13 (2009) The Latin Playwright Georgius Macropedius ( ) in European Contexts. Jan Bloemendal EUROPEAN MEDIEVAL DRAMA.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "13 (2009) The Latin Playwright Georgius Macropedius ( ) in European Contexts. Jan Bloemendal EUROPEAN MEDIEVAL DRAMA."

Transcription

1 EUROPEAN MEDIEVAL DRAMA 13 (2009) The Latin Playwight Geogius Macopedius ( ) in Euopean Contexts Edited by an Bloemendal O~GIV 5 MAC I\9l.DIVS QUa: tfoas tiofls gtltejp,:4]atldtt -thfatis tagumetta etea' fi~(cipls histoice,!f dem /animi numeoqup potfs (fonifie CjeOl;gi '}jnnxiflc m nwlu'05 C?1n11m!) mqui? notas':bs Geogills Macopedills, engaving by Philips Galle, in Benito Aias Montano, Vioum doctoum de disciplinis bene meentium effigies XLIIII (Antwepen: [n.pllb.], 1572) BREPOLS

2 CONTENTS Chonology vii Aticles Intoduction 1 AN BLOEMENDAL Macopedius's Life and Times 7 HENK GIEBELS Macopedius's Dama in an Intenational Context 39 AN BLOEMENDAL 2009, Bepols Publishes n.v., Tunhout, Belgium All ights eseved. No pat of this publication may be epoduced, stoed in a etieval system, o tansmitted, in any fom o by any means, electonic, mechanical, photocopying, ecoding, o othewise, without the pio pemission of the publishe. D /2009/0095/169 ISBN: ISSN: Macopedius and Music: Geogius Macopedius 57 as a Compose of Songs fo the Theate and Othe School Pefomances LOUIS PETER GRIP The Plays of Geogius Macopedius: A Gende View A. AGNES SNELLER 'But did they not, with it, bun the excements as well?': Macopedius's Expeimental Plays, o Humanism as Avant-gade RANS-WILLEM KORSTEN Macopedius's Rebelles and Easmus's Pinciples of Education YEHUDI LINDEMAN Pinted in the E.U. on acid-fee pape

3 MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC: GEORGIUS MACROPEDIUS AS A COMPOSER O SONGS OR THE THEATRE AND OTHER SCHOOL PERORMANCES Louis Pete Gijp' The theatical woks of Macopedius contain a stiking amount of singing. Does that mean that Macopedius had a special affinity with music? Was he musical? What ole did music actually play in his life? Did he teach music at the Latin schools whee he woked? Let's begin with the last question, although it is not as easy to answe as one might think. It is not clea to what extent music was taught at the Latin schools in Liege and Utecht whee Macopedius taught. Music is not mentioned in the cuicula that have been peseved fom those schools duing Macopedius' s time. The students devoted thei time pimaily to Latin and Geek: gamma, posody, witing lettes and poems, logic and hetoic, debate and declamation, and classical liteatue. In addition, thee wee natually also eligion classes. In the detailed cuiculum that has suvived fom the Utecht Sint Hieonymusschool (St eome School) of1565 (about eight yeas afte Macopedius had left it),] the lesson plans ae listed fo evey hou of each of the eight classes in the school, but music is not mentioned. And yet Macopedius put his name to a school textbook of saced songs: Hymni & sequentiae, which must have been published in 1552 in 's-hetogenbosch. No Tanslation by Ruth van Baak Giffioen. ] Macopedius woked fom about 1530 until at the Steome School. The cuiculum ofl565 is summaized in Henk Giebelsand ans Slits, GeogiusMacopedius { }: Leven en weken van een Babantse humanist (Tilbug: Stichting Zuidelijk Hisoisch Contact, 2005), pp Euopean Medieval Dama 13 (2009) ].EMD

4 58 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 59 copy is known to have suvived, 2 so it is difficult to say what Macopedius's contibution was. This was most likely a school edition of a peviously published hymn book. In the numeous othe school texts that Macopedius wote - about gamma, logic, the at oflettewiting, etc. - we find almost nothing about music. His book about metics (Posoedia, 1550) contains a few notes of music, to show the students how to imagine the long and shot syllables of the vese metes. In Macopedius's textbook about the ecclesiastical calenda (Kalendaius chiometicus, 1541) we finally find an obsevation about music lessons. Macopedius intoduces a simple counting method, which he lays out in simple veses. Whoeve wants to know moe, he says, must consult what 'vey leaned men' have witten. 'Pecisely because these books by those men do exist, I have decided to leave out what I dictated to my students twelve yeas ago about measue and melody in chuch music.'3 This passage tells us that Macopedius taught music twelve yeas befoe 1541, in othe wods, in At that time he was still active in Liege. But in a cuiculum peseved fom the St eome School in Liege in 1536, music lessons ae still not mentioned. 4 om othe Latin schools we know fo cetain that music was taught. At the successful Latin school in Zwolle, fo example, the students had to go to chuch at 6 AM, 7 AM, and 9 AM to sing Mass. 5 In Utecht the education at the chapte schools consisted of Latin, that is, gamma and a bit oflogic, and also music. These ae the thee subjects consistently mentioned in the case of othe late medieval schools. 6 The singing and music lessons wee necessay so that the boys could sing along duing the vaious woship sevices. The St eome School, howeve, oganized along humanist lines, offeed an altenative: hee the emphasis was on 2 The last mention of this book is by ean NoeIPaquot, Mimoies pou sevi a l'histoie littiaie des dix-sept povinces des Pays-Bas..., vol. XII (Leuven: 1m pim eie Academique, 1768), p Among the woks of Mac oped ius Paquot lists Hymni & Sequentiae, quibus... Dominicis & esti Diebus utimu, bevibus... Scholiis illustati. Sylvae-Ducis '. See also Giebels and Slits, Geogius Macopedius, p Giebels and Slits, Geogius Macopedius, p That Macopedius consideed adding something about music to this calenda and calculation book can likely be explained by the double meaning of the subject ofm usica': not only pactical (chuch) music but also the theoetical subject of popotions, demonstated with sting lengths. p Accoding to oannes Stum in 1536, excepted in Giebels and Slits, Geogius Macopedius, 5 < [accessed 11 Mach 2009]. 6 W. H.. Dekke, 'GeogiusMacopedius ( ) en de muziek' (unpublished maste's thesis, Utecht Univesity, 1970), pp classical Latin, and Geek was also offeed. This aim was heatily suppoted by city authoities. An edict even stated that boys of twelve who wanted to futhe thei study of Latin had to go to the St eome School; the Cathedal.Chapte Schoo~, on the othe hand, was hencefoth to concentate on chuch music lessons. IntellIgent boys whose voices had boken could obtain a gant fom the chapte to finish thei education at the St eome Schoo Music in the Moden Devotion Music thus played a subodinate ole in humanist schools such as the St eome School. This came about also because music was viewed with diffidence by the Bothes of the Common Life, that is, the Moden Devotion movement, to which Macopedius belonged. These men had deep esevations against the magnificent polyphony that so blossomed in the Nethelands just at this point in the sunset yeas of the late Middle Ages. The masses and motets ofosquin, Obecht, Piee de la Rue, and all the othewold-famous composes of the Low Counties seved, in the eyes of the followes of the Moden Devotion, only the oute pomp and cicumstance of the Chuch. As fa as they wee concened, what eally matteed _ that the wods of the devotion of the faithful should be expessed - got lost in the vituosic countepoint of the time. The voices enteed one afte anothe, moe often than not in canon, and then tumbled all ove each othe, so that pactically nothing of the wods could even be undestood. Within the Moden Devotion communities, in both the cloistes as well as the bothehoods, they stove fo music that was easily undestood, and which moeove would not distact fom the message because of its musical vituosity. When they sang in hamo~y, t~ey did so in the simplest possible way, 'note against note', with the text occumg simultan~ously in the vaious voices, so that the text emained pefectly undestandable. ThIS did equie some musical taining; at the vey least the singes had to be able to ead musical notation. But that level of musical ability was nothing compaed to what a membe of a polyphonic chuch choi had to be able to do. 8 7 Dekke, 'Geogius Macopedius en de muziek', p. 13. o education in Latin, see also an Bloemendal, Spiegel van het dagelijks leven? Latijnse school en ton eel in de noodelijke Nedelanden in de zestiende en de zeventiende eeuw, Zeven Povincien Reeks, 22 (Hilvesum: Veoen, 2003) pp On music in the Moden Devotion, see Ulike Hasche-Buge, 'Muziek in de Modene Devotie', in Een muziekgeschiedenis de Nedelanden, ed. by Louis Pete Gijp (Amsteda~: Amstedam Univesity Pess, 2001), pp ; Hasche-Buge, Singen fo die Seligkeit: Studten

