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1 H r zh ht t n r r n n l h tr n l t n b D r n nd n h t T j n. Syuni, Grigor, Erewan : Grakanutʻean ew aruesti tʻangarani hratarakchʻutʻiwn, Generated on :04 GMT / p n This work is protected by copyright law (which includes certain exceptions to the rights of the copyright holder that users may make, such as fair use where applicable under U.S. law). It is made available from HathiTrust with explicit permission of the copyright holder. Permission must be requested from the rights holder for any subsequent use.

2 GRAD ML 334.S GRAD ML 334.S Generated on :04 GMT /

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5 MUSEUM OF LITERATURE AND ART GRIGOR SUNI ARMENIAN MUSIC Museum of Literature and Art Yerevan 2005 Generated on :04 GMT /

6 %VpuLuihrt1J bth unpfhtbusb r-ucxcbupua L.ti, G i-oy nqo rnc 1rc /ay ea h % AZ-I 4.ptuuQntr1iwG ti wpndiuuifi rautuptu fipuanwpuafntihnq bpliturg 200 Generated on :04 GMT /

7 <8%3 78 (479.25) %VUq (2<) U 558 4puwunwpwllntrawG u~wuiptnilg WwuP/i " Wtr"120.ftiP Prepared for Publication by Marine Mousheghyan V q Editor: Henrik Bakhchinyan English translation by Dickran and Anahit Tournajan. ~ I Translator of preface and editor of English text: Artsvi Bakhchinyan. ql~ppjfituuipsulinipa iin fingtudiuanptq hg q~.pbiqnp Ubidlh pannp' ujpnjdsunp fh'luhl% U1rI"IlI4b 1 1 WD' qw~ud luwfiwtpntfir UPwTO~ U V r u'r lw UUuh'Q «cuhth tlptud~nulpu 1tfiujudtuG 17puqjbp* nz 2wfinttutphp fiuauunuinntj1iua xibngn{j The publication of this book was sponsored by Grigor Suni's grandson, Prof. RONALD SLNY and his wife, pianist ARMENA MARDEROSIAN, through the "Suni Project: Music Preservation" non-profit corporation. Uh~ti q9i.flp~ U 558 4tu~l tspw.d2wnn1ra1t / 9.phinp Uhnti~ - bp., %W- 2005, 140 t2: 4wutnnpG pt~rqp1 ntt 1: fiwi rpwuwluog hpiud2um1tralwg iuailuwh Ghpl w- IswgntghZQhphg dfhlah' %lpjinp Ulnt~nt «4wui 1apwtnuntalntG ntunidgtuuhpntranttip It hpqwfitu~li htiptiw14iuiqpntiant~p, npn0p rniiu lag itiugnul wniwuhq wugqaui: 2,uimnpnulf qthtjwb tit lrn ptiwqptph w.gqgiptsg rpwp qdtgn tramtg G hip : In addition to his autobiography, this volume includes the research study "Armenian Music" by Grigor Suni, a well-known figure of classical Armenian music. Both are being published for the first time. The volume also includes English translations of those works. S q-uq' (2<) U 841(01) ISBN qtia Generated on :04 GMT /

8 4'ptat uinitpulwu uipt4liuili tgquipwanu5 QG~.u.~w4tjg tlhirti n~fi 1iptdwd~utG 4 Q n Gr}.~hp u di Gp: ljiumi u iwfiugtu~ijnux hq firm liptudjiihtph in thpwd~tnuiuit pli 2nip 170 wq~itimwutg wpluittlip in f wuptubnnihp, npnq~ ~rl qplpinxtiq inuia (altnuqptip, uiqrliuqplxp, bptuqptip, GttuqtutGG1ip, ~ptup4iuunii npbr1ip Ii tuiff): U~uit 1q fiuitipdhnphq fituiqp4wuilq S. 2ntuuui1wGji, tlnuljtnnwui, 1U'. U~inn h 4firmi hptd2unnlaltuq ilifltu luf2flp Qhpuittgntgbi lipi uipjui4flhipp: 'Iptug fintuig ijpwu cp4.1 4 tiqpi~fiml hqit- GtqpintrinQlip, uihktuijununtaniggthp. qgnrntpiiq finltuibmntupup Qntlp dnnttntihp: luugtiu opb Gwl1, iji1iui1awp~unui juigqlupu~nu1 utufiu uiq4nq tuplitiuig Ginrlpbi fijittuq itpwn 6ptuntuptutiliUtifipw upudjnur hiq i11zbq'1nfimtuuji hpl bipt wrtailituqu fiuuinp Glipp: UuliGp Guilt, rip ltippq mnui lpi G r U ugtupui ~fiptui uptuilnlrantp p Uraip gnrjji uh rpuui phig GQuilt 1Jniiui u 4uqinil uialutipmlip U~ppjiU in utu wqnpbntraup it 1p11tuih lntiapidnlntjunt- Uip, PUudiuGQuilt fiuti uiq4tui bp tufitug blilinl t upu~ilipiui~fi uui qgtunpbntjainuu~i pt ~ugtiwnnplup: U,1ld1 uilupgralipgnrq fiui~pntraiuu lip Ulip~wutug~nt qnip lj'jipquu i Ujnt w 2uijlipu d2umntr1inug. uni uui2luuiuin1la1n1up: 4tul puiqaluiluipiq hpuid2um talug fluitunnmn ujuiuiuni~ntgp GUlituug~nq tuiu uipdliptuinp rilunulstuuipnqrant~p fitpiuip lip qtq lglipl.tuijuig~l Quilt w~ql1iphq aupqituigntituilp, filui uipi4uuiji uitrqfitupniui p~uiuiw4ui i~u ujiu npnaul~h tiin1 iptugnuxuun ltuip GQuilt ouiuiptuiqqr puraipgngjiq: Generated on :04 GMT /

