1 Table of Contents Introduction Lesson One...1 Time and key signatures, staff, measures, bar lines, metrical rhythm, 4/4 meter, quarter, half and whole notes, musical alphabet, sharps, flats, and naturals, notes G through D Lesson Two...6 Eighth notes, beam, flag, add notes F# an E, questions and answer phrases Lesson Three...12 Dotted half notes, dotted quarter notes, 3/4 meter, notes D through A, sound out and write a tune Lesson Four...17 Sixteenth notes, 2/4 meter, whole, half, quarter, 8 th, and 16 th rests, D Major scale, beginning discussion of form Chords Part I...24 Triad, Major chord, C, G, D, and A Major chords, rolled chords, blocked and broken chords, beginning discussion of chord shapes, chord progressions, passing tones Lesson Five...33 Dotted eighth notes with 16 ths, notes G through G, G Major scale Form...37 Binary and ternary form, repeat dots, signs including: D. C., D. S., Coda, fine, theme and variations, verse/chorus, refrain, bridge Lesson Six...40 Triplets, division, borrowed division, pickup measure, flat, sharp, natural Intervals...46 Simple and compound intervals, octave, perfect prime, seconds, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, sevenths, perfect intervals, major intervals, minor intervals, augmented intervals, diminished intervals, inverted intervals, consonants, dissonants, grace notes Lesson Seven...54 Syncopation, note reading, D Major scale 2 octaves, leger lines
2 Scales...59 Major scales, diatonic scale, chromatic scale, whole and half steps, sequence Chords Part Root position chords, chord inversions, arpeggios, chord hammering patterns Lesson Eight...72 Simple meter, compound meter, 6/8 meter, accents, syncopation, line and space names on the staff, 3/8 meter, 9/8 meter, music box accompaniment, vamp Chords Part Scale degrees, chords built on scale degrees, solfege, solfaing, chord numbers, Major chords, minor chords, diminished chords Lesson Nine /8 meter, notes G below the staff, G Major scale, accompaniment rhythm patterns Lesson Ten...91 Common time, cut time, notes from low D below the staff 3 octave D Major scale and arpeggio, rhythmic chord progressions, low chord accompaniment patterns, bass clef notes Chords Part Major chord, minor chord, diminished chord, chords built on scale degrees, role of chords, tonic, supertonic, mediant, subdominant, dominant, submediant, subtonic, leading tone, circle of fifths, order of sharps and flats, finding the name of the key Scales Mapping out Major scales A, E, and F, transposition Minor Scales Finding minor scales in the Major scales, relative minor, natural minor, harmonic minor, melodic minor, chords built on minor scale degrees Lesson Eleven Ornaments, turn (gruppetto), mordents, roll, tremolo, trill, octave note reading Scales More minor scales, chords built on minor scale degrees, parallel minors scales, intervals in the minor scale vs. the Major scale
3 Chords Part Seventh chords, V7 to I progression, I7 to IV progression, V/V, 6 chords, 2 chords, slash chords, 9 chords, interval of the 9 th Lesson Twelve Beginning arranging, hemiola, changing meters, sequence, conjunct and disjunct motion, skips, leaps, melodic contour, parallel motion, oblique motion, similar motions, tessitura, polyphonic, contrapuntal, counterpoint, phrase, period, cadences: progressive and terminal, cantus firmus, melodic inversion, retrograde, augmentation, diminution, drone, altering melody, melody fills Lesson Thirteen Two beat triplets, two against one, triplet runs, extended arpeggio drills, more arranging, chord fills, chord patterns, fermate, Alberti bass Lesson Thirteen (continued) Texture thick and thin, homophonic, polyphonic, monophonic, heterophonic, more embellishments and accompaniments, harmony above the melody, syncopated rhythm accompaniments, dynamic markings, tempo markings, rubato, 8va and 8vb, loco, cadences: authentic, half or semi, plagal, deceptive Chords Part More arpeggios, more accompaniment patterns, drop 7 chord, non-chord tones, slash chords, chord progressions chord substitutions Lesson Fourteen Accents, steps, skips, leaps, interval of the 10 th, minor chords, melody runs, tri-tone, bass runs, modulations, transposition, polyrhythm, imitation, canon, round Scales Modes, Pentatonic, chromatic, chords in minor keys Making the Tune Your Own Putting together all that has been learned, and applying it to tunes APPENDIX--Supplemental Material: Productive Practicing... A2 Memorization... A7 Listening Exercises... A9 Introductions and Endings... A11 Chord Shapes... A17 Tunes That Teach...A20
