested time: 30 minutes) FORMAT: 7 selected response questions, 2 constructed response questions Study Tips - Review literary and language terms in key terms booklets. - Review the format for responding to 6 point questions. - Common elements used in 6 point questions for poetry: characterization conflict contrast/juxtaposition diction emphatic devices epiphany extended metaphor foreshadowing imagery irony message mood/atmosphere motif point of view (effect) stereotype suspense symbolism theme/message title significance tone - Focus your attention on understanding how to discuss EFFECTIVENESS of elements such as diction, emphatic devices, imagery, and title significance. ALWAYS discuss how those elements help develop character, conflict, message, mood, setting, tone. In other words, connect them to other terms to discuss their effectiveness.
3 - Common terms also associated with poetry (and make good distractors for multiple choice questions hint hint, nudge nudge): allegory alliteration allusion anecdote assonance bias cacophony cliché connotation consonance euphony figurative language flashback hyperbole juxtaposition metaphor motif onomatopoeia oxymoron paradox parallelism personification poetic form rhyme sarcasm setting simile - Refer to your Poetry Study Guide for specific guidance when discussing literary elements in poetry. 3. ANALYTICAL ESSAY SECTION 20 marks (Suggested time: 50 minutes) FORMAT: 5 paragraph expository essay Study Tips - Review the poetic selection provided to you; read for meaning, have conversations with others about the poem, and annotate the poem (underline and notes examples of literary elements). - Review the following literary elements/devices. You will need to use at least 3, most likely 4 of these: analogy anecdote characterization cliché comparison conflict contrast/juxtaposition dialogue diction emphatic devices (listing, font, punctuation, repetition, parallelism, short sentences, fragments) epiphany, realization figurative language (metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole) flashback foreshadowing imagery irony (3 types) language style (jargon, colloquialism, dialect, euphemism, informal, formal, slang) mood motif organization oxymoron paradox point of view setting stereotypes, bias suspense symbolism theme thesis title significance tone - Sample essay questions: Writers often develop characters through a variety of literary techniques. Discuss how tone, word choice, and dialogue develops the character in the prose piece. In the piece, *** examine how imagery is used effectively to create mood, stereotype, suspense.
4 Identify the message of the piece and discuss how it is developed through the use of any three of the following: Informal Symbolism Point of language Irony view style Flashback - Make sure you DON T do any of the following: Misread the question Forget about the topic (your thesis) Simply tell the story (give a plot summary) Use personal references ( I, we, etc.) Discuss the essay or paragraphs Use contractions don t, etc. Use slang/informal language - Review the format for writing a 5 paragraph essay: Sample Question: Discuss how characterization is developed. You may consider using such elements as dialogue, suspense and tone in your discussion. Characterization = MAIN element PARAGRAPH 1: INTRODUCTION - Hook - Thesis - Connection Dialogue, suspense and tone = 3 other elements PARAGRAPH 2: DISCUSSION OF ELEMENT 1 + MAIN ELEMENT - Topic Sentence - Written in the format of a 6 point question; 2 detailed references AND explanations to show how the MAIN element is developed or revealed through the use of the 1st of the other three elements PARAGRAPH 3: DISCUSSION OF ELEMENT 2 + MAIN ELEMENT - Transition from element 1 to element 2 (use words like In addition to or Also to transition) - Topic Sentence (can include transition) - Written in the format of a 6 point question; show how the MAIN element is developed or revealed through the use of the 2 nd of the other three elements PARAGRAPH 4: DISCUSSION OF ELEMENT 3 + MAIN ELEMENT - Transition from element 2 to element 3 (use words like In addition to or Also to transition) - Topic Sentence (can include transition) - Written in the format of a 6 point question; show how the MAIN element is developed or revealed through the use of the 3 rd of the other three elements PARAGRAPH 5: CONCLUSION - Transition into the conclusion (i.e. In conclusion or In closing or As demonstrated ) - Re-word/re-state hook - Re-word/re-state thesis - Briefly summarize your main points about each element from each body paragraph
