Restoration Theatre. And the Comedy of Manners. Friday 30 December 11

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1 Restoration Theatre And the Comedy of Manners

2 After Shakespeare, what next?

3 After Shakespeare, what next? Shakespeare s final plays - Pericles, Cymbelline, The Winter s Tale and The Tempest

4 After Shakespeare, what next? Shakespeare s final plays - Pericles, Cymbelline, The Winter s Tale and The Tempest All experimental pieces

5 After Shakespeare, what next? Shakespeare s final plays - Pericles, Cymbelline, The Winter s Tale and The Tempest All experimental pieces The death of Elizabeth I changes the tone of Renaissance Theatre

6 Jacobean Theatre

7 Jacobean Theatre Ben Jonson - Volpone, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fayre

8 Jacobean Theatre Ben Jonson - Volpone, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fayre John Webster - The White Devil, The Duchess of Malfi

9 Jacobean Theatre Ben Jonson - Volpone, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fayre John Webster - The White Devil, The Duchess of Malfi Middleton + Tourneur - The Changeling, The Revenger s Tragedy, The Atheist s Tragedy

10 BEN JOHNSON

11 BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare

12 BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare Had strong convictions about what audiences should like

13 BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare Had strong convictions about what audiences should like Arrogant, quarrelsome, volatile temper

14 BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare Had strong convictions about what audiences should like Arrogant, quarrelsome, volatile temper Imprisoned 2 times

15 BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare Had strong convictions about what audiences should like Arrogant, quarrelsome, volatile temper Imprisoned 2 times Most famous works:volpone, The Alchemist, The Devil Is an Ass, Bartholomew Fair

16 BEN JOHNSON Most influential after Shakespeare Had strong convictions about what audiences should like Arrogant, quarrelsome, volatile temper Imprisoned 2 times Most famous works:volpone, The Alchemist, The Devil Is an Ass, Bartholomew Fair 1 st poet Laureate of England

17 COURT MASQUES

18 COURT MASQUES Derived under James I ( )

19 COURT MASQUES Derived under James I ( ) Written often to compliment a person or occasion

20 COURT MASQUES Derived under James I ( ) Written often to compliment a person or occasion Specific roles were done by professional actor but courtiers themselves performed the masque

21 COURT MASQUES Derived under James I ( ) Written often to compliment a person or occasion Specific roles were done by professional actor but courtiers themselves performed the masque Contained three spectacular dances

22 COURT MASQUES Derived under James I ( ) Written often to compliment a person or occasion Specific roles were done by professional actor but courtiers themselves performed the masque Contained three spectacular dances Three main dances:1.entry dance 2.main dance 3.going out dance

23 COURT MASQUES

24 COURT MASQUES Allegorical story used comparing honored person to a mythical character or situation

25 COURT MASQUES Allegorical story used comparing honored person to a mythical character or situation Dancers were usually all men but sometimes ½ men and 1/2 women in a double masque

26 COURT MASQUES Allegorical story used comparing honored person to a mythical character or situation Dancers were usually all men but sometimes ½ men and 1/2 women in a double masque Scenery,costumes and special effects for most of the Masques were by Indigo Jones( )

27 Cromwell

28 Cromwell After Elizabeth s death in James I of Scotland takes the English throne

29 Cromwell After Elizabeth s death in James I of Scotland takes the English throne Charles I succeeds James in has Catholic sympathies

30 Cromwell After Elizabeth s death in James I of Scotland takes the English throne Charles I succeeds James in has Catholic sympathies Charles I clashes with Parliament over the power of the throne

31 Cromwell After Elizabeth s death in James I of Scotland takes the English throne Charles I succeeds James in has Catholic sympathies Charles I clashes with Parliament over the power of the throne The Puritans, Led by Oliver Cromwell sieze power in England

32 The English Civil War

33 The English Civil War England split into two camps - Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and Roundheads (supporters of Parliament)

34 The English Civil War England split into two camps - Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) Theatres are closed and public entertainment (such as Maypole dancing) are forbidden

35 The English Civil War England split into two camps - Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) Theatres are closed and public entertainment (such as Maypole dancing) are forbidden King Charles executed on the steps of Parlaiment

36 The English Civil War England split into two camps - Cavaliers (supporters of the king) and Roundheads (supporters of Parliament) Theatres are closed and public entertainment (such as Maypole dancing) are forbidden King Charles executed on the steps of Parlaiment Parliament run country as a Protectorate

37 The English Civil War

38 The English Civil War many of Charles supporters flee to the Americas establishing theatres in Williamsburg, Jamestown and Charleston

39 The English Civil War many of Charles supporters flee to the Americas establishing theatres in Williamsburg, Jamestown and Charleston Most flee to France and attend French indoor Court Theatre - soon to be the biggest influence on the new English Theatre

40 BACKGROUND TO THE RESTORATION

41 BACKGROUND TO THE RESTORATION

42 BACKGROUND TO THE RESTORATION During the Protectorate all theatre activity was forbidden but music was still allowed, for example, William Davenant staged what is considered to be the first English opera in 1654 using imported Italian scenery, performed privately.