9 U,2juunta1n1.Qp fipu nupuintllug t -wnptuumi{1il npn2 judpwq~puatu dth2tunniiatudpr, pwqtb np RtrffituGw rg -4iGj tqiutnfi&un~tipn4 tuiq F hqiru up1il 4tiptGw1uG 11w ilu: Shipuuip btugnawqpghl t, 1.tuuiwpitthl hg npn2 nulrlwuqpu1u rn 4inuilpuijuiG f2qptnnu5sgtp, UIQQ2iu 4p6tnnu5- Qtip, qpt ti t tstuugwqudntttug wntu tupwqg: uj2unnilau~n fititnul tz %Ipfqnp Upn~ni. btlp~wigutuqpn tl~n tgp, n p Q1hp 4 uitug Gn ui t ip tulut uin p 4n ui n q b- uinpli 4t hpud~tnuqliini 41tuQ nt qnpbrntqtinilalw fiwtuiqpl- fipuinuwudnilatuqp ilibujhu Qugtuutnil ig q cp1- qnp Ulntrnt lnnp' typnltiunp fhl'rqui UlnfitbGi 4 Gpwu tilip' r~u2q1.uufiupndfip U~pditw ltuprjipnutu~n, npngg ti fiwul- Gnix higp tlhp IunpPQ 2Gpiutlnlltp U tip hiptu~utnwqbunnlralndg tigp fwtuinujtt Qiuh pnlnp Gptug, nttjtip tuqu 4tf w1ql tutin4 rphig ihuu~wl~gntlantqg hq 1aiptil tutu wupdtipui- 4n p t2uwmtunn.t1wg fi pwtr uwp u4 u4 t hg4 ot mutoqpwtutog tu2 - NuiumuG~p~ hu: Generated on :04 GMT /

10 ON BEHALF OF THE MUSEUM In the Museum of Literature and the Arts of Yerevan, the music archives hold a significant place. Here are kept some 170 personal archives and collections of Armenian musicians and musicologists, totaling 130,000 materials (manuscripts, advertisements, programs, instruments, works of fine art, etc.). Here the archives of Tchouhadjyan, Komitas, Yekmalyan, Spendiaryan, R. Melikyan, Grigor Suni (pronounces Siounee) and other great figures in Armenian music have found a permanent resting place. Based on these archives, monographs, speeches, Wand scholarly articles have and are being written, and variegated collections of the works of Armenian musicians are being prepared. For instance, the academic volumes of the works of the great Komitas have and are being published largely on the basis of archival materials kept in the Museum. Let us add also that in the last several years the Museum's publishing house has made available to readers collections of materials on the lives and careers of Komitas' prize students, Armenak Shahmouradyan and Vahan Ter-Arakelyan, as well as two volumes containing the songs of the famous Armenian composer, Nikol Galanteryan, a project which will be continued in the near future. Now in this modest volume we present to our reading public another famous figure in Armenian music, Grigor Mirzaian Suni's Armenian Music, an unpublished work. This valuable study, representing a brief sketch of centuries-old Armenian music, we have found suitable to publish in English translation as well, in order to give non-armenian readers a certain understanding into that rich world of Armenian music. The book has been prepared for publication with some editorial intrusion. Since the author, for unknown reasons, did not subject it to a final proofreading. The text has been notated, certain Generated on :04 GMT /

11 orthographic and punctuation corrections and some minor abridgements have been made, and a scholarly introduction has been added. Grigor Suni's extensive autobiography has been included as an addendum to the book. A copy of the original autobiography was given to the composer's family by Mr. Ferdinand Kaimakamian. The publication of the book was mainly sponsored by Grigor Suni's grandson, Prof. Ronald Suny and his wife, pianist Armena Marderosian, to whom we express our deepest gratitude. Our grat- U' itude extends also to all those who, in this or that manner, partic- T ipated in the publication and printing of this valuable work. 21 It, u 41 fa gi Generated on :04 GMT /