4 INTRODUCTION Music is the art and science of organized sound. It is comprised of the following elements: 1. RHYTHM Rhythm describes the organization of time and duration of sound. 2. MELODY Melody is a succession of pitches. By it s nature, it cannot be separated from rhythm. 3. HARMONY Harmony results with the simultaneous combination of 2 or more musical sounds. 4. TIMBRE Defined by the color, or quality of sound (vocal or instrumental) 5. TEXTURE Texture is the disposition of pitch and timbre. It can be thin (single line melody or sparse harmony) or thick (melody with many harmony notes) PURPOSE It is the purpose of these lessons to present music theory concepts, in an ordered fashion, building on material covered, and relate them specifically to playing the Hammered Dulcimer. The plan is to start at the beginning with the most basic material, and then move on from there, teaching MELODY, RHYTHM, and HARMONY in each lesson to get a complete musical picture right from the get-go. Separate and supplemental material is also given for chords, intervals, and scales. Drills, exercises, and tunes are given to further musical understanding and to apply the material presented. The back of the book holds supplemental material for further enrichment and study. END RESULT All consideration was given to provide ample practice and experimentation toward the goal of musical understanding and application, so that by the end of the lessons the student will be able to: 1. Read music accurately and swiftly 2. Play music accurately from the written page 3. Compose original music 4. Use harmony to develop and enhance music 5. Use the information learned herein to arrange and embellish tunes, and music, as desired. The very last lesson, Making The Tune Your Own, uses the tools learned in this volume to further understanding and practice in embellishing and arranging tunes on ones own. 6. There are full tunes included some in the lessons, and many at the end of the book, to illustrate the points made herein, and the material to be learned. ****NOTE: These lessons were designed in such a way that if a student is competent in a certain area, he/she may move on to the next. For example, if one is already a good note reader, he/she may skip those note reading drills (even though they would still be of benefit). However, it would still be important to complete the melody composing exercises, as embellishing and arranging techniques are included in them, and then built upon in later lessons.
5 A note from Janet... I have always loved music. However, it was not until the spring of 2002 that I heard my very first Hammered Dulcimer being played. It was love at first hammer. OF course, there were many frustrations along the way adjusting to it after the more up and down flow of the piano and flute But adjust I did, and can now see the beauty of the Hammered Dulcimer s box for scales, and across the instrument for arpeggios. Why, the Hammered Dulcimer just about cries out THEORY! And therein lies the motivation for this book Hammering Out Music Theory. It is a book designed to explain music theory as it specifically relates to the Hammered Dulcimer, and how to best use that theory knowledge in playing the instrument. I want to thank my many fellow dulcimer friends (both in OH and NY, where I currently live in Rochester) along with my wonderful, understanding, encouraging, and supportive husband, Joel, for their push and support. Without them, this book would never have come to be! THANK YOU! I sincerely hope you, who will be using my book, enjoy this foray into music theory, and find it to be very helpful indeed.
6 APPENDIX SUPLEMENTAL MATERIALS: Productive Practicing, page A 2 Memorizing, page A 7 Listening Exercises, page A 9 Introductions and Endings, page A 11 Chord Shapes A 17 Tunes That Teach, page A20 Listing of Tunes (That Teach): Itty Bitty Ditty A 24 Twinkle Twinkle A 24-A 25 Down in the Valley A 26 The Ash Grove A 27 Wayfaring Stranger A 28 Silent Night A 29 Eddie s Reel A 30-A 31 The Sweet By and By A 32 It Is Well With My Soul A 33 The Sunflowers Dance A 34-A 35 Daisies in the Wind A 36-A 37 Wonderful Words of Life A 38-A 39 Since I Have Been Redeemed A 40 The Shepherd s Wife Waltz A 41-A 43 Send the Light A 44-A 45 Praise Him! Praise Him! A 46-A 48 Gettin Out the Cobwebs A 49 Wildwood Flower A 50