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1 Contents FOREWORD Unit 1 Lesson 1: The Staff, Notes, and Pitches... 6 Lesson 2: Treble Clef and Staff... 8 Lesson 3: Bass Clef and Staff Lesson 4: The Grand Staff and Ledger Lines (The Middle Notes) Lesson 5: Ledger Lines (Lo and High Notes) Revie of Lessons Unit 2 Lesson 6: Note Values Lesson 7: Measure, Bar Line, and Double Bar Lesson 8: Time Signature and Note Values Lesson 9: Whole, Half, and Quarter Rests Revie of Lessons Unit 3 Lesson 10: Time Signature Lesson 11: Time Signature Lesson 12: Dotted Half Note Lesson 13: Ties and Slurs Revie of Lessons Unit 4 Lesson 14: Repeat Sign, 1st and 2nd Endings Lesson 15: Eighth Notes Lesson 16: Eighth Rests Lesson 17: Dotted Quarter Note Revie of Lessons Unit 5 Lesson 18: Dynamic Signs Lesson 19: Tempo Marks Lesson 20: Articulation Lesson 21: D.C., D.S., Coda, and Fine Revie of Lessons

2 Unit 6 Lesson 22: Flats Lesson 23: Sharps Lesson 24: Naturals Lesson 25: Whole Steps, Half Steps, and Enharmonic Notes Revie of Lessons Unit 7 Lesson 26: Tetrachords and Major Scales Lesson 27: The Sharp Scales G and D Major Lesson 28: The Flat Scales F and B b Major Lesson 29: Key Signatures The Sharp Keys Lesson 30: Key Signatures The Flat Keys Revie of Lessons Unit 8 Lesson 31: The Remaining Major Scales ith Key Signatures Lesson 32: Chromatic Scale Lesson 33: Intervals Lesson 34: Circle of Fifths Revie of Lessons Unit 9 Lesson 35: Perfect and Major Intervals Lesson 36: Minor Intervals Lesson 37: Augmented and Diminished Intervals Lesson 38: Solfège and Transposition Revie of Lessons Unit 10 Lesson 39: Sixteenth Notes Lesson 40: Sixteenth Rests Lesson 41: Dotted Eighth Notes Lesson 42: Common Time and Cut Time (Alla Breve) Revie of Lessons

3 Unit 11 Lesson 43: Lesson 44: and Time Signatures and Time Signatures at Fast Tempos Lesson 45: Eighth Note Triplets Lesson 46: Incomplete Measures (Pick-up Notes) and Syncopation Revie of Lessons Unit 12 Lesson 47: Triads Lesson 48: Primary and Major Triads Lesson 49: Scale Degree Names Lesson 50: The V7 (Dominant 7th) Chord Revie of Lessons Unit 13 Lesson 51: Triads 1st Inversion Lesson 52: Triads 2nd Inversion Lesson 53: V7 Chord 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Inversions Lesson 54: Figured Bass Lesson 55: Major Chord Progressions Revie of Lessons Unit 14 Lesson 56: Minor Scales Lesson 57: Natural, Harmonic, and Melodic Minor Scales Lesson 58: Minor Triads Lesson 59: Augmented and Diminished Triads Revie of Lessons Unit 15 Lesson 60: The Primary Triads in Minor Keys Lesson 61: Minor Chord Progressions Lesson 62: Modes Related to the Major Scale Ionian, Mixolydian, and Lydian Lesson 63: Modes Related to the Minor Scale Aeolian, Dorian, Phrygian, and Locrian Revie of Lessons

4 Unit 16 Lesson 64: Harmonizing a Melody in a Major Key Lesson 65: Broken Chords and Arpeggiated Accompaniments Lesson 66: Passing and Neighboring Tones Lesson 67: Composing a Melody in a Major Key Revie of Lessons Unit 17 Lesson 68: Harmonizing a Melody in a Minor Key Lesson 69: Composing a Melody in a Minor Key Lesson 70: 12-Bar Blues Chord Progression Lesson 71: The Blues Scale Revie of Lessons Unit 18 Lesson 72: Basic Forms of Music Motive and Phrase Lesson 73: AB (Binary) Form Lesson 74: ABA (Ternary) Form Lesson 75: Rondo Form Revie of Lessons Appendix Ansers for Revies Glossary Index of Terms Symbols Foreord Playing a musical instrument is an extremely enjoyable experience. But understanding ho music is constructed ho scales and chords are formed; the relationship beteen major and minor keys; and ho music is composed through melody, harmony, and chord progressions can enhance the musical experience even further. Alfred s Music Theory Essentials Mini Music Guide is designed for students of any age, hether listener or performer, ho ant to have a better understanding of the language of music. Each ne term is capitalized the first time it is introduced (GRAND STAFF) and ill also be listed in the Glossary Index of Terms and Symbols (along ith page number) at the end of the book. As the Glossary only contains terms introduced ithin the book, it is a complete listing of subjects included. 5