12 uf"r vgu1, XIX ruiph utlqjpig itlbg puwghpnpr. fiuplntptuatjlt uljbiqpi pg1tui diuiltuq wwfiuttnqup fitui wupilhuuib tqtuindntalkgdh Q~tuituwnptthg npugliu pti~nt~ig rtu1pw21pp- 2wQG, tippi tuggqqw G 12~w1ntlp1, fiwitn~tqliu ugpn Aiurn Gaq thptd~inntralnig thp1wptuuih, fiwuplpurp lnniralniq~g fibium tuuutuptiq phiphg uu wqtunpbntrwqu, 4tunupnrlt4tuGw tupijlutnhi, pgqtuqrtuumnrltug, hpwd21mtuq11unntlug pgtuquitiur- Gu~p, thnpwriiu, 4. U ptiftua, q. U Qr11wptuflj, k zwm fltpl2qhp rwutpawq tuluop{gu fitut pn~aiuin~tul hptud2ultugtu4?ipf2tul~1 nixrjin4: U11u 'Jb2wuP-nfl lip nwiiliq uihrlg niqh Giub. 41prqnp UlbpcttuG UlniQFQ: MiQttel t 1876 pat41uwg hiptud2tntuliui 6ili tuwinlah ndignrl wu2nil~tipp p~qnuwqpnt: bp~nt tnu-i putitq lp, lipp %tu(rtulli %tuap-4 l qnurlig bi~nqlhpr fihi UitlrtiuinFutt t: t2: bptuud2u11.ului tunwfl ig tttipntla11u~thppl liugtuu6 hqg finp' 4nigfwQGtiu 4wuptu~qi.hgni. Ratn, nip p fhituli 1r p n p tqliu Qtu utn hlj4 i hp qr : 1883 jaquil tuqgbq ntnuir1 iptudl2unt1wq ntuntgb qwpkqrp tufitw.tu 24ngfluQ- GbutuGp t2tluhlip 4 finqwtuinp flh wpnlutip ungnpnut t fhiuluiq QnmwqupntrantGp 4 bp hptud2tnuiutug ntu1]nt- 1alnU1Qtipp rlqntur triu~tuqpuntutug fhntli d512: 1891 irpattum ld1npq1tq Gtilupu: OltutuGnrtulptuQ tnuwpf hpt 2tu"n tup- Generated on :04 GMT /

13 riintdgitn l~ig tqwunqoi htptuj2ulp fiwiliup: luunil, plugr U'Wp2 hipwd2w1uiilug ujuipttithfp~tiplig UlntrGf, hipbuiwuwprl t]nljrlumuup ii, u1lunitt t1 qpturlt4hi dnrgntprtlui lgipqhipr a wjcquiqpni}alut~p, riunttxgwuupmlurtp I~t inpahip tl w- t Gnui5 rlpw~p ptuqiiuiuithir: ctitttuptuuq wgwptnilntg fitann c wtajuqu 1.niupiqjiunpp 4htpWrgturGnu5 t 6wltiGb Ontr21 rip- u t iri 1895 TatawtjuiGQuto l QiiTuiIpiuI r ra L~un p n Gn t~iww Gn i p t Gptu tugrlpwq~l4 fiwtthpqp, nrj 6pwqgrp winr12mqawrp t4tuqrt4iu& lzp bp 14tuuiwuptu t2tul1uidqhprg: ' )ntfg rag4utngbi a hiptud~ultu4tu g PtnutgilrpuipjnwgtltI t utntuphtuwnpbr- 4hA-nt Qrtntun4 UlmribQ t~t4qntu t1 ghihppnrpq.: bphp tnwpr unllgnpnid t; fl w~tqin~i, UIUgLU' '4nl~ hpind2uinnt~arii U rjiqpng tipniul Tagw tuqpg itu~nrntatut~p plntntt la 1]nGuipgtutnnprtw' rlwtn~ntitn tuitugtuijnp rnu ljnrtqnqjunnp (a lt. flibiiulpi-lnpuwun4g tu2tuatipxii: qthiuihppntpqltwg 2pWQFQr Uit tuu-i4 ugnut 4. UlnrGnt 4JU1i p, tnt r4.uprr) (1J4. f'uufixffjpnqr lunurplipn4t) 4Qt Gi d' juqr~p~ o a lunupthpn4) 4 Lull iltihpqhp nt dnrputtpp- R rl w tipqhipr 12tu1nulGhip, npn Gp dtihr wutgu~qu tlbg junutntu- h1l Gttl ljntliqnqginnpbq: 9. Upmtutn h ibtunri~t tf1u WiGLU-igntG 2p2uAGp ljtu- Im phji tz fitutitwphi fibuntil wtqpiu6 umuptipp: 1904 jaqw- lu l1tuqrq mtituihppnprpq n lpiutipijtuuinpbwu iniwpunilnrg fihuin p1 Gtu fiuintutngnu5 t f ifliunut, T}tt4w]nGhptir ti ugtutunutuiwpnis t1 bhtpupuiugt q~tqpngnttt npugiu iptud2tnnr- rn jaluiq ntunrgb, rittgtinlt dwltwgwl] rlt~tutttwpnidt tz tixpngr iji hipqgigr junurpp' 2wupflGwtilnqt fp Qtu~npriii' U'. b~tiiluab at qnpbip: Ftwgr tujrl., lpqwt~u4tnu1 t1 tpq~wudi~p, tlwutudi- pi gnatl fiwinilhpqtipj, 1jtnwpnuil dnqingprptfftugtihpqhipr dt2tu- n? 4nuT~lhp, qpnid tiptud~nr~puq Tawtntiptu]tuG tipltpnngntt5- Ghipr fltuiiinp, npn~grg llhlllp' «4ptiqGtuqufpo, putn ft. Uqrp- ul lwuqb fithpbuiar, fithnuutnt tithptubt4nid t ougiptuibt umtiri- G b wqnpbmnrauu: Tatttu~pn~bQ 'lthrnhppntpcpiul uiugw~pnn t1 Qpui 4U i tir tul 4wuptr> lhtipqp, tuintfihu4i Zuii dnrlntprltulltiq hpqhp>> fir dnrntutg, nptnhrl p~rqgp1 g4u ltig UIMCtin,npu ll2wulli- hir Pp «UuptipD finridgjiti hn~bil, KtupppuA*, xuuipthg lpn artujnp)' luturip tipq~tujuipr fitunhup, qitw2gw1.~ntp11 GQwuiu4- at1 I0 S pi Generated on :04 GMT /