43 BACKGROUND TO THE RESTORATION During the Protectorate all theatre activity was forbidden but music was still allowed, for example, William Davenant staged what is considered to be the first English opera in 1654 using imported Italian scenery, performed privately. In 1660 Charles II was restored as king and theatre required a fresh start as actors groups had been disbanded years before and the theatres had become dilapidated.

44 BACKGROUND TO THE RESTORATION During the Protectorate all theatre activity was forbidden but music was still allowed, for example, William Davenant staged what is considered to be the first English opera in 1654 using imported Italian scenery, performed privately. In 1660 Charles II was restored as king and theatre required a fresh start as actors groups had been disbanded years before and the theatres had become dilapidated. Charles II charged Thomas Killigrew and William Davenant with reviving theatre in Britain.

45 French Influence

46 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu, first Prime Minister of France stabilized economy, influenced public with both his own power and the power of the Catholic Church.

47 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu, first Prime Minister of France stabilized economy, influenced public with both his own power and the power of the Catholic Church. Richelieu built a theatre in his palace which King Louis XIV took over in 1642.

48 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu, first Prime Minister of France stabilized economy, influenced public with both his own power and the power of the Catholic Church. Richelieu built a theatre in his palace which King Louis XIV took over in This theatre had an Italian influenced proscenium arch.

49 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu, first Prime Minister of France stabilized economy, influenced public with both his own power and the power of the Catholic Church. Italian theatre impacted the French theatre via sets and presentation. Richelieu built a theatre in his palace which King Louis XIV took over in This theatre had an Italian influenced proscenium arch.

50 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu, first Prime Minister of France stabilized economy, influenced public with both his own power and the power of the Catholic Church. Richelieu built a theatre in his palace which King Louis XIV took over in Italian theatre impacted the French theatre via sets and presentation. French drama pursued issues of verisimilitude, purity of drama, fiveact plays. This theatre had an Italian influenced proscenium arch.

51 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu, first Prime Minister of France stabilized economy, influenced public with both his own power and the power of the Catholic Church. Richelieu built a theatre in his palace which King Louis XIV took over in Italian theatre impacted the French theatre via sets and presentation. French drama pursued issues of verisimilitude, purity of drama, fiveact plays. Moliere perfected the French comedy in his lifetime. This theatre had an Italian influenced proscenium arch.

52 French Influence Cardinal Richelieu s Theatre, at the Palais-Royal, or Palais-Cardinal, built in King Louis XIV took over in 1642.

53 King Louis XIV

54 King Louis XIV Known as the Sun-King.

55 King Louis XIV Known as the Sun-King. Reigned from 1642 until Enjoyed theatre.

56 King Louis XIV Known as the Sun-King. Reigned from 1642 until Enjoyed theatre. His influences on the theatre are still present today.

57 King Louis XIV Known as the Sun-King. Reigned from 1642 until Enjoyed theatre. His influences on the theatre are still present today. -Deep box stage.

58 King Louis XIV Known as the Sun-King. Reigned from 1642 until Enjoyed theatre. His influences on the theatre are still present today. -Deep box stage. -Audience sits in front.

59 King Louis XIV

60 King Louis XIV -A curtain was used.

61 King Louis XIV -A curtain was used. -Wing space utilized.

62 King Louis XIV -A curtain was used. -Wing space utilized. -Elaborate scenery.

63 King Louis XIV -A curtain was used. -Wing space utilized. -Elaborate scenery. -Mechanical devices were used.

64 King Louis XIV -A curtain was used. -Wing space utilized. -Elaborate scenery. -Mechanical devices were used. -Females performed.

65 King Louis XIV -Artificial Lights were used above the stage and on the apron of the stage.

66 Verisimilitude

67 Verisimilitude The appearance of truth, reality, morality and abstraction

68 Verisimilitude The appearance of truth, reality, morality and abstraction The demand for faithfulness demonstrated by showing wickedness.

69 Verisimilitude The appearance of truth, reality, morality and abstraction The demand for faithfulness demonstrated by showing wickedness. Wickedness was punished.