5 60 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 61 Theate Pefomances at the St eome School Macopedius'sModen Devotion backgound would most likely have stengthened his humanistic outlook on music. The goal of music fo him would not have been pimaily to embellish litugy but athe to contibute to an upbinging within classical cultue. In that case too the text took pide of place, while music might bette be kept as simple as possible. Vaious genes offeed oppotunities to advance this goal, such as theate pieces on classical models and annual songs. In addition, these two genes could include not only classical but also eligious themes. Indeed Macopedius in his theatical woks called fo a geat deal of music, chouses, and songs: about sixty musical numbes within eleven plays. This makes them eminiscent in a way of the musicals that ae nowadays pefomed in schools. Once pe yea all the stops ae pulled out to make such a pefomance a success. This would also have been the case with Macopedius's 'comedies', as they wee called. In pinciple thee was a theatical pefomance at the end of each semeste. Taces of this ae found hee and thee in the city accounts. So fo instance in 1526 o 1527 the 'cleks ofsteome' gave a 'suvelick batement' (eligious play) on the feast day of May Magdalene 'opte plaets' (on the squae in font of the Utecht city hall). The city council paid them six pounds as a teat fo the pefomes. 9 Ten yeas late in 1537, and thus duing the time that Macopedius seved as ecto, the students of the Steome School played a 'comedy and play' on Saint Lambet's Day; the city council paid 'twelve quats of wine'lo to a cetain an Spuyt, pobably a bakeep. In 1548, innkeepe Ryck Vehost gave eight 'municipal tankads'll of wine at the city council's expense to the 'Recto of the St eome School and the mastes who pefomed the play'. The ecto must have been Macopedius, who fulfilled that function at that time. Pefomances fom late times ae also documented in the city accounts. The annual occasions must have continued thoughout the entie sixteenth centuy. The poet oost van den Vondel emembeed that when he was ten yeas old (which was aound 1597) he saw a pefomance by the students of the St eome School in Utecht. In font of the city hall a podium was constucted with a dawbidge attached to it. Goliath and his amy had to mach ove this, until David's slingshot hit him, so that the giant 'cashed down so had the stage cacked'.12 The pefomances wee evidently quite spectacula, and the dinking money that was paid out indicates that they wee valued fom the highe-ups. This was all good fo the school's image, the ecto would have ealized. But that was not his pimay pupose. o Macopedius it was mostly about the students shapening thei memoies and developing thei vocabulaies and fluency, he wites in the pologue to his play Andisca. They leaned to pesent themselves. But they could also lean moallessons fom the play. All things consideed, giving plays was highly beneficial fo the pupils' education. 13 Music in the Plays o Macopedius the chouses wee impotant fo the stuctue of the play and fo the hythm of the pefomance. Each of his plays (and also those of many of his colleagues) was divided into five acts, and the chouses seved to sepaate the acts one fom anothe. 14 The action stopped fo a moment, and the choi could sing something contemplative about what had just happened, often a moal lesson to be dawn o a geneal nugget of wisdom. Macopedius used the chous this way aleady in one of his fist plays, Rebelles (1535). This comedy, Macopedius's liveliest, is about the fate of two naughty boys, o 'ebels'. The cental poblem is discipline. The boys' mothes have spoiled them, sending them to school on the condition that they not eceive any copoal punishment. This was evidently a topic unde discussion at the time. Macopedius, as an expeienced teache at a stict school, was of the opinion that in an exteme case one had to be able to delive a dubbing. Without that, chaos would ensue. And that is exactly what happens in Rebelles. In the fist act, the mothes pesent thei sons to Maste Aistippus (whose name means moe o less 'the best hose in the stable') and demand that thee not be any hitting. And the end of the act, the choi of schoolboys l5 sings that a soft- zu eine Liedesammlungde Devotio modena: Zwolle, Histoisch Centum Oveijssel, coli. Emmanuelshuizen, cat. VI: Mit Edition und aksimile (Leiden: Bill, 2007). 9 Giebe!s and Slits, Geogius Macopedius, p A 'quat' was about 1 lite. II A 'stadskan' o municipal tankad is a containe fom which honoued pesonages wee seved wine at festive occasions; it is also a measue of quantity. 12 oewod fom Vonde!, Salmoneus, cited in Giebe!s and Slits, Geogius Macopedius, p. 106: 'nedeplofte, dat de stellaedje kaeckte'. 13 Moe about the goals of the Latin school play can be found in Bloemendal, Spiegel van het dagelijks leven?, pp By no means, howeve, do all humanist plays contain chouses. 15 'Chous ex Aistippicae Scholae auditoibus' (The Choi of the Students of the School of Aistippus).