14 gftlhtfplb 4i 4(01 GQugctwQ tipcgp' Tgtu2Guwlfntpw1PG tjtuuiwptrua riwxlixtp: U'lYuihpud~tn~nal tpm np qptuttjkl Li UlntinQG: LLtrL qwtugtnllnt~rnt~g Lhu nuptpil t: p-wgnpwig 2tupd1IwG grltutb wp Qhpn4q, w1q n i hui 4Qhp qp t44thj wqqwulr G-tutwnuicgiplQ 2Wupd1JWQ ill2, utgl t rpu2gtuilgntralg 2wupptipp 4i ulr} tuqrthgntraltuq uiua4 utnirl~4h nt hipq~wtujf fitutltup 11tW~jhl t: ptstiiq~jt fiuphiuiubptuud ihpqp, npn Gp fituitn- Gbl tbg nptqliu tunr %twlnt finpru~tubpgtp 4 tftib nqhnpntpalwitp 1]wulwplnurf tbgq rjrlultu~jwf 2P2wtpr1tl: flpulqiu pi2qfiu~tnultu wtnuiq ptutptltug qnpr 4~. UlnffiPG rltwinu5tt t tgugtwlr tuga gupultw P21utu~ntjalntGQthpr fituilup raqtadlwgpq G utguttwb filrnw~ntt5 t fd'ii~trurg: bij ulliuint 1: Gptu l1ugpp nrlr4iultugp. Qwulu' 8puugqnG, tuintfitiuih' UuiifuntG, tirptuung, L'pqpnul ti uill pturlupghp: Ptulg rligqpnutfghpr uutupuihpg rqntp ig tu~ganurf: UlntGrG fittupnu5., atwgupnuf It tr2tnulf t1: gtw tabq dlnrtngprltuwg hpctip, tuqtlwtptqnttf hpq~tuuptipp lntpla~iip n(ifiinutt: ijuiu~tpd G UlIW2~Lnn Qtu4tuitInt tpqpnutr Ututuutupiaffi 4jwpdtuptu~inu5 npujliu tipuidp-- uinqrlug ntungb ' GntlQru~llwpnrtu nul t umntirl41q Qitwqtu- 1unatfp: 1914-DQ lltjnnnupp itlipturlturngnu5f t fd'rfliu 4 IlrthQ Th~nr'2 nqh2gntunqt Ghipqptwugnt 2.utuluiG htptd2- tnu4lugtw iiqlpnrawqu tu21utnwqj pu1ip ith2, qpnalf, pthulwrlpnut 1 otqhphiuubg Gthpltututgnu1Qhip, tilni umupr rltitu- 4tupntul t: (d'i~iur i nwptuqr u t4nmllti Qtjwqwlunutspp IL atinril mnulj nl~thgtulnii tulrjxqgiur Qtjtuntilp' wupwq qnp~b- 1 uignpntti 4 fiq~thg~int t: <<-tutu 1uplgiq~po, 4J~pttijpo dnrinptulitug hpqlipli atiiu~tpnq b-p urij~n~iil lltmnu4gthpp: 1918 rnwtuiwqpg w~ttiujunt1a1ntg fintuttigr G tulurdinigwultug fiu~ptuttnnqralnig~tpp: U. pwuhpunruiltw~ It q.. Urnt- QPQ fip uuntpbi fipwugtip tig umnwgnitt fitulltwlwq Gnpuutlirl& tiuntutwpnrajwq 4nrpi~bg, nputiuqb 4tucglftu~hpqhQt bpk~u- Gnuif tuiqtulrq thptud~tuuung puihnt qnp~y: Ftulg UlnitlGG flpdiptpntj 1 It ragt4u 6b ntiq GI~nix (i'hfipui' npiqhiu hpuud2unirwqu ntuing} : IJ'hpdnuThfb WGtuliu ututntunp tinluincdiuifpri lnnpirt buuratunintran.ggq ltu ntal Gbg, Gptu tuppugbbjg: gltupulltuuuiinut~u tutqgpt liplin. tinw- 11 Generated on :04 GMT /

