Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 Mvmt 3

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1 Brandenburg Concerto No. 5 Mvmt 3

2 Key words 1) Instrumentation and Sonority 2) Structure 3) Tonality 4) Harmony 5) Rhythm, Metre and Tempo 6) Melody 7) Texture At the top of your Bach Score write each on in each of your 7 colours

3 LOs: To develop my knowledge and understanding of music history; to identify characteristics aurally; to expand my knowledge and use of subject-specific vocabulary. The Baroque Period : (approx). From the birth of opera and oratorio to the death of J.S.Bach Baroque: derived from a Portugese word, barocco, meaning an irregularly-shaped pearl or piece of jewellery. Associated with the highly ornamented style of architecture and art of the 17 th century. Main composers: Bach, Handel, Vivaldi, Corelli, Scarlatti, Monteverdi, Purcell, Rameau Patronage/Contexts

4 LOs: To develop my knowledge and understanding of music history; to identify characteristics aurally; to expand my knowledge and use of subject-specific vocabulary. The Baroque Features - Ornamented melodic lines - Creation of Major/ Minor Music - Use of Diatonic chords (I, II, IV, V, VI) to compose - Basso Contunio - New musical textures of Monophonic, homophonic & polyphonic - Musical devices such as Pedals, Sequences and Suspension - Concerto Grosso: Concerto for more than one soloist

5 J.S. Bach , German (spent whole life there) Orphaned aged 10 Was a Kapellmeister (choir master) in courts when he wrote the Brandenburg Concertos. Later became an organist in Leipzig, Germany Had 20 children, some of whom later became composers

6 Background information Concerto Grosso composed between 1711 & 1720 Has a concertino and ripieno Dialoguing Has instruments in dialogue, playing one after the other, swapping ideas Antiphony (call & response), two different groups Dedication to the Margrave of Brandenburg

7 Concertino Instrumentation Ripieno Solo Flute Solo Violin Harpsicord, Double bass & Cello= Basso Continuo Ripieno Viola Baroque Flute- an older version of the modern flute made of wood Ripieno Violin

8 Instrumentation Concerto Grosso Use of a Continuo (continuous bass) Harpsichordist - At times soloist - Directs the Ensemble - At times part of the continuo - Realises figured bass -Musical short hand to show the chord. Tells you how many notes above to play

9 Instrumental techniques Figured bass- in Cembalo Concertato part (harpsicord) No dynamics are in the music- instead there are terraced dynamics- louder when more instrumentalists are playing. Melodic decoration- Trills (tr) and slurs Task - Annotate your score with the examples here - Challenge: Can you find your own examples?

10 Structure- Ternary Form Section A Bars 1-78 Section B Bars Section A Bars Task- can you label the different sections on your score? Challenge- identify the internal structure of each section

11 Tonality Section A Bars 1-78 D Major (brief moments of A major) Section B Bars B minor (relative minor) Bar A major Bars B minor again Section A Bars D Major (brief moments of A major) This music is Diatonic (stays in a key, not dissonant/ clashing) 2#s (sharps) F# & C#

12 Many Sounds Texture Task - Annotate your score with the examples below - Challenge: Can you find your own examples? Polyphonic/ Contrapuntal (baroque device) Begins in a Fugal Style- each instrument imitating the same theme (bars 1-34)

13 Task - Annotate your score with the examples below - Challenge: Can you find your own examples? Texture (continued) While the ripieno play the flute and violin sometimes play in unison (e.g. bar 33 &34) Start Section B (Bar 79) there is a tonic pedal in the bass ( bars and 90-95) Key at bar 79= B minor First degree of the scale= Tonic Therefore a repeated B= Tonic pedal

14 Task - Annotate your score with the examples below - Challenge: Can you find your own examples? Melody Much of the music is in conjunct (stepwise) style (e.g. bar 2), though there are leaps (e.g. fourths in bar 1). Often the conjunct music is extended to scalic runs, especially in the harpsichord part. There is a rising sequence at bar 137 (same short phrase repeated several times, going up one note each time). There are occasional ornaments, with trills (e.g. bar 19) in the harpsichord part. There are appoggiaturas in the main middle section theme when it returns in A major (e.g. bar 148).

15 Task - Annotate your score with the examples below - Challenge: Can you find your own examples? Harmony Dominant 7 th = chord V7 The harmony uses the standard chords of the time (i.e. predominantly chords I, IV and V, with occasional use of II and VI), including dominant sevenths in various inversions. The harmony is functional (mainly uses chord I, IV and V). The harmony uses mainly root position and first inversion chords. Root (block) chord 1 st Inversion (flipped) chord Perfect cadences announce the ends of sections (eg bar 77-78). Suspensions are used occasionally (i.e. 9 8 suspension at bar 130).

16 Tempo, metre and rhythm The metre is 2/4, duple time two beats to the bar The music could also be notated in 6/8 compound time. It is essentially a Baroque gigue (a dance in compound duple time). Triplet Dotted Rhythm It uses triplets and dotted rhythm throughout. The harpsichord part in particular has many semiquaver runs. Task - Identify triplets, dotted rhythms and semiquaver runs on your score - Challenge: can you find homorhythm?

17 Test time!

18 14: level : level : level 6 9: level 5 8-7: level 4 6-5: level 3 4-3: level 2 2-0: level 1 Grade boundaries

19 GCSE questions 1) Find two examples of different musical textures in the movement. Write a bar number followed by the single word describing the texture: monophonic, homophonic or polyphonic. 2) Describe the difference in sound between the harpsichord and the piano. 3) In what way is the flute phrase at bar 79 a variant of the opening theme? Name both a similarity of rhythm and a similarity of interval. 4) Listen to the opening theme (bars 1-2). How many times can you hear/ identify it in the movement? 5) Apart from playing the written notes, the harpsichordist was important in other ways. Briefly describe one other role of this instrument. Challenge 1) Explain how this piece demonstrates some of the key features of the Baroque style 2) In the 20 th Century Sir Michael Tippett wrote a Concerto for Double String Orchestra. Listen to the opening movement and compare it to this Bach Baroque movement. Can you identify some similarities and differences?

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