6 62 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 63 heated upbinging will eventually wok against the mothe (the fist stanzas of the chouses ae pinted with music in Appendix 1, pp below).16 This chous eacts to what has occued and points in geneal tems to the calamity to come. Afte the chous, the action continues. The boys secetly playa game duing class and come to blows. This puts them in the position to be soundly thwacked by the maste. The chous ounds off the act with the thought that a teache must not be afaid to dole out blows if the situation calls fo it. And so it goes. In the thid act the indignant mothes haul thei little deas out of school and give them money to go into business. Eveyone but the mothes undestands that this will come to nothing, and the choi sings that women ae disastous beings - evidently Macopedius had a lot to expeience with angy mo~hes. Then eveything eally does go wong. The fiends quickly bun though thei money at bas and bothels, and when the money's gone they ob a fame. The choi sings about the uin to which money can so easily lead. Meanwhile we've aived at the fifth and final act. The ebels have been aested and sentenced to the gallows. But then Maste Aistippus shows up as the angel of deliveance: he makes use of his pivilegium foi, meaning that students who've gone bad must be judged by the school ecto instead of the usual judge. So all's well that ends well, and eveyone undestands the necessity of copoal punishment fo poblem students. The play does not end with a chous, but athe with a spoken epilogue. That means that the chous does not function so much as the conclusion of an act but as an intemezzo, liteally as an ent'acte. It does, howeve, often look back at the peceding act. The chous puts into wods the moal lessons that Macopedius's students could pick out of the comedy: 1) spae the od and spoil the child, 2) hitting is a necessay evil, 3) women ae stupid, and 4) money leads to uin. All of this is natually easie to emembe once you've sung it and, moeove, sung fom memoy. What must the pefomance of these chouses have been like? They wee, in any case, sung. How lage the choi was we do not know. Elsewhee in the neoclassical theate liteatue the figue of fou singes is stated, bu we don't know whethe Macopedius followed that ule. In seventeenth-centuy Dutch theate the usual numbe of singes in a choi was just two. In pinciple at the Steome School the choi would have consisted of boys. In the biblical play Lazaus men dicus, howeve, 16 All the monophonic theate-music of Hecastus is published in Rochus von Liliencon, 'Die Cho~ges.ange des lateinisch-deutschen Schuldamas im XVI. ahhundet', Viete/jahschift fo Muslkwl:senscha(t, 6 (1890), , and in the excellent but unpublished maste's thesis by Dekke, Geogms Macopedius en de muziek'. a choi of both boys and gils is called fo. It is conceivable that fo the pefomance, male students wee dessed as gils. In the complete edition of Macopedius' s theatical woks, the Omnes fabulae comicae published by Hamannus Boculous in Utecht ( ), music notation accompanies almost evey chous. l7 The melodies ae notated monophonically. That does not necessaily imply that they wee pefomed that way; moe likely they would have been accompanied by instuments such as the lute, bass viol, hapsichod, o ogan, but thee is no concete evidence fo this. It is also possible that thee wee sung vocal accompaniments. Occasionally in the edition of the Omnes fabulae comicae something of a two-voiced pactice appeas. Lazaus mendicus fo instance includes two efains that ae to be sung by angels, and they ae notated in two vciices. In Iosephus the entie fist chous is pinted in two voices, fo sopano and teno. These ae not andom additions, as can be seen fom an ealie; sepaate edition of Lazaus mendicus by. Tunhout in 's-hetogenbosch (I545). In this edition most of the chouses and othe songs ae set to two voices, eithe the whole o just the efain. To most of the melodies a simple vocal bass has been applied in the same hythm as the uppe voice (see Appendix 2, pp below). The bass does not in any way detact fom the intelligibility of the text. The impession given is that Lazaus mendicus was always pefomed with two voices, and pobably the othe plays as well, but that the idea with the Omnes fobulae comicae was to pesent the music as unifomly as possible; in this case, monophonically. Pehaps the budget was tight o the pinte Boculous possessed limited possibilities. He used block pinting, in which all notes and stems ae caved by hand fom a single block of wood. This system was used pimaily in books containing fa moe text than music, such as music teatises. In actual books of music it was customay to pint fom single types, one fo evey note. Editions of Macopedius's theatical woks fall in the categoy of books with moe text than music. Boculous's music woodcuts sometimes look a bit clumsy, but then, he was also one of the fist people to pint music in the nothen Nethelands. ls Apat fom Lazaus mendicus, ealie 17 About this publicaton, see ans Slits, 'Ratse! un Omnes Geogii Macopedii abulae Comicae', in Ad Litteas: Latin Studies in Honouof Bouwes, ed. by Apad P. Oban and Mac G. M. van de Poe! (Nijmegen: Nijmegen Univesity Pess, 2001), pp IS As fa as we know, Boculous began music pinting in 1539, when he pinted.1i.1acopedius's annual song 'Ode de extemo Chisti iudicio'. Aound the same time in Antwep, the leading city of the Dutch book tade, tue books of music appeaed in which fist the staff lines wee pinted and then the notes, a pocess which poduces a cleane esult than block pinting does. Examples include the Devoot ende Pofitelyck Boexcken (Devout and Helpful Book, 1539) and the