15 piatpp pgqatuigpnu1f UlntihQ Qtu4 qpwrutl tz biptuguilwg thpud2nirlwg ntunulfiurptitwip: 1921 rattu w~uiqg tunnrp-ta?ftlntflq1 4hpl-u4 wgiahlnt GugtuinuI~n4 ilth1 Gnut 1 I 'fnlu' Riwl- 21 phqrp 4IipurlxurGiutu j14uiwtpn4: Puwlg, ftuiwqwihug~p p ihpnttfn4, 1923-b G bip pwcpliu~rluii5 p~uituqfpn4 ittignut t 1a Qnpbig: UIQ, rg lltutnuig iupui-J'npqwtu igltuntil 1a 2p~thln4. fitultpgitu4 4tulihpnus lt nu p1tubhlnq wqqtwlrq tipqr li1 lh2qhfl toup Gui hqn G hgnp ntg ht Giplwen hiuihudf tu u-nrntff ni~tiitwlnt q tnugntjalntgf, wuldil umwtpnur tp Ulni.QhG' hiplig fiupwquit dqulnqt uiutin4 GintrtutG, pupnlutp n dgwpnqralntg~tpp, QntQhiul~ wnnr 2ti tt gbw - 4ip: Stupptip puirtupgpnu5s l4wcpwt tiptqnt1 t hipquutfphip, lltuu Gwjgnutl tp gni t Ghi qp ttutul ug to tod n t tu: IIU 4, Ulni~bG ilditplg, rtng 4lwGp t nihgthl: U'tu~nl1j fit- - utuljnul, 1lnpgGtip14 finpp, uuinuqititu6 t tlil fin qarnt pntwgh- 2l1 p 1 14tuplrp~tpn nu14tipnpjwtp 4i tunr~p Raniu itnrlngtulg pl fitutipqglip uiuilnit' hpp rlthn mwtu~fl Qq mwtpuiug liup: nn UJlQnffititnht nqhlnpntrantgghpg niii tuurautrntjrantgqipp fit-?npl i hqlp'utp: Utp'nt liu1itu~u 46 unin Ibtkilnt' 1th2wnv qui~tlh t pwurltuptulpnq, ujaatntuuq pptupalntgu1qpr fnpatuninult 4 ftw6tuj qnpb1 i 4Qw~tu bip uunin~twqnprnt- p ialtutq: f~tualnnu1qhpp tiqununni{ llnpgptt lt bp wu21uu- pe uiwugp~kpr51 il tup Ut fiuuu unutijwtu t hrlil tutq ig Ur nu uib tu15uigtwp~npn2 linrtp: Q2itulur uiatntutujjig l w~prq, thp-4t jpiiiq fitu~pwuuliu fhtuliug~piq, Gpt tupiuuiqg ntgri intuui np, 'Uht1bun pn~w~grpn1ntg: Uplpr l1tituwg Gntpp, urpwfig fl iptvnngg t, Gtu~uuuptu dwgpp' twtipp tt PPI G~i pgnpn2 urinudmtig IipuGqGhpp ~G tiu op Gtu 'Gn wuj'uiihug Ul~w4*, 4'Gci 1ki lugtipbp>>, Xsnai-uinl > tt uig: '. UlnuGP G 4wlju6uiGihg 1939 irwaqutu GP G blurtili4w- "'t tnu' tolu utu h 152ngGhp nighguuln4 bpr 1ptir p uoiugphitnt: 8tgn t5'nrlu~tug Nunup tuth Gpui tupgtiutnp tiwuupg ridilutp 1, npntfliih hip14hpr tfti& ituug tuguipuj t, u4l tuplugjw1rg GlntatpP fipi5gu1wu ttuup mquitnu tz llll-nulf, Pp a fiwpuqumghpp ithun: 12 Generated on :04 GMT /

