Chamber Music Traced through history.

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1 Chamber Music Traced through history.

2 Definition What is Chamber Music? Webster definition: instrumental ensemble music intended for performance in a private room or small auditorium and usually having one performer for each part

3 It means ensemble music, for musicians to play together, as that French word implies. The players number from two to ten; and each has an individual part or musical line- in other words we don t have an orchestral situation, where several violins, for example, play the same notes in unison. Nor is chamber music like a concerto, in which a solo part is perhaps placed against something subordinate, an accompanying background. Each chamber music player is an equal, so that a string quartet is like a discussion conducted with mutual respect and courtesy by four people. The Listener s Guide to Chamber Music, Christopher Headington

4 Chamber music is a bountiful source of pleasure to those who know the field. It is at once one of the most enjoyable and the most dignified of literatures. The musical amateur often makes it his hobby and considers it the mainspring of his musical existence. The experienced layman finds himself richly rewarded for his intelligent listening. The professional musician turns to it for relaxation and for a kind of pleasure that no other field offers. Chamber Music, by Homer Ulrich

5 Chamber music is based upon flawless balance and ensemble, a selfless teamwork, the achievement of which is one of the finest manifestations of the human spirit. -- Chamber Music, by Homer Ulrich

6 History When do you think chamber music started?

7 Before 17 th Century 600 BC: The Bible describes a band playing in the Babylonian court of King Nebuchadnezzar ( horn, pipe, lyre, trigon, harp, bagpipe, and every kind of music Daniel chapter 3) Ancient Rome had military music (brass instruments), theatre music whose players banded together into guilds, and domestic music in homes that were played by skilled slaves.

8 Before 17 th Century Dark ages: education and enlightenment is mostly founded on the principles of the Christian Church. Vocal plainchant was used for worship Middle ages: little development with instruments (wind, string, and percussion) as entertainers that formed their own guilds and exchanged songs and skills. This was mostly outdoor playing.

9 Before the17 th Century Instrumental music was mostly used to accompany vocal music. Separating music from words was slow to develop. Secular music vs. sacred music. Secular music developed in the courts of medieval European nobility. King Henry VIII as an advocate for the arts; Music was played in the court. He played the organ, lute, and recorder himself. Court music: Middle of 16 th century- English consort music for viols. A composer of this music was William Byrd.

10 lu Early Instruments

11 17 th Century Italian Renaissance dance forms provided a framework for instrumental music. These forms are later seen in movements of other well-known composers such as Bach and Corelli. Example: Pavones; Specific rhythms & tempos for different dances. Arcangelo Corelli ( )- one of the finest violinists of his time. Well known for his Trio Sonatas (usually three musicians plus a basso continuo on a cello, bass viol, or harpsichord).

12 Musical Examples Medieval Music: Jaye Consort- English Dancehttp:// Henry Purcell Fantasia #1 Viol Consorthttp:// Arcangelo Corelli, Trio Sonata Op. 4, No. 4http:// results_main&playnext=1&list=plb4e3157a Arcangelo Corelli, Violin Sonata Op. 5, No. 9http://

13 18 th Century During a period of growth, there was now a widespread middleclass public merchant families who were proud of their financial substance, firm moral principles, and sound education. Imitating the nobility, these people started to make music in their own homes. Music reflects the time period. Passionate feelings from the French Revolution. Opera starts to develop and much of the chamber music was written in the same singing style of instrumental melody. A broader public begins to shape with publishers buying from composers, etc. However, the primary customers of chamber music were the players themselves.

14 18 th Century Composers: Antonio Vivaldi ( ) Solo violin with harpsichord, trio sonatas for two violins and string-plus-keyboard continuo; chamber concertos Georg Philipp Telemann ( ) Quartets (for mixed wind and strings); trio and solo sonatas

15 18 th Century Composers: Johann Sebastian Bach ( ) The Musical Offering; sonatas for flute, violin, and viola da gamba. &feature=related Georg Frideric Handel ( ) Trio Sonata from Op. 2

16 The Classical Era This time period from about 1760 to 1830 is when chamber music started to flourish. Amateur musicmaking in the homes of a new comfortable middle class led to the writing of music that was simpler both in style and in technical demands than earlier pieces written for professionals who delighted in the display of their skill. Textures became lighter and the continuo bass was not used anymore. The age of the string quartet; four wholly equal players.

17 Joseph Haydn ( ) Classical Era Composers: Father of the String Quartet More than 60 string quartets, and over 100 trios for strings alone The Joke fr9icfw&feature=related

18 Classical Era Composers: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( ) eature=related

19 Late Classical/Early Romantic Chamber music makes a shift from performance in homes by amateurs playing for their own pleasure to a concert hall played by professional musicians. However, many performers played for both private and public events. Patronage vs. Freelance

20 Late Classical/Early Romantic Composers: Ludwig van Beethoven ( ) Seven string quartets; Octet for wind instruments; septet for wind and strings; piano trios; and sonatas for violin and piano.

21 Late Classical/Early Romantic Composers: Franz Peter Schubert ( ) violin and piano (sonatinas, Fantasy, Sonata); a string trio and piano trios; string quartets; a string quintet and the Trout Piano Quintet; an Octet for wind and strings; and the Arpeggione Sonata for a now obsolete instrument. ature=related

22 Romantic Era/19 th Century Romanticism: The art of the beautiful play of emotions Chamber music now had a direct and deliberate expression of personal feeling.

23 Romantic Era Composers: Felix Mendelssohn ( ) octet for strings; two string quintets; six string quartets; two piano trios; and two cello sonatas feature=related

24 20 th Century and beyond Other composers include: Johannes Brahms Peter Tchaikovsky Edvard Greig Jean Sibelius Maurice Ravel Bela Bartok

25 Today How is chamber music the same or different today?

26 Work Cited Headington, Christopher. The Listener's Guide to Chamber Music. [New York]: Facts on File, Print. Pictures from Google Images Videos from youtube.com Ulrich, Homer. Chamber Music. New York [etc.: Columbia U.P., Print.

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