7 64 Louis Pete Gi)P MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 65 (sepaate) editions of Mac oped ius's theate plays wee published without music notation. It is possible that the inexpeience of Dutch pintes with music pinting played a ole hee. So despite Boculous's monophonic pesentation it is possible that the chouses fom othe plays by Macopedius wee sung in two pats, just as those fom Lazaus mendicus wee, although thee is no evidence fo this, at least not fo the pefomances in Utecht. We do find a polyphonic chous in the Cologne edition of Macopedius's Andisca (1539).19 The chous is set to fou voices, the fist section note-against-note, the second section moe polyphonic, with voices that imitate each othe and thus inteweave. That does not align with the pinciples of the humanists and the Moden Devotion. Macopedius is likely not to have had a hand in that edition, and indeed in the Omnes edition a diffeent melody is pinted altogethe. Evidently new music was composed fo a pefomance in a place with a iche singing tadition than the Utecht St eome School. Macopedius's plays wee in any case pefomed all ove Euope: he was the leading Latin playwight of his time. It is stiking that not all the music in Boculous's edition is notated fo high voices, as one might expect fo a boy choi. The fist two chouses of Rebelles, fo example, ae notated in alto clef (with the C-clefon the middle line), and the thid chous with the C-clef on the top line, which coesponds to the baitone clef (-clef on the middle line). In Lazaus mendicus, the angels sing in sopano clef, but Lazaus sings in the baitone clef. In the two-voiced vesion of Lazaus mendicus the second voice is usually notated in baitone clef. In the Omnes edition the bass clef is often used in the othe plays. We don't have to take the notated pitches liteally, but ifmacopedius had been woking only with boy sopanos and altos he would definitely have used highe clefs. The plays wee in fact pefomed mostly by boys fom the highest classes,20 whose voices would have in many cases aleady boken. In addition, that effect is less stong than one might think. The voices of twenty-fist-centuy boys have long since boken by age eighteen, but in ealie times the voice change occued makedly late than nowadays, owing, one gathes, to diffeent nutitional levels and geneal health standads. Even some of Macopedius's olde students would still have been able to sing quite well with thei high boy's voices. "i4«i'~hlt/~,,~n~ illito nt~)c. f'nltt.. It &:~ igue 1. Song of the wine-dinkes fom Lazaus mendicus, abulae omnes, Utecht (Boculous), It has been suggested that dancing accompanied the chouses. Von Liliencon in his seminal aticle of 1890 about music in the neo-latin school dama names seveal plays in which thee is expess mention of dance. Aleady in the Ludus Dianae by Conad Celtis (1501) the chouses of nymphs and Bacchae dance to music, which is epoduced in the edition. Sometimes the chouses ae followed by a 'popotio', that is, a vesion in tiple mete which is then danced. 21 In Macopedius an instance of this can be found in Lazaus mendicus, when the oving minstel Molobus sings along with his sevant a chous at the end of the second act. The stage diection 'Pue tepudians, vel ad numeos saltans' is added hee: 'The boy dances, o jumps to the hythm of the music'.22 This dance thus functions as pat of the action, as the music in this paticula play does also (see below). Thee ae likely othe instances of chouses in othe plays by Macopedius which could Souteliedekens (Psalm Songs, 1540). The so-called Kampe Liedboek (Songbook fom Kampen), also dated to about 1540, includes polyphonic music. 19 This composition is published in Von Liliencon, 'Die Chogesange', pp Bloemendal, Spiegel van het dagelijks leven?, p Von Liliencon, 'Die Chogesange', pp This occus only in the edition 's-hetogenbosch 1545 (see Appendix 2, p. 77 below).

8 66 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 67 be accompanied by dance in sevice to the action, but this would not have been a geneal ule. Macopedius as a Compose Whee did Macopedius get the melodies? It is geneally assumed that Macopedius himself composed the music fo the chouses in his plays?3 That is pobably tue, although stictly speaking thee is little evidence fo it. The only infomation we have consists of two distichs unde the 1572 potait of Geogius Macopedius: Quae efeas nostis gate spectanda theatis Agumenta sacae suscipis histoiae. Idem animi numeosque potes cecinisse Geogi Stinxisse in numeos caminis in que notas. 24 [The subjects you bing to ou theates fo us to enjoy watching You take fom the holy histoies. And in the same spiit, Geogius, you can sing veses And fit them into the metes (numeos) of both the poety (caminis) and of the musical notes (notas).] We could intepet those last wods to mean that Macopedius wote the music fo his veses. Moeove, eveything points in that diection. To begin with, the melodies ae simple, as Macopedius himself says on the title page of the Omnes fabulae. 2s They'e simple enough to have been thought up by an amateu compose. They'e also all athe unifom. The fist fou chouses fom Rebelles, fo example, have vey compaable melodies, especially simila in hythm. That is also because Macopedius - we'e now going on the assumption that he was the composewanted to expess the mete of the veses in the hythm of the music. The texts of all fou chouses ae witten in iambic dimetes, that is, each line of vese consists of two iambs twice. Given that each iamb consists of one shot and one long 23 This is most explicit in Dekke, 'Geogius Macopedius en de muziek', p Vioum doctoum de disciplinis benemeentium effigies XLIIII a Phil. Galleo (Antwep, 1572), Eff. B 5, cited afte Dekke, 'Geogius Macopedius en.de muziek', p. 1. See also the fontispiece of this volume. 2S 'Adiectae sunt Chois post singulos Actus notulae quaedam musicae, quo semplici tenoe quisque possit cita laboem vesiculos modulai' (To the chotuses afte each act musical notes ae added; to such simple melodies one can sing the veses without difficulty). Title page fom the Omnes abulae comicae (Utecht, 1552). syllable, the hythm of such a vese would in pinciple be a seies of eight notes, altenating shot and long. The fist vese of the chous at the end of the fist act can seve as an example: 'Ma-tum pe in-dul-gen-ti-am'. The boldface syllables ae long - they fom the second, long syllable of each iamb - and eceive a long note in the music. Because the emaining lines of vese have the same mete, this could vey well get athe dull. But in the second vese Macopedius pemits a vaiation. In 'Gna-to-uml ee 6 in-so-ien-ti-am', the syllable -len- should be set to a long note and -ti- to a shot one, but Macopedius switches the two. A simila metic evesal (a sot ofhemiola) occus fequently in the dance music of the time. In this way Macopedius intoduces cucial vaiety to his iambic dimetes, the mete he also used fo the emaining chouses of Rebelles. But this alone does not completely avet unifomity, we notice if we sing though the chouses of Rebelles. The melodic figue of a stepwise falling fifth, fo, instance, is used in the second and fouth line of the stanzas of the fist chous, but also in thee of the fou lines of the second chous and in the last line of the fouth chous. At othe moments in the Rebelles chouses this falling figue is woked out in a slightly diffeent manne. In othe wods, the fou chous melodies esemble each othe not only hythmically but also melodically. In addition, Macopedius's modal choices ae also unifom: almost all his melodies ae in the Doian mode, which was in fact the most commonly used mode in the popula music of his time. All this unifomity does not exactly point in the diection of a vey ceative compositional talent, and that applies also to the vaiety - o athe, lack of vaiety - among the melodies in the est of Macopedius's wok. The ecto eused his own melodies too, moe than once. The fou melodies of the chouses fom Rebelles, fo example, ecu in a iumbe of othe plays. In Aluta (1535), which comes fom about the same time as Rebelles, at least thee chous melodies ae taken ove fom Rebelles. They ae sung by a choi of housewives fom Bunschoten, a fishing village in which Macopedius liked to set his comedies. In Petiscus (1536) all the melodies come fom Rebelles and Aluta. The thid and fouth chouses fom Asotus (1537) ae sung to the melodies of the thid and fouth chouses of Rebelles. Not only did Macopedius euse melodies fom one play to anothe, he also did so within one and the same play. In Bassaus (1540), fo example, all the chouses ae set to the same melody, and the same is tue in Adamus and H:ypomone seu patientia. In Hecastus the fist and second chouses use the same mateial, and the 26 The syllables '-um' and 'et' ae elided and sung to one note.