5 4. PERSONAL RESPONSE SECTION 10 marks (Suggested time: 30 minutes) FORMAT: 1 narrative, multi-paragraph response Study Tips - Review the format for writing a narrative: - no set length (aim for 3-5 paragraphs 1 per phase of plot) - clearly defined beginning/middle & end of the story - vivid description/details - dialogue - development of CONFLICT *pick a brief minute event and be MEGA detailed - Your response must include all of the following: first person (I, we, us, me, myself) specific details = describe actual scenes from your life development of your emotions, thoughts, and voice (personality) throughout - Review the following methods of creating voice (aka personality) in your writing: language use (formal/informal, dialogue) tone imagery emphatic devices - Possible personal response topics: future success relationships memories technology decisions regrets pass times/hobbies school teen topics (stress, pressure, working, driving, stereotypes) influences REMEMBER: The more PERSONAL details and references you can make, and the more you can distinguish your personality on paper, the be tter you will do with this one. 5. LISTENING SECTION 10 marks (Suggested time: 40 minutes) February 8 th FORMAT: 4 selected response questions, 1 constructed response question Study Tips - Review key terms and the format for responding to 6 point questions. - Review the HEAR strategy for listening: 1. Halt - stop whatever you are doing and free your mind of all thoughts 2. Engage - focus on the person speaking, and only the person speaking
6 3. Anticipate consider what the speaker may have to say next 4. Replay analyze and reword what the speaker has said to help you remember - Determine which 2-3 of the following listening strategies work best for you and remember to use them for the exam listening for the main idea predicting summarizing (consider mapping a quick who, what, where, when, why and how) visualizing what has been said listening for specific details drawing conclusions interpreting the speaker s tone taking jot notes of key points, repetition, etc. recognizing synonyms or similar word patterns/repetition recognizing word-order patterns (parallel structure) HELPFUL REMINDERS TO PREVENT FRUSTRATION - It is not necessary to understand every single word. Try to ignore those words that you think are less important anyway. - If there are words or issues that you don't understand, use your general knowledge as well as the context to find out the meaning. - Focus on key words and facts - Intonation and stress of the speakers can help you to understand what you hear HELPFUL TIPS Make notes on your paper as you notice any of the following details, and consider using the suggested approaches 1. EFFECTIVENESS OF ELEMENTS: If asked Discuss the effective use of an element (Ex: diction, imagery, figurative language, sound devices, emphatic devices, and title significance in a text, you should discuss 1-2 of the following EFFECTS: establish theme set the tone, mood, atmosphere show two opposing views, contrast ideas emphasize a literary element provoke emotions in the viewer help to bring out a theme establish setting provide coherence or unity reveal irony reveal symbolism create suspense reveal author s style describe conflict, images, setting, character reveal character 2. CHARACTER DEVELOPMENT/TRANSFORMATION: If asked Discuss how a character is developed in the text, you need to consider TWO things: 1) Did the character change? If yes, how? List a character trait from the beginning and a character trait from the end of the text 2) If they didn t change, which traits are revealed about them?
7 Compare how a character appears in the beginning of the text (their actions, speech, beliefs) to how they are revealed by the end. o Identify and discuss what exactly caused these changes to occur. OR Identify and discuss TRAITS revealed about the character and what in the text has revealed these traits to the reader. 3. CONFLICT: If asked Discuss the development of conflict in the text, first identify TWO conflicts, and then determine whether the conflict is external or internal. ALWAYS include a discussion of ALL of the following: o o o The cause of the conflict How the conflict develops over time (what it looks like, what s happening, the impact, etc.) The resolution of the conflict (How does it end? Well or not so well?) 4. CONTRAST/JUXTAPOSITION: If asked Discuss how contrast OR juxtaposition is effectively developed in the text, first identify which TWO ideas/objects/people are being contrasted on the basis of their differences. ALWAYS connect contrast to 1-2 of the following: Develops character (traits or change) Reveals conflict Develops irony Reinforces message/theme Reveals mood (change) Develops tone (change) 5. DICTION: If asked Discuss how diction is used effectively in the text, first you ll need to identify TWO words or a 2-3 word phrase that have an effect (carry meaning) in the text. Marks will be deducted for quotes containing partial/whole sentences. Use 1-3 words MAX. Remember that diction often contributes to the author's mood and tone. ALWAYS explain how diction helps to do 1-2 of the following: Creates tone, mood Reveals author s style Creates imagery Describes conflict, images, setting, character Elicits emotional response/personal connection Reveals character Contains +/- connotation Reveals social status and/or attitudes Reveals time and space Creates/enhances voice Identifies a target audience 6. EMPHATIC DEVICES: If asked Discuss the effective use of emphatic devices in the text, first identify TWO devices that are used, and locate examples of each.
