1 Lit Terms Take notes as we review each of these terms and examples.
2 Types of Writing Expository writing EXPLAINS something a process how something works Remember that EXPository EXPlains something.
3 Types of Writing Persuasive writing ARGUES something tries to convince the reader offers strong evidence to sway the reader PERSUASIVE writing is what we re focusing on for the Writing SOL.
4 Types of Writing Cause/Effect writing DESCRIBES something (a cause) and how it changes (or the effect it has on) something else Example: Poor dental hygiene leads to cavities and other issues.
5 Types of Writing Narrative writing TELLS a story and comes in many different forms.
6 Allegory A story or poem in which characters, settings, and events stand for other people or events (or for abstract ideas or qualities)
7 Alliteration The repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds in words that are close together Examples: For the first time in forever There are tons of tools here!
8 Allusion A reference to someone or something that is known from history, literature, religion, politics, sports, science, or another branch of culture
9 Ambiguity A technique by which a writer deliberately suggests two or more different, and sometimes conflicting, meanings in a work
10 Analogy A comparison between two things to show how they are alike Example: Square is to rectangle as circle is to oval.
11 Anecdote A short account or story about an incident that is usually funny, interesting, or biographical
12 Aphorism A short, pointed sentence expressing a wise or clever observation or a general truth; maxim; adage Example: The early bird catches the worm.
13 Apostrophe An arrangement of words addressing a non-existent person or an abstract idea in such a way as if it were present and capable of understanding feelings EXAMPLES: Twinkle, Twinkle Little Star Death be not proud Ugh, cell phone! Why won t you load my message?!
14 Archetype An old, imaginative pattern that appears in literature across the ages EXAMPLES: heroes, villains, tricksters, outcasts, rebels, misfits...
15 Atmosphere The mood or feeling you (the reader) get from the story or poem What is the atmosphere of each of these two pics?
16 Autobiography An account of a person s life written by that person You would write your own autobiography.
17 Biography An account of someone s life written by someone else Mark wrote Ellie s biography.
18 Character A person or animal that plays a role in a novel, play, or movie
19 Direct Characterization When the author openly tells the audience about the character and his/her/its traits
20 Indirect Characterization When the reader must infer a character s traits through his/her/its actions, thoughts, or appearance
21 cliché A cliché is an overused expression or idea. In good writing, you want to AVOID them!
22 Climax The high point or turning point of a novel, play, or movie When the author reveals or hints to the outcome
23 Conflict A problem Internal- a character s problem with him/herself External- a character s problem with another character, group, or force
24 Connotation an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning an undertone
25 Denotation the literal or primary meaning of a word its dictionary definition
26 Diction style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words
27 Fact a truth known by actual experience or observation something that can be verified
28 Opinion a personal view, attitude, or appraisal cannot be certain
29 Fact or Opinion? Truman was a President of the U.S. Truman was the best President of the U.S. Non-poisonous snakes make delightful pets. Gold was discovered in CA in 1848.
30 Figure of Speech Language that is not meant to be taken literally Similes, metaphors, personification, etc. all fall under the figure of speech umbrella
31 Metaphor A comparison in which one thing is said to be another (often unlike) thing
32 Personification Gives human qualities to non-human or abstract things Ex. Love is blind.
33 Simile A figure of speech where two unlike things are explicitly compared, usually using like or as to link them
34 Flashback A scene in a movie or novel that takes a character back to a time earlier than the main setting
35 Foreshadowing A warning or indication of a future event Beware the ides of March
36 Hyperbole An extreme exaggeration that is not meant to be taken literally I have a million things to do!
37 Dramatic Irony When the audience knows something that the characters in a book or play do not know
38 Situational Irony When the expected outcome does not happen Can be humorous or serious
39 Verbal Irony When someone says one thing, but means another for effect Similar to sarcasm
40 Mood The feeling the reader gets from a work of literature
41 Onomatopoeia A word formed from the association of the noise it makes Sizzle, cuckoo, chirp...
42 Oxymoron A figure of speech when apparently contradictory words are used in conjunction It s the same difference.
43 Paradox A statement that seems self-contradictory Ex. It is opposite day today.
44 Plot The sequence of events in a work of literature You can trace it on a plot chart.
45 Setting The environment in which a story or event takes place Typically developed at the beginning of a work
46 soliloquy When a character in a play gives a speech alone onstage Indicates the speaker talking to him or herself
47 Monologue A speech delivered by one person, usually in a poem or play
48 dialogue When characters are in conversation with one another Usually indicated by quotation marks
49 Dialect A form of language that is particular to a specific region or social group
50 Stereotype A fixed idea about a particular type of person or thing Usually a negative idea or prejudice
51 Style The way the author uses words in his or her writing
52 Suspense Feeling anxious or excited uncertainty about what may happen in the future
53 Symbol A material object that represents something immaterial Love, religion, trust, etc.
54 Theme The subject of a piece of writing
55 Tone The character or attitude of a piece of writing
56 Understatement The presentation of something being smaller, worse, or less important than it is
57 Protagonist The leading character in a work
58 Antagonist The force working against the main character in a work
59 Pun Word play that suggests two or more meanings of a word or words
60 Premise A previous statement from which another is inferred or followed as a conclusion
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