VOCABULARY. Working with animals / A solitary child / I have not seen him for ages

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1 VOCABULARY Acting school Agent Bedsit Behaviour Bustling By the way Capital Career Ceremony Commuter Couple Course Crossword Crowd Department store District Entertainment Estate agent's Housing estate Just in case Let me see Library Lively Meal Medical centre My pleasure Neighbour A place where people can learn techniques to use when acting. Someone who looks for work for an actor or writer. A type of living space which is smaller than a flat and has the bedroom, lounge and kitchen in one area. The way someone acts. Busy with a lively atmosphere. A bustling market. To add extra information. E.g.: By the way, did I tell you that I'm having a party next week? The main city of a country. A person's working life. The progress they make in their chosen job or industry. A formal or public event. A person who travels a considerable distance to work. A pair. Two. Often used to describe two people in a relationship. A series of classes on a specific theme. A pastime where the answers to clues fit into a square with interlinking vertical and horizontal boxes. A large group of people in the same place. A large shop which sells a variety of products. Division of land within a city. To describe the activities or shows that are for public enjoyment. A place where people go to buy or sell a house or property. A group of houses in a semi-private or enclosed area. Expression used when we take or do something because we think it could be useful. E.g.: I'll take an umbrella in case it rains. Expression to use when faced with a problem or difficult situation. Indicates the speaker has to think carefully about the situation. A place where one can borrow books for free. To describe a vibrant atmosphere or person with a lot of energy. Any of the occasions in a day in which food is eaten. E.g.: Breakfast, lunch and dinner. A building where there are doctors and nurses. Not a hospital. Expression in response to someone's thanks. To say that one has enjoyed doing something. The person who lives in a house or flat next to you.

2 Newspaper stall Pet shop Reality Reception Rush hour Second-hand Shopping centre Street market Telegram To create To dream To dress up To give up To pick up To reach To rearrange To suffer To train Within walking distance A small kiosk or stand in the street where we can buy newspapers. A place to buy food and other products for animals. The actual or real situation. The area in a hotel or company where visitors go for information or to find the person they need to see. The busiest periods of the day. When there are a lot of cars on the road and people commuting. Especially in the morning and evening. Something that is not new, that has been owned or used previously by someone else. A large building with a variety of different shops. A market outside in a public area. A way to send messages. To invent, design or make something. To have an idea or future aim. An ambition. The pictures or events we see in our head when we are asleep. (with as)to put on clothes that make you look like a famous person, animal. etc. E.g.: We all dressed up as famous actors for the party. To stop a (usually bad) habit. To collect or gather items. E.g.: Can you pick up your toys from the floor please? To find. E.g.: Where did you get that money? I picked it up from the floor. To learn by accident. E.g.: I picked up some Chinese when I was in Beijing, but I didn't have any classes. To arrive at. E.g.: We reached the airport on time. To be able to physically touch. E.g.: I can't reach the top shelf, I need a ladder. To organise something again. E.g.: The dinner was initially at 7.00 but now it's been rearranged and it's at To feel pain or anxiety. To teach someone how to do a specific job or task. To be close enough to walk to.

3 VOCABULARY SENTENCES He has a newspaper stall outside the station. This is one of the largest and most modern shopping centres in Europe. Housing estates are usually characterised for being a group of buildings with similar designs. You can find all the books you need to complete this research in the public library. I live in a tiny bedsit but it is enough for me. I have a bed, a table and a small kitchen. There is no hospital in my town but we have a small medical centre for regular check-ups. I bought this puppy for you at the pet shop. They had many other animals but I fell in love with this puppy. We enjoyed going to the street market and buying some antiques. We can only accept truly dedicated students at this acting school. Don't they make a lovely couple? It's a really lively pub. It's a bustling area. There are always people in the streets. We are a leading theme park and entertainment company with large attractions, rides and shows. When she retires she will have a brilliant career as a psychologist. London is the capital of Great Britain. My agent isn't as serious as she looks. Is that woman in black our new neighbour? I think so, but I haven't spoken to her yet. All graduates participate in a ceremony at the end of the degree course. My sister and I love doing crosswords, but she usually does them faster than me. We weren't sure which tour was best so we asked at reception and got some advice. People don't send many telegrams nowadays although I remember getting some on my wedding day. I try not to travel during the rush hour. There was a crowd of people at the concert. It is important to have a proper meal at lunch time. I sometimes dream that I have a luxurious house.

4 I'm going to dress up as a prisoner for the carnival. The new sofa is bigger than we expected, so we need to rearrange the rest of the furniture. The climber is trying to reach the top of the mountain. During the summer we train by the beach before the matches. I'll pick it up. I have to pass by the estate agent's after lunch and pick up the keys to my new house. We need to go to the department store and buy some clothes, cosmetics and food. SENTENCES This is the friendliest district in the town. A commuter travels between his town and his work place every day. Can you hold on a couple of minutes? I'm afraid his behaviour is not good enough. I'm going to do an evening course in photography. The reality of war is much worse than the films. She buys all her clothes second-hand. No, thanks. I've given up smoking. Thank you so much for your help. Not at all, my pleasure. She suffers from frequent headaches. We have created a hospital for the natives.