70 Verisimilitude The appearance of truth, reality, morality and abstraction The demand for faithfulness demonstrated by showing wickedness. Wickedness was punished. Family, love, and marriage were examined by playwrights.

71 Moliere

72 Moliere Born (1622) Jean Baptiste Poquelin, son of a successful upholsterer. (Died in 1673.)

73 Moliere Born (1622) Jean Baptiste Poquelin, son of a successful upholsterer. (Died in 1673.) Joined a commedia dell arte troupe and travelled around France.

74 Moliere Born (1622) Jean Baptiste Poquelin, son of a successful upholsterer. (Died in 1673.) Joined a commedia dell arte troupe and travelled around France. Palais-Royal, 1660.

75 Moliere Born (1622) Jean Baptiste Poquelin, son of a successful upholsterer. (Died in 1673.) Joined a commedia dell arte troupe and travelled around France. Palais-Royal, Author of Tartuffe (1664), The School for Wives (1662), The Misanthrope (1666) and more.

76 Moliere

77 Moliere Tartuffe, or The Imposter.

78 Moliere Tartuffe, or The Imposter. Themes of Religious hypocrisy, family values, society itself.

79 Moliere Tartuffe, or The Imposter. Themes of Religious hypocrisy, family values, society itself. Three reversals in Tartuffe: unmasking of Tartuffe, Orgon at the mercy of Tartuffe; the arrest of Tartuffe.

80

81 Moliere

82 Moliere Five Acts demonstrates French dedication to pure drama.

83 Moliere Five Acts demonstrates French dedication to pure drama. The contrived ending has been under criticism.

84 Moliere Five Acts demonstrates French dedication to pure drama. The contrived ending has been under criticism. Farce hilarious treatment of a sometimes serious or trivial theme.

85 A Study of Human Nature?

86 A Study of Human Nature? Although his characters are often mere types, Moliere s plays investigate human nature.

87 A Study of Human Nature? Although his characters are often mere types, Moliere s plays investigate human nature. Are people by nature good and noble or greedy, small minded, and brutal?

88 Absolutist Theater

89 Absolutist Theater Louis is King as God.

90 Absolutist Theater Louis is King as God. Perhaps Moliere is suggesting that human nature is so corrupt that it needs a strong power like an absolute monarch to keep it in check. (Hobbes)

91 Absolutist Theater Louis is King as God. Perhaps Moliere is suggesting that human nature is so corrupt that it needs a strong power like an absolute monarch to keep it in check. (Hobbes) Or maybe he is just showing Louis what he wants to see.

92 RESTORATION THEATRE

93 RESTORATION THEATRE The theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwellian period in England.

94 RESTORATION THEATRE The theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwellian period in England. When Charles II was restored to power he reopened the theatres in England.(1660)

95 RESTORATION THEATRE The theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwellian period in England. When Charles II was restored to power he reopened the theatres in England.(1660) Noted for its Comedies

96 RESTORATION THEATRE The theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwellian period in England. When Charles II was restored to power he reopened the theatres in England.(1660) Noted for its Comedies Cynical View,witty dialogue, sophisticated sexual behavior

97 RESTORATION THEATRE The theatre was closed in 1644 and all theatre was banned through the Cromwellian period in England. When Charles II was restored to power he reopened the theatres in England.(1660) Noted for its Comedies Cynical View,witty dialogue, sophisticated sexual behavior Virtuous characters no matter the situation. Honor depended on wit not reputation

98

99 RESTORATION cont.

100 RESTORATION cont. Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals.

101 RESTORATION cont. Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals. William Congreve( ) Love for love,the way of the World

102 RESTORATION cont. Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals. William Congreve( ) Love for love,the way of the World William Wycherley( ) The Country wife

103 RESTORATION cont. Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals. William Congreve( ) Love for love,the way of the World William Wycherley( ) The Country wife Oliver Goldsmith: She stoops to Conquer

104 RESTORATION cont. Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals. William Congreve( ) Love for love,the way of the World William Wycherley( ) The Country wife Oliver Goldsmith: She stoops to Conquer Restoration theatre was first to use women in female roles

105 RESTORATION cont. Depicted the conventions of the Courtly society where elegance of phrase and appearance were highly prized over sincerity and morals. William Congreve( ) Love for love,the way of the World William Wycherley( ) The Country wife Oliver Goldsmith: She stoops to Conquer Restoration theatre was first to use women in female roles By the 1700(Queen Anne) there was a revival of classical style and morality.the change was slow at first but by 1730 (George I) the hero/heroine was becoming more virtuous.