16 F &u1 hpwd2tnnra1ntgn tu2iuwutnfln~ft~f q.. UlnuQ iq G I pawqp 1: UtuL tulg tuiuuihrt Qkipl wtwtutu6 tgtuuntfwftug il 2tupfl 41tuUU11ipr nt~ tjhhdp iftug nituunh1ln4' fituipwgnp h- uq4 tqwp qhl utn hip~f wgudiq iiun p duil wtu p' tutog Ghp : rvdijtup It tuul, ahtup wr}rn p tuq G qp til t (fdb4p1- ur 2tul ii Ptdl2lni phnphmhhighpb pq4hpntrajwg qnp~ntihnt- 1a11uQ 2p~wu-t4lQpn' ul, 1fah' uwntiti64ti t wtlhtltnu5 tquiqpkln Gututjn4l: bp~nm rjiiug nt tl tug tjwpnrq lp 6affiw~nrgw- 4luik rnuntgrr~wg lwplinp G2WGwu~nflntlG nitligwl ri tl1u1l ituiu~tuqgitutuqw, W11h hipwj2uluuhip PtU!Q 2PwQU - Qhp r fi utuwp : lj,21utntlntqr! QGip~tjwtg Gntu t fiaultihpucid2trnwuitw d12w- 1 ntira11 fitwtstu tupqttu& Lqunnn~pf' fihijtuignuwujwq dlui~tuitua4hpbg i1liq h putu~kpnprj fiwuplntptul11iwlb ul4ilqpf: Zthli~w14Q rnunu1qwuurpntrintin ptudtuhllzip~nt tluuf: Untu- 2iQ Gqfluntul GQlutupttu& tz fitu fli unlfi FG 4 Ii 11 tuqrpupug hpwud2tnutuqw 112lZU~lla O ilt XIII Tuuipn Qhpwunltq, uilub~p-g ifbg 4t L4hr1wQt raituwnpntrlug tugq1nu~p 4l~ tunugiju t fir15qw1]w~nu1 fitul utwtn1jwcgrp~tipr fip2utuwflj- ' hupq jigqnq4 U lunitgiluirwa iltj airn{ GIhplpnluiggtu6 hq Qwjluuipbiuinn Gtw1uiQu 4 pp11uunn Ghitu wiuuiw1 tipwdtc2mnutuq dwptipp, gquupwq~hpp, npn Gg p quuit- Gntran.Q fitupwugnpntrantg t uiwfliu ttun4hptugnu5t 1tutititnl fihg 4lutuuunwQr hpwud2ulnwul~g 112wuntllar tluur G: Awnl~luul u puuptulbq QgwtupwQi~hpr fhwpntutn luilpp qnlntranffi puipap qtuptugwin HGii tgtgrnri W~p wupqwufip tz 4U 44uwinur t 6PQG fiuilwttug ptugwptuiprantug ptupalp tuu- U11rtuQ11 d1tubg: -dluwulpnqpwtog 4tupqn4 uttuuu4nud t :phpiunnqtautuc tq~uluuuiwq~i 1iptd2tu~w4tuGQ tw~nutghip 1' GnP 1lpnarp gna~tatu fitim 4tqu GQn dwapip hpkuifi quurl1, qnlntialnff nditignrl rptqpn g hpr, l1j r1gwtuwg hpqlignl~ltn4ltuq, GntnmuqpntraWQ, lipwd2luultq 4h~igwrxti 4 Lipuu- U,2juuunqnuinG w114niui& It 'df inliupnu: UlniIr G oq.- PttIq~nbi It iatupra1ipb 114 It~, 'X1ntu Wutum It ranrlq Q2nulTli- PPb fi turfhup: UIJinihrt qpd ti T o rnr~inin t plulu 4 tuti UIGQ kuwiutuluntr1ndifl, tiqupplpntjalnx4p ji11ptuiplpu dtuuf : 13 Generated on :04 GMT /