5 SHOWROOM - PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS How long have you been waiting for? For about half an hour. How long has she been going out with him? Since they were kids, for ages... How long have they been living in this house? Since they got married. How long has he been playing professionally? He's been playing for two or three years. How long have you known Kate? For most of my life; we grew up together. How long have they had their car? They've had it for more or less six years. How long has she been a secretary? She's been in this office since she left school. How long have we been in the air? We've been flying for about forty-five minutes. SHOWROOM: ADVERBS OF TIME - ADVERBS OF TIME II After getting up, I have a shower. While having breakfast, I read the paper. After finishing breakfast, I catch the bus. While travelling on the bus, I do the crossword. Before starting work, I talk to the girls. While working, I have a cup of coffee. After working for two or three hours, some friends and I go out for a sandwich.

6 USEFUL PHRASES How many cousins have you got? Let me see. Twelve altogether. Mm, it's a nice flat, but are there any shops within walking distance? Yes, there's a small shopping centre fifteen minutes away. Can you tear yourself away from your stamp collection? I need some help with these boxes. Just a second... Bye, have a good day! You too. Oh! by the way, I may be late back. OK. I'm going to take my umbrella just in case it rains. Good idea. The sky looks a bit grey. What sort of man is he? I don't know; he keeps himself to himself. Can you tell me where to find Mr Green's office? Yes, it's on the second floor, third door on the right. You can't miss it, it's right next to the drinks machine.

7 GRAMMAR Present perfect simple vs. Present perfect continuous a) Form: Affirmative form Negative form Interrogative form Affirmative form Negative form Interrogative form PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE Subj. + HAVE/HAS + Participle + Compl. I have travelled a lot. She has read many books. Subj. + HAVE / HAS + not / never + Participle + Compl. They haven t seen that film yet. He has never been to Italy. HAVE/HAS + Subj. + Participle + Compl.? Have you talked to him today? Has she spent all her money yet? PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS Subj. + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + V-ing + Compl. You have been taking a lot of trouble to help her. Subj. + HAVE/HAS + not BEEN + V-ing + Compl. She hasn t been smoking too much lately. HAVE/HAS + Subj. + BEEN + V-ing + Compl.? How long have you been writing that letter? b) Use:

8 Both the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous are used to talk about actions or events with a connection between the past and the present. I have written two books. Working with animals / A solitary child / I have not seen him for ages I started writing books at some point in my life and so far, I have written two. I may write more books in the future. However, depending on the tense you use, you will show a different perspective of the situation. Focuses on PRESENT PREFECT SIMPLE The result of an action. You have written ten s today. The emphasis is on the s you have written today. In other words, it focuses on the result of your action. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS The duration of an action. I have been writing s all morning. The speaker wants to emphasise the fact that he/she has been doing the same activity for a long period of time. Notice that we often use time expressions to say how long the activity has been in progress. The completion of an action. I have written a book. The book is finished now. The action or event is permanent. I have worked here for three years. The speaker focuses on the fact that he/she started working for the company three years ago and on the fact that he/she views this situation as something permanent. The duration of an action. I have been writing a book. That is how the speaker has spent his/her time. It doesn t matter whether the book is finished or not. The action or event is temporary. I have been working in this office for two months but I usually work from home. The speaker focuses on the fact that this is temporary, meaning that this can change in the future.

9 The result of an action. I have cooked dinner. A side effect of an action. A: Why is the kitchen dirty? B: I have been cooking dinner. The emphasis is on the fact that the speaker has cooked dinner. The emphasis is on the fact that the kitchen is dirty. It doesn t matter whether Speaker B has cooked dinner or not. Note: we do not use the Present Perfect Continuous with stative verbs, those that describe unchanging states such as: belong, (dis)like or know.

10 Expressing duration HOW LONG...? This form is used with the perfect tenses to express or ask about the duration of an action or activity. How long have you been studying English? How long has he been saving to buy a car? How long have you known her? How long have we had this house? FOR AND SINCE Sentences with for and since are used to answer questions like How long?. How long have you been reading? I ve been reading this book since four o clock. I ve been reading this book for two hours. How long has she worked in this office? She has worked in this office since she left school. She has worked in this office for ten years. As you can see in the previous examples, although for and since are both used to express periods of time, their meanings are different: FOR: refers to the duration of an action. SINCE: refers to a particular moment in which the action started.

11 Time expressions Time expressions are used to sequence events or stories. TIME EXPRESSION + VERB (ending with -ing) AFTER: After getting up, I had a shower. BEFORE: Before starting work, I bought a newspaper. WHILE: While reading the paper, I had a coffee. TIME EXPRESSION + NOUN UNTIL: Everyone went home to rest until the ceremony. BEFORE: Before the ceremony, the bride was very nervous. DURING: During the ceremony, her mother cried. AFTER: After the ceremony, everyone drove to the reception. TIME EXPRESSION + PAST TENSE BEFORE: Before he came in, we were talking about his present. AFTER: After he went out, we continued talking about it. WHEN: When I was a little child, I used to play football with my father. UNTIL: Until the phone rang, I was studying. AS SOON AS: As soon as I could, I went to acting school. WHILE: While I was studying there, I learnt to drive.

12 THEN: Then, I started to act in plays. AS: As I was talking to him, he went away. Depending on the tense we use, it is also possible to express present or future actions: After getting up, I always go for a run. He usually has a good breakfast before he goes to work. I ll wait until he comes. I ll phone you when I get home. Working with animals / A solitary child / I have not seen him for ages

9 Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. 11 There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled think that Andrew will collect the money.

9 Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. 11 There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled think that Andrew will collect the money. Modals 8 Is it all right if I use your phone? 9 Guests are allowed to wear casual dress. 10 Maybe she'll move to London. 11 There's a possibility that the show will be cancelled. 12 Maybe she'll be elected.

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