9 68 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 69 thid and fouth shae as well. In Lazaus mendicus the fist thee chouses and the fist song of Lazaus make use of the same melodic mateial (see Appendix 2, pp below). None of this indicates a ich musical imagination. But it could also be that Macopedius's time was often extemely limited - he himself said that he had to wite some of these plays in a few days, alongside his usual teaching duties 27 - because in othe plays thee is in fact vaied music fo all the chouses. Examples and Taditions Whee did Macopedius get the idea to put chouses between the acts? As a Hellenist he of couse knew of the chouses in the Geek tagedies that Easmus tanslated. But those chouses had complex lyic foms and moeove they wee extemely difficult to compehend. The humanists also admied the Roman Seneca, who too wote chouses in between the acts of his damas. Those cetainly wee also a souce ofinspiation fo Macopedius, fo Seneca likewise was fond of having his chouses dispense geneal wisdom. But Seneca's chouses ae stichic (that is, composed of lines of the same metical fom thoughout) and do not lend themselves to singing. Macopedius did not have to solve this poblem himself Othe humanists had peceded him, such as ohannes Reuchlin, who ceated the fist Latin school dama with his Scaenica pogymnasmata (Elementay Execises in Theatical om), also known as Renno. Renno was pefomed with much success in 1497 in Heidelbeg. The edition that appeaed the following yea, complete with music, was epinted often. Macopedius named Reuchlin as the inspiation fo his own theate pieces. Reuchlin wote chouses between the five acts of Renno, set to simple monophonic melodies, just as Macopedius late did in Rebelles and his othe plays. Stiking diffeences emain, howeve. As mentioned, Macopedius's chouses ae metical, and thus based on the length of the syllables. They do not hyme. These two chaacteistics coespond to the poety of the ancients. Reuchlin's chouses, by contast, do hyme, and in addition his veses moe esemble accent veses athe than metical ones based on syllable length. We find hyming accent 27 See e.g. the 'Ad lectoem' (To the eade) that accom paniesaluta: 'Si haec videatu pie isque in locis hiulca aut minus elaboata, non mieis, candide lecto, quod in diebus quattuo ugente tempestate posus (ita ut est) absolutasit, nihilo tamen minus exsecuto munee scholastico' (If this play gives the im pession in anum be of places of being athe jeky o unfinished, that should not supise you, dea eade. I had namely to put it in its pesent fom in fou staight days, and that without neglecting my teaching duties at all). veses in songs in Gemanic languages such as Dutch and Geman, but also in popula Latin eligious songs such as hymns, as well as in medieval Latin student songs. Macopedius, on the othe hand, wote in classical metes and also used the possibilities fo vaiation that these metes offe. o instance, we often see in his wok that one long syllable is exchanged fo two shot ones. In the second chous ofrebelles, fo example (see Appendix 1, p. 75 below), in measue 5 along syllable is split into two shot ones (,-fi-ci-'). In the fist line of the same piece thee is a double vaiation, whee the fist quate notds split into two eighths: the fist (shot) syllable of the iamb is made long, and then split into two shot syllables ('Sa-pi-'). Macopedius would thus have gotten the idea of sung chouses fom Reuchlin, including thei simple chaacte, but his technical ealization is moe closely based on ancient poety than those of his pedecesso. Musical settings of simila ancient o neoclassic veses had aleady been tied. In the 1490s the Geman humanist Conad Celtis had his student Petus Titonius set Hoatian odes to music. Celtis had his students sing Titonius's fou-pat homophonic settings (that is, settings in which all the voices move at the same time) at the end of thei lessons on Hoace. In 1507 these wee published unde the title Melopoiae. Titonius had set the long and shot syllables stictly to long and shot notes, even moe consistently than Macopedius would late do in his chouses. Othe composes such as the famous Ludwig Senfl made new aangements o wote new compositions accodingto the same pinciples. Celtis also wote a successful play, Ludus Dianae (1501), with chouses set to music in the same style as those of the Melopoiae. Although Macopedius does not name Celtis it is clea that his chous songs wee inspied by the humanist tadition of the Hoatian odes. The ealization that one did not have to be a geat compose to set such odes pobably stengthened his esolve to compose the music fo his chouses himself, just as Celtis also pobably wote the (multivoiced) music fo his Ludus Dianae himself.28 The Latin authos wee moeove not the only ones who oganized the stuctue of thei plays with music; this was a well-known phenomenon in all of 28 o the Hoatian odes, see New Gove's Dictionay of Music and Musicians, 2nd edn, ed. by Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2001), 'Humanism', XI, (esp. pp ); 'Ode (ii)', XVIIl, 330; 'Titon ius, Petus', XXV, ; 'Celtis, Conadus Potucius', v, 349':'50. A moden edition of the Ludus Dianae is found in Conadus Celtis Potucius, Ludi scaenici:(ludus Dianae - Rhapsodia), ed. by elicitas Pindte, Bibliotheca sciptoum medii ecentisque aevoum, saecula XV-XVI, 9 (Budapest: Egyetemi Nyomda, 1945). A facsimile of the edition of 1501 can be found in the Wolfenbiittele Digital Libay: < quod-12> [accessed 24 Mach 2009].

