GCSE Teacher Guidance on the Music Industry Music

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1 GCSE Teacher Guidance on the Music Industry Music IMPORTANT: These notes are intended for use by teachers not students. This is not new specification content that needs to be covered or will be assessed, but rather, should provide a background and context which teachers may draw upon at their discretion. January 2011

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3 GCSE MUSIC TEACHER GUIDANCE on the MUSIC INDUSTRY IMPORTANT: These notes are intended for use by teachers not students. This is not new specification content that needs to be covered or will be assessed, but rather, should provide a background and context which teachers may draw upon at their discretion. Context The Specification indicates within Part 1 of the Listening and Appraising component, one question is linked to the impact of the music industry on work and leisure (Specification 7.1, page 25). Factors influencing the nature of this question include: that it is ONE question of a possible SIX within a listening and appraising paper which (in total) lasts approximately 45 minutes. The question therefore will be time bound and will not require more time to complete than others in the paper (which require candidates to listen and appraise repeated extracts); that Q6 in the Specimen Assessment Materials outlines a sample question which requires short answers, sentence-length answers, some expressing personal preference. It is envisaged that this model of answer will continue to be expected in the music industry question; The Specification indicates that the Quality of Written Communication is assessed through Assessment Objective 3 in the Listening and Appraising tests. The Music industry question will not require extended writing and consequently will not be part of the Quality of Written Communication assessment; The Specification indicates that appraisal of the Areas of Study should focus on: - how the employment status of the composer has changed - from patronage to independence; - how pop and/or rock and/or modern artists operate, compose, arrange their own material, set up gigs and use different types of music technology to bring their music to a wider audience; and - the impact of the music industry on life, work, leisure and recreation. This supplementary guidance material will give some detail on these broad areas. In the Specimen Assessment Materials, Q6 is prefaced by a stimulus, in this instance, a short piece of text. It is not a requirement of the specification that up-to-date facts and figures, trends and statistical analyses are learnt by candidates. It is important that candidates should be able to respond to stimuli involving the modern music business, so much of which they are experiencing in their day to day lives. It is envisaged that similar stimuli would form part of this question in future papers. 1

4 The guidance material which follows is divided into the following sections: SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 Trends and Statistics within the Music Industry UK and Ireland Record Companies UK and Ireland Music Publishing Companies Artist Management Live Performance 2

5 SECTION 1: TRENDS and STATISTICS within the MUSIC INDUSTRY Introduction The creative and cultural industries are complicated. It is extremely difficult to analyse a sector that covers so many professions from theatre directors and artists to music publishers. There are several main areas of the music industry where statistics are recorded and from which conclusions can be drawn as to future trends. These are: UK & IRELAND RECORD COMPANIES UK & IRELAND PUBLISHING COMPANIES ARTIST MANAGEMENT UK & IRELAND LIVE PERFORMANCE UK & IRELAND LABOUR MARKET INFORMATION The creative and cultural landscape in Northern Ireland The creative and cultural industries have experienced rapid growth throughout the UK and Ireland over the last decade, focusing both governments attention on creative industries in terms of policy development and action. Additionally the role of creativity and innovation in business and the economy has been under the spotlight. The most recent information from Creative and Cultural Skills (Sector Skills Council for Craft, Cultural Heritage, Design, Literature, Music, Performing and Visual Arts) highlight that: Northern Ireland has a creative workforce of 11,640 which is 1% of the UK creative & cultural workforce; creative businesses contribute 245 million to the UK economy; by 2017, industry growth of 4,000 jobs is expected; three quarters of the jobs will require higher skills; and The Northern Ireland Assembly has set a target to grow the Creative Industries to 15% by 2011, which is supported by a Creative Industries Innovation Fund of 5m which was launched in October 2008, to assist in the development of creative industry businesses. In the context of Education and Training: Northern Ireland has 2% of the UK Further and Higher Education provision; and 29% of the businesses in Northern Ireland had difficulties with recruitment and 23% had skills gaps. ( CCS 2010) 3