106

107 KILLIGREW AND DAVENANT After being given the Patents under which to work, both Killigrew and Davenant opened theatres in converted tennis courts. Killigrew created a platform stage very much like those of the Elizabethan theatres for his company, The Kings Men. On the other hand Davenant reinvented the stage, building a proscenium and using scenic art like that seen in Italy and France. As a result of this contrast, the public preferred the more visually exciting and innovative performances with Davenant s theatre and company, The Duke s Men. Both new theatres showed a mixture of English and continental practices reflecting the time Charles II spent in Paris during Cromwellian Britain.

108 INNOVATIONS

109 INNOVATIONS Both Killigrew and Davenant had theatres designed for them by Sir Christopher Wren. When designing these theatres Wren had to consider the fact that this type of theatre had never been required before, and could not be based on the Elizabethan public playhouses of before the civil war.

110 INNOVATIONS Both Killigrew and Davenant had theatres designed for them by Sir Christopher Wren. When designing these theatres Wren had to consider the fact that this type of theatre had never been required before, and could not be based on the Elizabethan public playhouses of before the civil war. The proscenium layout was very innovative for the time. The doors, or wings, on each side allowed the actors to enter and exit the large stage with versatility.

111 INNOVATIONS The large stage area also gave plenty of room for scenery. The use of scenery was another technique borrowed from Italian and French theatre. The scenery was not used in the same way it is today, to convey the place the action is based. It was a large painted spectacle designed to accompany a particular phase in the plot, maybe only changing with each act.

112 WOMEN IN THE THEATRE

113 WOMEN IN THE THEATRE After a brief failed attempt to introduce women to the stage in 1629, it later became acceptable in Britain after it did in Europe.

114 WOMEN IN THE THEATRE After a brief failed attempt to introduce women to the stage in 1629, it later became acceptable in Britain after it did in Europe. In 1656 Davenant designed The Siege of Rhodes, a semiprivate entertainment, in which the actress Mrs. Coleman took a lead role, and is noted as the introduction of women to the English stage.

115 WOMEN IN THE THEATRE After a brief failed attempt to introduce women to the stage in 1629, it later became acceptable in Britain after it did in Europe. In 1656 Davenant designed The Siege of Rhodes, a semiprivate entertainment, in which the actress Mrs. Coleman took a lead role, and is noted as the introduction of women to the English stage. It is also thought that it was more lenient to allow women on stage because young boys had not been trained to play women adequately while theatre had been outlawed.

116 WOMEN PLAYWRIGHTS

117 WOMEN PLAYWRIGHTS Soon after the restoration, women began to be recognised as writers of drama.

118 WOMEN PLAYWRIGHTS Soon after the restoration, women began to be recognised as writers of drama. One of the first was Mrs. Aphra Behn, who was established as one of the most industrious female playwrights. She wrote 18 plays, of which the majority were highly successful, matching up to her male counterparts.

119 WOMEN PLAYWRIGHTS Soon after the restoration, women began to be recognised as writers of drama. One of the first was Mrs. Aphra Behn, who was established as one of the most industrious female playwrights. She wrote 18 plays, of which the majority were highly successful, matching up to her male counterparts. Other established female playwrights included Mrs. Manly and Mrs. Susannah Centlivre. Bothe achieved great success, and adaptations from the french, made by Centlivre were hugely popular and remained on stage for almost a century.

120 RESTORATION DRAMA

121 RESTORATION DRAMA Restoration Drama was far inferior to Elizabethan drama. The early playwrights used powerful, original characters in their works, whereas restoration writers were happy with the portrayal of the artificial type.

122 RESTORATION DRAMA Restoration Drama was far inferior to Elizabethan drama. The early playwrights used powerful, original characters in their works, whereas restoration writers were happy with the portrayal of the artificial type. The works of playwright Wycherley reflected a small section of life, with an edge of perfection, similar to that of upper class living.

123 RESTORATION COMEDY

124 RESTORATION COMEDY The heroes of restoration comedies were lively, foolish gentlemen. The husbands and fathers were dull in personality, and the heroines were perfect and lovely, with companions who were busy bodies and gossips. The stage plays seemed to be exaggerations of everyday life which were popular with audiences, keeping theatre alive.

125 RESTORATION COMEDY The heroes of restoration comedies were lively, foolish gentlemen. The husbands and fathers were dull in personality, and the heroines were perfect and lovely, with companions who were busy bodies and gossips. The stage plays seemed to be exaggerations of everyday life which were popular with audiences, keeping theatre alive. Present day comedy TV shows use basic satire and extreme versions of stereotypes first used in restoration comedy, showing that the idea has remained foundation to entertainment, still pleasing people to this day.

126 The Country Wife

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