10 70 Louis Pete Gi)p MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 71 Renaissance theate. Italian and ench playwights wote chouses too. In the Nethelands, Dick Volcketszoon Coonhet applied chouses to his plays Isael (1575) and De blinde van jeicho (The Blind Man o/jeicho, 1582), calling them Chous. One can sumise that Coonhet boowed this pactice fom the neoclassicist tadition,z9 The chouses of impotant playwights such as P. C. Hooft (I ) andoostvan den Vondel (I ) wee pobably suggested by the humanist tadition, too, o patly suggested by it, since they of couse also knew the ench tagedies with thei chouses. In Vondel's case we know that he saw a school dama in Utecht, and in Hooft's case we can imagine that as a Latin school student he paticipated in the pefomance of humanist damas. In any case, as fa as music is concened, ealy moden theate appeas to be indebted to the neoclassic tadition. hymnus Lazai moientis' (Chous o Hymn of the Dying Lazaus). Two angels sing the efain to this hymn. The song functions as a chous because it closes the fouth act, but it is at the same time the high point of the dama. In the 's-hetogenbosch edition the solo passages of the abovemen tioned songs ae given monophonically, but the efains ae in two voices. Also emakable ae two othe songs sung by the ich mise and his bothes. These ae not named chouses but athe dinking songs: 'Cantio compotantium ceevisiam' (Song of the Bee Dinkes) and 'Cantio compoantium vina' (Song of the Wine Dinkes). They occu in the middle of the fouth act. We can conclude that in Lazaus mendicus the songs seve not so much to sepaate the acts with moments of eflection but athe constantly fom a component of the action, which in some cases also happens to sepaate the acts of the play.31 Othe Theate Songs So fa we have looked mostly at chouses, but sometimes Macopedius put additional music in his plays: songs that ae woven into the action. In a late vesion of Rebelles, fo example, he added a scene in which the mothes, at a feast, toast the schoolmaste as the saviou of thei offsping. The convets sing a song fo the occasion, in which God's goodness is paised and the lessons to be leaned fom the play ae summed up once again. 30 Lazaus mendicus contains a vaiety of solo songs. At the end of the fist act, the motally ill begga Lazaus aises a song oflament when he is pesecuted by his opposite, a ich mise. Two fellow beggas sing the efain. The whole song togethe is called a chous in the editions of the play, undoubtedly because the song closes the act. In the thid act, Lazaus sings a simila lament, also with a efain of beggas, but now it is not labelled 'chous' but athe 'Lazaus's Hymn', and indeed it is not placed at the end of the act. In the fouth act, an angel sings a song as he comes to the dying Lazaus, and a little late Lazaus himself sings a 'Chous seu Annual Songs Macopedius expessed his compositional talents in one moe gene: the annual songs o cantilenae scholasticae. Each yea the students of the St eome School sang a school song on the eve ofst Matin's Day (11 Novembe). This can be seen in the Utecht city accounts. So fo instance on St Matin's Eve 1519, six pounds wee given to the students ofsteome's 'die hoe cantileen songhen op te plaets' (who sang thei cantilena on the squae [in font of the city hall]). Also in 1523 the 'kleken' (cleks) of St eome's eceived the same amount fo the singing of thei cantilena. 32 The ecto, who taditionally wote the text, usually chose a eligious subject, such as the Lastudgment, the Memento Moi, o the Bith of Chist. But once he also wote a eulogy to the city of Utecht (c. 1543). In no fewe than seventy-eight stanzas, the song sings the paises of the Vedenbug Castle, the Old Canal, the chuches, and a seies of both chuchly figues and the local populace Lia van Genet, Tussen de bedijven doo? De fonctie van de ei in Nedelandstalig toneel (Devente: Sub Rosa, 1990), p The song is in the fom of a Sapphic hymn; about this, see Giebels and Slits, GeogiusMacopedius, pp See also Geogius Macopedius, Rebelles und Aluta, ed. by ohannes Bolte, Lateinische Litteatudenkmale des XV. und XVI. ahhundets, 13 (Belin: Weidmannsche Buchhandlung, 1897 [= 1983]), p. xvi; and Thomas W. Best, Macopedius, Twayne's Wold Authos Seies, 218 (New Yok: Twayne, 1972), p About this, see Geogius Macopedius,Lazaus men dicus, ed. by Bet Busses, 2 vols (unpublished doctoal thesis, Univesity of Petoia, 1992), pp ens ensen Dodt van lensbug, Achief voo kekelijke en weeldsche geschiedenissen, inzondeheid van Utecht, vol. III (Utecht: N. van de Monde, 1843), pp. 207 and An oveview of Mac oped ius's cantilenas can be found in Giebels and Slits, Geogius Macopedius, pp See also ans Slits, 'Geogius Macopedius als dichte: Schoolzangen', in De Utechtse Panas: Utechtse Neolatijnse dichtes uit de zestiende en zeventiende eeuw, ed. by an Bloemendal (Amesfoot: loivallis, 2003), pp ; an illustated edition is Geogius

11 72 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 73 Utecht was not the only city in the Nethelands whee annual school songs wee witten and pefomed. The oldest epots come fom Alkmaa and Schiedam (1517). Annual songs wee also sung in Amesfoot, Anhem, 's-hetogenbosch, and Wesel. In Amstedam they wee pefomed on Chistmas Eve, and seveal of these poems have been peseved. 34 Musically Macopedius's cantilenas had makedly moe going on than his chouses and songs fo the theate. A melody such as the 'Ode de extemo Chisti iudicio peccatoi fomidando' (Song of the Last udgment of Chist, that the Sinne Must ea, 1539) is appeciably longe than the aveage play chous and especially moe vaied in its oveall melodic shape and in paticula in its hythm, which, with its syncopated cadences, is eminiscent of the style of polyphonic music (see Appendix 3, p. 83 below). Singing the melody takes about a minute and a half, and since the complete song consists of twenty-five stanzas, the pefomance in fon t of the city hall in the Novem be chill must have lasted something like foty minutes! One gets the impession that Macopedius allowed moe time fo the melodies of his school songs than fo the composition of his theatical music. Annual school songs wee in fact ambitious poetic woks that gave the students one way o anothe a lot to chew on: unusual vese lengths, unfamilia vocabulay, mythological efeences. This pobably all tanslated to a somewhat highe level of musical ambition. Oiginally, in 1539 and 1540, the cantilenas wee published monophonically, again by Hamannus Boculous, but those of 1551 and 1552 appeaed with a second, baitone voice, compaable in style to the theate music of Lazaus mendicus. played an impotant ole in the sepaation of the play into five acts and povided an oppotunity fo moal eflection on the subject matte pesented. Macopedius kept the music extemely simple. The fequent euse of melodies suggests that he often lacked eithe the time o the inspiation to compose afesh. This simplicity of composition is also tue of the solo songs that he placed in some of his plays. In his annual school songs, howeve, Macopedius seems to have given his compositional skills a bit moe of a wokout. Most of Mac oped ius's compositions have come down to us as monophonic melodies, and in the cases in which we do have a second voice, it is constucted vey simply. Macopedius was a tue humanist, in musical mattes as well, and so also a tue followe of the Moden Devotion: the intelligibility of the text was pimay. Simplicity was best, because musical vituosity could only detact attention fom the text. In a musical climate such as that, Macopedius could pemit himself to pesent his own compositions, despite his modest musical abilities. All in all, music appeas to have been fo the ecto not an end in itself, but a functional phenomenon. Assuming that he himselfwote the melodies fo his song texts, he must still have enjoyed it, possessed some talent fo it, and taken some pide in having something of his own eady to offe when the occasion demanded it. Conclusion In this pape we have examined Macopedius as the pesumed compose of the music in his plays, both comedies as well as seious eligious plays. Choal music Macopedius, Ode aan Utecht, ed. by ans Slits (Amesfoot: loivallis, 2008). The music offou of the cantilenas is published in Dekke, 'Geogius Macopedius en de muziek', pp o the est, see Alfed M. M. Dekke, Thee Unknown "Cantilenae :Nfatianae" by Geogius Macopedius: A Contibution to the Study of the Utecht Camina Scholastica', Humanistica Lovaniensa, 23 (1974), , and A. Dekke, 'Die Cantilenae des Macopedius: Ein Nachtag', Humanistica Lovaniensa, 30 (1980), Chis L. Heesakkes and Wilhelmina G. Kamebeek, CaminascholasticaAmstelodamensia: A Selection of Sixteenth-Centuy School Songsfom Amstedam (Leiden: Bill, 1984), p. xi.