6 Possible question focus areas It is important to note that questions which may be based on statistical trends WILL NOT require detailed prior knowledge of facts, figures, or complex interpretation of graphs or charts. Some of these may, however, act as a stimulus from which candidates may be asked to draw conclusions. They may also be asked for their personal comment on evidence presented to them. UK & Ireland Album Sales UK & Ireland Retail Sales (albums, printed music, listening devices) UK & Ireland Digital Sales (including by music type) UK & Ireland Employment within the Music Industry Additional Support The following links will give additional support information: British Recorded Music Industry National Guidance Research Forum Creative & Cultural Skills Creative Choices (Career Development) Irish Recorded Music Association

7 SECTION 2: UK & IRELAND RECORD COMPANIES (and associated businesses and personnel) Introduction The principal functions of a record company or record label are: to find artists/acts; sign these artists/acts to their label; find appropriate material to be performed; make professional recordings; promote the product (records) & the performers; and bulk release the product to retail outlets or digital services. The business undertaken by record companies can be broadly split into three main areas: Administration, the Product and Promotion. The Administration part of the company, headed up by the Managing director or Chief Executive Officer will have a team of business affairs, legal, financial and human resources staff responsible for the efficient operation of the business. There will be professional relationships with organisations including BPI (The British Recorded Music Industry), PRS for Music (alliance of The Performing Rights Society and the Mechanical Copyright Protection Society), the music licensing company PPL and a wide variety of media organisations. Record companies are the main investors in, and developers of, musical talent in the United Kingdom, Ireland and globally. Almost a quarter of label revenue is reinvested back into the signing and developing of new talent through their A&R (Artists and Repertoire) departments. By giving financial advances and marketing and sales support, record labels enable artists to treat music making as a full-time career. A large part of their finances is targeted at the commercial promotion of the artists recordings and collecting and paying the resulting royalties on their behalf. Many other organisations have vital links with the product development work of recording companies including manufacturing (pressing plant), distribution companies, digital service providers (DSP), direct to consumer services (D2C), retail outlets and professional groups which look after their interests. Record companies often underwrite new acts touring costs to help raise their profile and sales. On top of manufacturing and distributing the recordings (to both physical and digital retailers), record labels provide an essential promotional and marketing role. This includes developing and executing advertising and marketing campaigns as well as promoting and plugging the acts to media. Labels can also seek out other ways for the recordings to reach wider audiences, such as being used in movies and advertising, and license rights to global parties. In recent years, a number of labels have moved beyond the acquisition and exploitation of the rights associated with sound recordings to take an interest in artists other sources of income, such as live performance, songwriting and merchandise. 5

8 Record companies traditionally employ and pay for a wide range of musical professionals including sound engineers, session musicians, record producers and studio technicians to record and mix albums. This brings them into professional arrangements with organisations including digital music services, The Musicians Union, Session Musicians organisations, Association of Professional Recording Services and an extensive number of television, radio, press, broadcast and public performance organisations. Additional Support The following links will give additional support information: British Recorded Music Industry Phonographic Performance Ltd PRS for Music Musicians Union Irish Recorded Music Association Association of Professional recording Services Music Education Directory Site Map (Record Company)