8 Emphatic devices include: Punctuation (brackets, question marks, hyphens, ellipsis, exclamation points) Capitalization (or lack of) Spacing and organization of lines/paragraphs Sentence fragments AND simple sentences Font (bold, italics or underlining) Repetition (of words and/or parts of phrases) Parallel structure (similar verb endings, consistency with parts of speech [i.e. noun, noun, noun ], and repeated parts of words/phrases) Listing (lists of items, objects, people, ideas; separated by commas, semi-colons, etc.) ALWAYS link the emphatic devices and references to 1-2 of the following: Reveals character (list traits/change) Identifies conflict (capital letters, bold, italics) Conveys mood & tone (emotion) Develops setting Reinforces message Creates voice Builds suspense Adds humour Reinforces a message or point Increases reader interest Highlights key points and ideas Provides extra detail (dash - ) Emphatic devices create emphasis BUT never, never, never indicate that that s the only way they are effective in a response. 7. IMAGERY: If asked Discuss the effective use of imagery in the text, you must first select 2 vivid images. Then, you ll need to note the significance/impact and meaning of each image. Never, never, never just say It makes me picture or It creates a realistic image you will lose marks look DEEPER. ALWAYS discuss how imagery has 1-2 of the following effects in a text: Creates a tone or mood (discuss how) Sends a message (discuss the message) Reveals/develops character (list traits or change of character) Develops setting Reflects a conflict Connects reader emotionally to the text Establishes setting Isolating 1-2 words (effective diction) and explaining the impact or meaning/feeling attached to the words is an effective method as well. 8. MOOD: & Created through powerful diction/imagery 9. TONE: If asked Discuss how a specific mood or tone is developed in the text, first you ll need to make a statement about which mood or tone is developed. Always make a statement about mood/tone rather than state one word. Example: The author s tone is critical toward the behaviour of teenagers NOT The author s tone is critical. DO NOT use words like negative, positive, dark or neutral to describe mood or tone. Sad or mad are not good choices either. Also, pick ONE word to describe mood and tone, not TWO (i.e. sarcastic NOT sarcastic and/or frustrated ).
9 Mood and tone are achieved through: colloquial language/slang (conversational) figurative language (imagery) irony emphatic devices diction (word choice) 10. EFFECTIVENESS OF POINT OF VIEW: If asked Discuss the effectiveness of the point of view in the text, first you ll need to identify the point of view (1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd limited or omniscient). Then you ll have to pick 1-2 ways the particular point of view adds something to the text and find references to support those effects. POINT OF VIEW 1 st Person (I, me, my, us, we, our) 2 nd Person (You) 3 rd Person Limited (He, she, they, so and so ) 3 rd Person Omniscient (He, she, they, so and so ) EFFECT - biased and limited to ONE character s thoughts and feelings - connection to the thoughts and feelings of the speaker - makes the reader feel pity, fear, etc. for the speaker - makes the reader identify with the speaker - brings up personal memories, etc. - develops the voice (personality) of the speaker - reads easily, flows more naturally (coherence) - speaker can influence or persuade the reader by talking to them directly - makes the reader feel connected to the speaker and the topic - brings about a sense of responsibility and importance in the reader - reader gets some of the insight for ONE character - bias is reduced - reader doesn t identify as much personally/emotionally as 1 st person, but more so than for 3 rd omniscient - gives the reader a variety of perspectives (MANY characters) - prevents bias - provides ample description, details (character, setting, conflict, etc.) - intimacy and close focus of 1 st person is missing 11. SYMBOLISM/MOTIF: If asked Discuss how symbolism OR motif is developed in the text, first identify the symbol or motif and discuss what it represents in the text. Look for ideas or objects/people that are referenced a few times throughout. Don t forget to discuss WHAT is being represented or revealed by the symbol or motif in each reference. This is key. 12. THEME/MESSAGE: If asked Discuss how a major theme is developed in the text, follow these steps to create a statement of theme: o Identify what the poem is about (Ex: Change) o Ask yourself what the poem is saying about that subject (Ex: People don t like change and it upsets them)
10 o Write a neat statement that uses the ideas from (b) above (Ex: People are often negatively affected by change) 13. TITLE SIGNIFICANCE: If asked Discuss the significance of the title, you will always need to connect the title to 1-2 of the following elements: irony symbolism suspense message mood tone You have to discuss HOW the words in the title have specific meaning within the text (i.e. irony, symbolism, etc.) and give examples of instances where references to the title are made in the text. 14. REPETITION: If asked Discuss the effective us of repetition in the text, first identify which words/phrases are repeated. ALWAYS discuss repetition by connecting how it develops 1-2 of the following: coherence message mood rhythm symbolism tone unity