12 74 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 75 Appendices Acknowledgements In all the musical tansciptions I have quateed the note values; a beve (double whole note), in othe wods, is given as a half note, etc. Clefs and balines ae adapted to moden usage. The music of Rebelles is edited following the oiginal in the Utecht Univesity Libay. I have intepeted the signa conguentiae as epeat signs, as is usual in monophonic music fom that time. The monophonic music fom Lazaus mendicus is edited afte photocopies of the 's-hetogenbosch edition of 1545, included in Busses, 'Lazaus mendicus Geogii Macopedii'. Tansciptions by W. Dekke can also be found thee. The annual song of 1539 is edited fom a photo in Giebels and Slits, Ge()gius Macopedius, p See also the tansciption in Dekke, 'Geogius Macopedius en de muziek', p. 76. Appendix 1 Music fom Rebellesfollowing the edition Omnes fabulae comicae (pub!. Utecht, ). Rebelles I, 5. Chous. Iambici dimeti acatalectici tum pe Tn dul gence i so - len - ti so lent at II: IT Pe The sac con I in 01/ I am, heal. I IT dul a If P pe COfl,_ se se quence of gen mo I I IT u talat que Then theft and I ti - am, Gna to the's pat Makes chi! I j qui so be - ing e h. I lent. soft I pa - i - ci ven mu,. b ill Pe The lent. soft. fwn/et dell II Rebelies II, 3. Chous. lambici dimeti lis with 6 &~ Sa-pi en A - fly - one \' pel' oguts vel' to j sas su chtlnge thei I est bains I is ways sen is I j ten - ti one who n I o.. e O to co m.ake I a: says i. gen them heed II. I Dif fi ci Ie It's had to get dos no i so ci - e-fy's 12 II: I I :/1 II bus, ules stul TIzee's tos al quo - queiin-nu - me ways e - vc so Rebelles III, 5. Chous. lambici dimeti Ilt supeioes I. Nihil est Thee's eal po /y fee no to thillg a - bi ma - fly I sae - vi quite so 108, fools. I us sad stul 108. Thee's fools, I Nihil im pu And 110 moe.~ I I j I ~ hil Ma gis/im po - bum mu-li e - e nasuwce No case fhm's wose than a wo - mall gone II: I I Si/oc ca si - 0 nem nac - ta If she just ev e gels the Rebelles IV, 10. Chous. Iambici dimeti ut sllpeioes. l au - 111m/est mall, I IT Ut om ni - bus sic Of all Ihe Ihings this fo I' ; I om ni tun mo liey a thist I ma is Le A xi the na swamp II: I I In vi - ci - a pae - ci - pi tes nl Alld head -long they ush ill - to vice, alld I 1. I Sil, chalice. siloe If I 2. :/1 sit chance. I me Iu vo ni bus wosf That tempt a young I ma - 10 of 11. I 'mt, down, um, quo se - vii pulls Ihelll In And,mt down. II II

13 76 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 77 Rebelles v, 14. Hymnus sapphicus f". Lau LeI. Nos God 'fl!'. Qui Saved di us bus give de - i iws in e-iuc us all tan fom la paise nos His 1) I j gau and ti geat I n. tes demiz a - pu - it And the dan ce - Ie - bfe ce-ie-ba mus e - ga lion~ be - cause j ]. ]5 I bo - ni - ta good - ness 10 ) I pc - i gel' of tem,lab us 2) om sin 2) A I do mo tis a - ce a most bi, - IeI' end 1) half note (i.e. bevis) in oiginal 2) quate note (i.e. semibevis) in oiginal ni nets 2) j bao. ing. :11 Lazaus mendicus, II, 4. Chous. Pe Molobum, pueum, & mendicos. Ex. capite. 2. Ecclesia~tae. Pue tepudians, vel ad numeos saltans. Stu-xi mag-ni - Ii - cas_da-mos, I have builtlove-ly pa - la - ces Molobus Slu-xi mag-ni-fi -- cas_do-mos, I have built love-iy pa - la - ces ho ~ tu - lis Di - ve - so ge - ne- e/a I have made Con-tain all kinds of jlow' Plan - ta - vi quo- que vi ne - as, And I haveplant-ed vine - yads 100. Plan - ta - vi quo-que vi And I haveplant-ed vine ne as, yads/no. A - moe-nis et in Pleas-ant go-dens.lhat A - moe-nis et in Pleas-ant ga-dells,that bo - es Se - vi fuc - ti - fe - fas mi-hi./et ing tees, And so that they may bea me fuit, Appendix 2 Musicfom Lazaus mendicus (edn 's-hetogenbosch, 1545). Lazaus mendicus I, 8. Chous. Vesu glyconico tetastopho. ex psalmo 85. fe Lazaus ~ ~ ~ U lea I U ISlu Au - em quae - so tu - am mi - hi In - eli - na do-mi - nans De - us, Lend you ea to my cy, o God In - cline you ea 10 me, Lod God. ho~ tu - lis Di -- ve-so ge-ne-fela I Iwvemade Con-win all kinds of jlow' Pi - sci - nas sa - ta quaelif - Pools of lva - te Ihat i Pi - sci -- nas sa - ta quae/i - Pools of 11'a - le that i Repetitio Mendicoum /5 Typhlus i-gent fi-gate i-gent i-gate bo - fes Se vi fue -- ti fe as mi-hi,let ing tees, And so that they may bea me fuit. Po Po Po Po du - xi sca-tu - i du - cing bub-bling wa du - xi sea-tu - i liu - cing bub-bling 11'<1 gi - ne. fe-ways. t:\ gi.. ne. le-ways. au Heat; God, di. que pe.. ces me-as my sup-pli - co - Ii-on, Cum Bim o Repetitio Typhli & Bonchi ad singulos quatenaios pau - pel' in ops quo que. am poo, and weak be-sides. In - tel' Of all Bonchus stu! - talet in - a stu - pid and fool ni - a ish things Haec stmt ma - xi - ma va This is the geat-esl fol Iy ni-tas. of all. t:\ Pe - ces vo - ta - que pau - peum Hea ou pa.ye and OUf vows, DOod, Ex - au - di do-mi - nans De - us- Of the poo1~ )is-el1 to ou paye. t:\ In - Of te all stul - talet in - a slu - pili and fool ni a ish things Haec suot ma - xi - ma va This is Ihe geal-esl fol Iy ni tas. of all. Pe - ces vo - ta - que pau - peunl Hea Ou paye and ou vows, OGod, Ex au - di do-mi -nans Of Ihe poo, lis-ten 10 De - us. ou paye.