5 Unit 1 Lesson 4: The Grand Staff and Ledger Lines (The Middle Notes) The Grand Staff When the bass and treble staffs are connected by a brace and a line, they combine to form the GRAND STAFF.? Line Brace E F G A B C D E F? G A B C D E F G A Ledger Lines (The Middle Notes) LEDGER LINES are short lines hich are added to extend the range of the staff hen the notes are too lo or too high to be ritten on the staff.? ledger line ledger line 12

6 Unit 4 Revie of Lessons (See page 203 for the anser key.) 1 Repeat signs are to dots before or after a. 2 Ho many total measures ould a musician play in the folloing example? Anvil Chorus (from Il Trovatore ) Giuseppe Verdi ( ) 4 œ. J œ œ. J œ œ. j œ œ. J œ œ. J œ 1. œ Œ. 2. œ œ 3 Fill in the correct number: a. e = h b. e = h k c. e = q k d. e = 4 Complete the notes by adding stems to the first measure and beamed notes (in pairs) to the second measure. Be sure the stems are pointing in the correct direction.? 4 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 46 5 Fill in the correct number: a. = b. = Œ c. = Œ d. = ( )

7 Unit 7 Lesson 26: Tetrachords and Major Scales The ord TETRA means four. A TETRACHORD is a series of four notes having a pattern of hole step, hole step, half step. The four notes of a tetrachord must be in alphabetical order. C Major Scale Keynote Keynote W W H Whole Step W W H œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ C tetrachord W W H G tetrachord W W H CDE F GAB C The MAJOR SCALE consists of eight notes to tetrachords joined by a hole step. Each scale begins and ends on a note of the same name, called the KEYNOTE. A scale can begin on any note. 68

8 Unit 1 2 In scale degree order, the name and Roman numeral of each scale tone is: tonic Supertonic Mediant Subdominant I I ii ii iii iii IV IV Dominant Submediant Leading Tone tonic V vi vii I With the tonic being the central tone, the name and Roman numeral of each scale tone is: Subdominant Submediant Leading Tone tonic IV vi vii Supertonic Mediant Dominant ii iii V I 130

9 1st Inversion Triads in C major (3rd is on the bottom). In 1st inversion, the 3rd is alays the bottom note. Open and Close Positions When the notes of a chord are spaced ithin an octave, it is in Close Position. When the notes of a chord are spaced larger than an octave, it is in open position. Close Position Close Position Root Position Root 5th 3rd 1st Inversion 5th 3rd Root Open Position Open Position 1st Inversion 3rd Root Position 5th Root 5th Root 3rd 135

10 Glossary Index of Terms Symbols Includes all the terms and symbols used in the book and the page on hich they are first introduced. AB (Binary) Form To-part form here the musical material of the first (or A) section contrasts ith the second (or B) section, i.e., verse and refrain song format (p. 188). ABA (Ternary) Form A three-part form consisting of an A, a statement; B, a contrasting statement of ne material; and A, a restatement of the A section (Ternary Form) (p. 191). ACCELERANDO (accel.) Gradually faster (p. 51). ACCENT Play the note louder, ith a special emphasis (p. 52). ACCIDENTAL A flat, sharp or natural sign that appears ithin a piece of music. An accidental sign affects the notes ritten on the same line or space folloing it for that measure only (p. 64). Accompany To play along ith. A chord progression is used to accompany a melody (p. 142). ADAGIO Slo (p. 50). Aeolian Mode A natural minor scale, or A to A on the hite keys of the piano (p. 160). Alla Breve see Cut Time. (p. 110). ALLEGRO Quickly, cheerfully (p. 50). ANDANTE Moving along (alking speed) (p. 50). ARPEGGIO The notes of a chord played sequentially, one after the other (p. 168).?# # 4 4 œ œ œ œ ARTICULATION The manner in hich a note is performed (p. 52). AUGMENTED INTERVAL When a perfect or major interval is made larger by one half step (p. 98). 218

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