9 SECTION 3: UK & IRELAND MUSIC PUBLISHING COMPANIES (and associated businesses and personnel) Introduction The principal functions of a publishing company are: to find and invest in songwriters and composers; develop and support songwriters and composers; manage the rights in music published by songwriters and composers; enable the music to reach the greatest number of audiences; and ensure writers and composers receive remuneration for their work. These are achieved in a variety of ways: encouraging record companies to record and release material; licensing works for synchronisation (agreeing use of music in films, adverts, etc.,); and licensing works for print (sheet music). The work of the Music Publishing company requires a wide range of skilled staff working in operations including administering rights, production and editorial work, sales and marketing, hire and distribution, human resources, A & R (Artists and Repertoire), accounts and royalties administration. The large numbers of staff involved are represented by organisations such as the Music Publishers Association and PRS for Music. Central to their work, is the songwriter, composer and/or lyricist whose interests are served by organisations such as BASCA (British Academy of Songwriters Composers and Authors) or the Association of Irish Composers. Lobbying to legislators in the UK, Ireland and wider European Market and to the public in general is handled by organisations like UK music, an umbrella organisation representing the collective interests of the UK's commercial music industry. Immense technological change has ensured that the work of the Music Publishing company has grown, now requiring even stronger association with broadcasters, performance venues (live and non-live venues e.g. shops, cinemas), Internet Service Providers (ISPs), Computer Games manufacturers, Jukebox operators, Musical novelty producers, Music Service providers, sheet music providers and retailers, digital sheet music providers, video, record, film, TV, advertising and DVD companies. 7

10 Additional Support The following links will give additional support information: British Academy of Songwriters Composers and Authors Music Publishers Association of Ireland Music Publishers Association PRS for Music UK Music Music Education Directory Site Map (Music Publishing Company)

11 SECTION 4: ARTIST MANAGEMENT (and associated businesses and personnel) Introduction Artist Management comprises four main areas of the music business: recorded performance; live performance; publishing; and other business interests. Central areas of Artist Management within the Recorded Music industry have been discussed earlier in this document. In summary, these include the A & R departments, business affairs (including Legal), Business Development (including the increasing digital market), finance, marketing, sales and distribution, press, promotion, creative and video technologies, digital operations and liaisons with record producers and recording studios. Live performance has increased in popularity from the late 20 th century and now is a highly popular and lucrative business. The artists agent and promoters are the key individuals who control management issues concerning live performance. They will be responsible for organising: venue management; stage management including working with the promoter; sound (PA) and lights; crew technicians (technical teams, roadies etc.,); security and door staff; artist and crew catering; and merchandising. The roles vital to artist management in the realm of music publishing have also been outlined earlier in this document, namely: A & R; business affairs and legal; Accounts and Royalty administration; rights administration; production and editorial; sales and marketing; and hire and distribution. The management of the artist or act will also be working under conditions regulated by organisations such as Musicians Union or the Irish Musicians Union. The Music Managers Forum is the umbrella organisation looking after the interests of managers of artists/acts. The increase in digital media has ensured the role of artist management in the development of other areas of music business. The huge rise of the web technologies has meant a much more significant role in artist management within the media. Central to this is management associated with website designers and those responsible for ensuring control of territories outside of the UK and Ireland. 9

12 Additional Support The following links will give additional support information: Music Manager s Forum Phonographic Performance Ltd Musicians Union Musicians Union of Ireland Music Education Directory Site Map (Artist Management) Media & Entertainment Union

13 SECTION 5: LIVE PERFORMANCE (and associated businesses and personnel) Introduction Live Performance comprises three main areas of the music business: venue management; co-ordination; and promotion. The management of live performance has already been discussed in Section 4. In summary the important ingredients to ensure a good live performance are: selection and management of the venue; liaison with the stage manager and the promoter s representative; sound (PA) and lights; crew and technicians; artist and crew catering; co-ordination of emergency services; co-ordination of security and door staff; merchandising; and catering arrangements for the public. The personnel responsible for ensuring the above are: the artist s manager (Management Team); the tour manager; the artist s agent; sponsors; and promoters (also responsible for Health and Safety). Promotion of live performance will involve co-ordination of the following areas: ticket design, print and distribution; poster and flyer design, print and distribution; advertising, journalism and promotion activities via media; and web design and advertising. 11

14 Additional Support The following links will give additional support information: British Recorded Music Industry Music Manager s Forum Music Education Directory Site Map (Live performance) PRS for Music

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