17 Uttpntgqiulnt fituaqtunrnntuuutqg rupw~2p21tu~ni 11 fiuiu f Utjub 1iptud~tui1wui 4iimnju intgipd, QnpnilrQhtp ituurg p 4u iq Q2nutFlip: OpbGtul], Ghp1 wtuigqhlipi4t2ulwuuimnu 11 V-VII rltuptipp hipmd~tnrnapuq iik2 uniif niithgnr wuphnp 6j 1hphntiirQ~pfl' rlpw~p f5itutnli t 24nntlr iqiuuq %'prqnprn G UJ'1ibb i thltig u1t ip hpqhgn rpn trtu G lpwfin QttupqgtTw G fihmtn: (tiu~ngtuqptttub tulrn hpqhgnrlntpaniiip utpnuilirp 1; rlwpcilil G pnlnp 4,wu ndli thlgr~1gtipr fitup tl fituiugb t «%1ppqnp- fi 1tuQ tunptulq* wgtttu~dludlp): UintQpQ qptil t. *P2utnuwu 5 u Up fii5aub iluiqilhq, IJi14pnutiuiQ d, e, f, g IV rjxup fihuu1 p %prqnp U'tib LuahilwgGnuYs t a, b, c, d cbppqnppuian a tutnnuit t 4iuG1 g 4i rp lwtuunntpwq. nt~qhntu (Gti14 )> VIII rpp twuug Q2il t. <Z<rntttp ']LUplnuU Uh ltr q intupui6 %prqnphwugp : «Xrlup o h Caauthp Gwqji itn oqp til t. o17 iluiliu, (1050 ra. rl djibu.itt 1; li4trro lj~phggotzq)n: 1-Iiuw1, XII iltupr tkpwd2tnnt- U pinit~p G1 P4wtwg~hqu fip2nu" 1, 4pwutu~wLG uniptunip- Uhpb G i qhpilwwudpnq b hg apah p kpflpg: Ul~u Q~nurtfl ilp tunuiulljw BUG: UlniQbQ itinp~tki t fiul liptudc2ulnipalin t- q itnllntgbwig rl11mlil npujliu hiptud~innipjltug fiwd1-qrlfiw~nip 0 tqwirnilpnltug qtupqwgiltuq puiatgpr ii~i iluup It fitutltutntu- 4t lp uq ttwpllibnh1l1utlp intupwcg2utnxhl fittipiw~ni opb~qw- tr utthniralnigglipp qntn fiul u tpug, tuqqwur i p~nilra~hpg: a. pruuinghiwlpng fiwil finqttnp 1hptud~1nnipraG IituurG 11 gutinlgntl t V rjxuprig u1autub 4 l tufijututnuhjn4 phtpgnifl 4 fitupgp VI rptupi11ptud2unniraiug t~tuag tg t G2i1, np irt p fituplniptuittulr p~rauigpnult, nppwug fitultngr tc tpwd2-ntuqll- U inniralwp, Ui 6w~rljmqntuX fiwil finqhnp ipqtuutugntratuq lii? a. n~b liwutrnnhl I1tuini~twgtu Gnp hphntjt&lip: r~tw wuntutttp- d1 uiliu luidhpntipb dtuq~uflufitutnttub tc tlil, 4 w~rptrn1p~tkpp, npnggrg oquntljq I lir, GnilGtgtiu 2P2w~gnttI tig tur a gupfl : U2ltuwnnipiluia hiplpnprl qlntlufl, tp 4lip~iwqptuib IC 4np I 4i QnpugnlQ rltup*, Ghp1lultuig~ntd IC fitul ugpn~~iurn~tul u 1i hpiud21nn irl tq djipu btrnijw 4. upq ugiltng pqratugpp ' u uu V I w rtp n T u g ' 2t tstgltp n tt1i Ii hptud2tnnilapuq uv.uuiithir1i.uq tlk? it~lflpf2 hphtntu1aqkpp' Gnp ix QtnmwqupniralwuG hplauq qup, Qpw i~lipqg i G2w~tuI ntia1ntp u 14 p Generated on :04 GMT /