14 78 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 79 Lazaus me.ndicus III, 4. Hymnus Lazai, cum me.ndicis. Ex psalmo.13. Usquoque. domine. oblivisceis me in finem &c. Iambico dimeto tetastopho. se in ma you Lazaus genibus tlexis. Quo How D i - mi, my ml us long, lem u do - mi se - y, quele.. is o Loni, me How ~ IUlD ne De - us? o Lod God? ilim long ; j will you!j P I. P I D Quo - us How long, me mo fo - get que vul how long IOtu ~ t:'. A me e - flee - tes ob -_ se - ea. a ~ vei 10u COUll te -flance a way fom me? Mi me tumiawill 5 Lazaus melldicus III, 5. Chous pueoum & puelaum. Camine Glyconio. Nil Of Nil Of tan.- dem ca - 1"0 nos- ta/e-it ou bo - dies then no - thing will e -main tan - dem ca - fo nos- tale-it ou bo - dies then no - thing will e -main In - sta mol - lis ot a e is So shall e - veil the spi it Quam/ex-tine - tus so - Cl - i ci - nis. Naught but a - shes, ex - tin guish-ed Qnam/ ex -tinc - tus so - ci Naught bui a - shes, ex Sol - ve - tu quo -que As a soft, gel1- tie i ci - us. tilt guish-ed 8pi _ i - tus. beeze have fled. t:'. Repetitio Typhli & Bonchi a longestantium ad singulos vesus. In - sta mol - lis et a So shall e - ven the spi e - is it Sol - ve - tu quo-que As a sof. gel1- tie spi - _ i - tus. beeze have fled. 12 la con la can bi so bi so In In In In tli In tu la A A A A nos lion, nos lion, ba hae ba ~ ham's ba - hae ba - ham's La La La Lo 81 bo si bo nu sam nu sam za za za za qui.. es we. find qui - es we find eo us. t:'. eo us. so - ou so - ou Lazaus me.ndicus IV, 3. Cantio compotantium ceevisiam. Iambico dimeto COllvivl\ ~-3-~,-3---, eif - o ctun let ~3~ P can - tha - us ug of beet; D fe - a lu can - tha - us can the jug vf bee gv ound ug "--3"'"'-'1, , ll ;! ) ~ can jug tha-us of bee, Ex hau - Ii-en II's bot - tomsup Dum bibit quispiam ~ -3-. p D ~ I ~ Ad - uo tus 0 w i can - tha - us o bing the jug up 10 you lips. dus sin fo e , D tha-us can tha- us of bee. jug of beel; t:\ ie gu vey can - tha - us lis. olle! 1'--3--, ~ can - tha - us ug of bee>; jug of bee, II (continued on next page)

15 80 Louis Pete Gijp MACROPEDIUS AND MUSIC 81 9: 12 9: 15., ~): -3~ D call - tlla -us ug of beel; Quiebibit can jug tlla- us of beel; Ex-hallS tus hie o I can see Ex - hau Let's dink est can - the boi - -3~ D can ilia-us can tha-l11s Et po.fug of beel; jug of bee, Ami now i - en Ull-lil tha - us 10m now, dus fun wedink can ug i ge lu po pass it 011 di il tha - ug of bee, xi to mo. you. Ius. dy , ~ can tha - ug jug of bee. II 'f' [Laemagus] 'p I 'p 'p Vi - de - te fun - dumlin po o see the boi - 10m of se du 1o, Vi - de fi Tlal dop. Come see eu my b p 10, Quod e IE cup om which te f,id" dlidl/in po - cu - 10, vi the bot of my glass, come p bi - bi I've dunk atcs '."'0;" , -3- e Ij;l I ~ p ~ p I ~ p ~ p I cg II Re - pte - te vi - no blan- du - lum huic po - i - gen-dum po - eu - lum Come let's e-fill the glass with wine, And pass Ihe glass a - ound totiie next de see I.e. it. p iam Ihe po - pin_-_ quo. man ill line. Lazaus mendicus IV, 5. Cantio compoantium villa. Iambico dimeta. se lil Po - pi - no cy - a-tum o hee's a dink to you ~3~ E bt p I I po - xi mo' health, my fiend 3 P C C du 10 Po - pi - no cy - a-tum po - xi - mo ii's dy. 0 hee's a dink 10 you health, my fiend,.--3~ p Ex - hau I'll dink po so p P I i.- en dum mygklss un- pi - no. say chees. ates ~ , , -3- IB' ) I ~ pe D pll~ p ED plcu l Ap - po - nit 0 - i hlan - du-ium Ex - hau - i - en- dum po - eu -Ium fa - le -_ ni. He bings the.wine up to his lips And dinks it all WI - lil the ve - Iy last dips. (continued on next page) Lazaus mendicus, IV, 8. Paecinct llulls augeionun. Esaiae. 57. ~ e I. I. I~ Ius The 1 tus just. Au - fe A way. \ fe Sill pe - it, man dies, nee but tu hine ne - mo he's fa ken; flo =I. j\ I j. tu im pi ful Ii ving j j p I. In But pa ill eclat peace ta he men shall o COn 'luis thee e - it be bu que Olle ge - gi pa - ny pi - am is none qui who Qui who con - COil vi he's )1 se led pul ill. si s1 III Ihe eu no yen bone. aiip eath de - et. des it. ) et est, ti ~ ces. ti - 11m, a -way,1':'\ I. I U si to us. est. I Au - om II