Chapter 13. Key Terms. The Symphony. II Slow Movement. I Opening Movement. Movements of the Symphony. The Symphony

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1 Chapter 13 Key Terms The Symphony Symphony Sonata form Exposition First theme Bridge Second group Second theme Cadence theme Development Recapitulation Coda Fragmentation Retransition Theme and variations Slow movement Minuet form Trio Rondo The Symphony Movements of the Symphony Originated in Classical period Outgrowth of public concerts Large multimovement work for orchestra Each movement a distinct musical work Pleasing variety Contrasting tempi, forms, themes, moods I Opening movement II Slow movement III Minuet (with trio) IV Closing movement I Opening Movement II Slow Movement Moderate to fast tempo Sonata form Optional slow introduction Many moods possible Emphasizes contrast and development Slow tempo No standard form Often lyrical and songlike A beautiful melody Something to make you think

2 III Minuet and Trio IV Closing Movement Moderate tempo, triple meter Minuet form (ternary) Stylized dance Usually aristocratic in mood Something to set your foot tapping Fast to very fast Usually sonata or rondo form Light, tuneful, brilliant A tune to whistle on your way out Sonata Form Exposition (A) Most important new form of Classical era New way of handling contrasts between keys and themes Three large sections Exposition (A) Development (B) Recapitulation (A ) Presents main themes of the movement Establishes conflict between two primary keys Is usually repeated May be preceded by slow introduction Elements of the Exposition First theme Bridge Second group Second theme Cadence theme First theme: stable theme in tonic key Bridge: modulates to new key

3 Development Second group Second theme: stable, in new key Cadence theme Develops themes from exposition Heightens tension Modulates frequently Retransition returns to first key Recapitulation Theme 1 developed Contrapuntal passage Fragmentation Retransition Resolves tension Presents exposition themes in same order But with second group in original key Coda Theme 1, modulating differently Bridge, longer than before Second group themes in tonic key Cadence theme Optional section following recapitulation Short or long Usually very stable, repeated cadences, big ending

4 Sonata Form Example Sonata Form Example Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G Minor, I Haydn, Symphony No. 95 in C Minor, I Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart ( ) Born in Salzburg to musical family Child prodigy After court position, moved to Vienna Made living from teaching and concerts Died with Requiem Mass unfinished Franz Joseph Haydn ( ) 30-year career with Esterhazys Kapellmeister wrote for court, church, and opera Gained international fame with public concerts Paris and London Symphonies Turned to choral music late in life Theme and Variations Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II Theme: a complete tune in several phrases Variations: changes to the theme on each repetition Usually same phrase structure as theme Creates contrasting moods from same material Slow movement Theme and variations form Theme Variation 1 Variation 2 Variation 3 Coda

5 Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II Features of Haydn s Theme Haydn writes variations within variations Simple melody, regular phrases Mostly legato Major mode, stable harmonies Simple rhythms emphasize beat First violins play melody Middle to low register Simple, staccato chords Haydn s Theme Features of Variation 1 Melody ornamented More staccato Feels faster Solo cello, pizzicato accompaniment Changes in register New countermelody above cello melody Haydn Variations 2 and 3 Haydn, Symphony No. 95, II What changes do you hear in these variations? Theme How is this coda unusual? What is Haydn s joke? Variation 2 Variation 3

6 Minuet Form Haydn, Symphony No. 95, III Derived from Baroque minuet and trio Classical composers extended internal forms Typical symphony third movement Minuet form (ternary) Aristocratic, stylized dance Triple meter, moderate tempo Contrast in Haydn s Minuet and Trio Rondo Form Minuet Somber, dramatic Staccato Grace notes Rhythm emphasizes beat Loud vs. soft Strings vs. full orchestra Minor mode b develops grace notes b shorter than a Trio Light, gallant Legato Arpeggios Shorter, quicker notes Mostly soft Solo cello with pizzicato strings Major mode d develops c materials d same length as c Simple contrast and return Light, tuneful theme (A) Contrasting episodes Some possible schemes: A B A C A Coda A B A C A B A A B A C A D A Haydn, Symphony No. 95, IV Features of Haydn s Rondo Theme Typical closing movement Fast tempo, rondo form, light and tuneful Haydn s rondo theme (a b c phrases) Simple tune based on rhythmic motives Mix of staccato and legato : a : : bc : Major mode Varied, fast-moving rhythm Duple meter, fast tempo

7 Features of Haydn s Episodes Haydn s Use of Surprise Elaborate, dramatic fugal sections Power of full orchestra Tonally unstable Occasional surprises (episode 2) Continuous motion, few cadences Fugue subject uses opening motive of rondo theme C section storm interrupts fugue Long retransition to last rondo statement New harmonies for rondo theme Coda interrupts rondo theme after first phrase Sharp contrasts in dynamics

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