18 fituing fitujdhp, ptuwiulqnirawq ithtnpp fiul~ hipwj2mlwg rptui untranff, dinupittpriil Gtdpg hpq-g2npn2 WinQu~atfiWu1nnlQtGhrrp npiqtiu wqcgtwjr G tqpnihubn Gut~ thpwd2unntlug fiip ptlntgtqli rtnt agnirplnuip uuhri>1bwqnp~nrl Mpwu ~~- Gihpnut: Uliu dwu QuJtufuuttn4w~b thpwd2tucwgtfql2w1ntp Ujnt- GuG Gtip1ltwlwg~ntu1 t nplou u f2nwpfi1l hipwd2tnnilp1tg I pwudwunurl Lptip rptui' nwldjtuwag tputs dnqnqpqlw4wa (miluligpq q t21l ulpnug), nptqliu uuinpr G Tpuu, wznl uwujwt (t itum rg~tqhu utidixf n~iinfftuiw tz wq~wgtl dnrgngpwtgpn~thurn- GLw1), nptqhiu tm5~1w iwu 4 uuqjntawl wu (wtuugpg ugpn~thun- Gtul hiptd2unntflhltfl tuluopmju pg~lsutwmp), npajliu ptuipapu- 4tiydi~wlip pmu w UI~tutQLW ntunii5gufiptil t LI24w6 kiphp rliwukph tunwgagtufiuvnnltn lniilqipp: %'bhnpq~lug 6tluhupu- LinuX ntuu~itilnt untupii~lipli, -IntnimuliQ pgtpwl ghitnt, G1w Iunptughil t qti12tul ug tipcdi t nl*6-lg 2WPWI1pp- 11uAG, aluitw2wupwip G wl WtuW 2nlratPW11 G (thminpnlafb) qup qugilug op~w tunrl ir ntunalgwuurpiiug tak?: Opuiliu u12nutulwtuq pntinwqpb qtuwq tftudl ng 2'1t1t i up- 4tiutnb url tntiuwlfb fitutn' t nttnwitn4 mnpn~wtjj iqilp 4t qfnt~tiltip: Li'wl~wtuupr ptipnuhlnj tuuiptln4 qlupul nutntu- LinuX' ip~nplig qpturt4ht t fpwgtul wqi thpd21mnwdp nt lluugpl Jip c xhtilp-liph U.IUI2wP12 u2nlw pntui tip qr p~tiwqw- 4U111J mhptiprua: lip lwmupb tqtimnippntpqlwg rup tnwptipp Gmgbpl t himpnu wl tu rn nrnuulpng hpwud2mnqtra1w ntun~tulpsuulpn 4t Lul tu21u1tutnfrl1wq 11:1 uitr4t, fitjopt attn4 2lupuTPtrPit WI1G WIntiQG, JiQkJ ntunuit~lwubpt~tu~n fititntub1a1i n wunwp Lp, tututw qn~th wunwu~rtiprg t~fti lz p Ulpt- GbG GITWmG tu2luutmwgp atingtupl nrl~thpb 15h? U, pgadjuat~u- P"'P, udtiun t flwugrlbutip npn2 TjdtmwpniantGhp: U~luop fiw1l htiudtnugwqpuntqpntgp p txt Gw tub luflptgl t 15tip tyu4mntfiawg fitiumntunn~ug ilti2, uuni~tiit lz tuugwumnul tug qput~uigntralg npn2tulf ptuw h~ntrang, tinuntu lptit t IiLUPTUUU1 ultu2uip tttuqwt uhipnmgirgtipr fitwlip: UtulituG, LtuUPptip tqwuiftwngtipnmj, 4w wiluop fipwuinwptptwb tugubup lib 1-u21tulniflliTfl, npmhtrl twpcq, fivutipp nl. utitt 2Wu- 15 Generated on :04 GMT /

19 pwrip11lu lblithp w1qg uppulgp, np u~inptn ugnp t; qfunh- GQui 1ntpwuptuG~rntp fitul Lptudb2ln, G44ulugpu blgwp itlip tiptud2unuudlwq d~unla utuninqtp oplht1npbtnptig, taa tuntug qrn2ultnpntrl~~uqi 1unuttubIr hp h1dlignt l4wi uitutnthulitnq nphlz r~ht~pb l tumuupu gripl tsuiulig tulq tulwui- 2QflPfiU~il~ti qnpb, h Gpitu W21uuinnhialuI irnwl pgainutl.iuipknp IipnnitantG IZ tuprfrfi Fw itul pd~unntralu 1t1uipmf a e F N S p p tf tc in m th pr tri zre thl to 16 Generated on :04 GMT /

20 PREFACE The period between the beginning of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century was a crucial one for the history of Armenian art. In this time, after a long, constrained silence, a big army of composers, performers, critics and musicologists emerged in the field of professional music. Hambardzoum Limonjyan, Nikoghayos Tashjyan. Kristapor Kara-Mourza, Makar Yekmalyan, Tigran Choukhajyan, Komitas, Romanos Melikyan, Spiridon Melikyan, Hovhannes Nalbandyan, Nadezhda Papayan, Beglar Amirjan, Nerses Shahlamyan, Arshak Kostanyan, sisters Adamyan and Ghorghanyan, Armenak Shah- Mouradyan, Vasil Korganov (Barsegh Ghorghanyan), Alexander Spendiaryan and the others opened a way for nowadays Armenian professional musical culture. The history of our music was composed by those individuals and evolved on its special way. Composer Grigor Mirzaian Suni has his own unique place in this big group. He was born in 1876 in the ashough (minstrel) family with old musical traditions. He was two years old when he moved with his parents from the village of Getabek to Shoushi town. His first musical impressions are connected with his father - folk poet and singer Hovhannes Varandetsi. In 1883 Grigor became a student of the parish school in Shoushi. Under the caring and thoughtful patronage of his music teacher - priest Garegin Hovhannisyan, he studied Armenian music notation, putting his musical skills into progress. In year-old Grigor entered the Gevorgian seminary in Ejmiatsin. The student years were very productive for the young musician. In addition to serious musical trainings Suni, along with young Komitas, starts to record and research folk songs and makes attempts to make polyphony of them. After graduating the seminary, the future composer returns to his native Shoushi. His first concert takes place at the 17 Generated on :04 GMT /

21 Khandamiryan Theater in Shoushi, and consisted completely of o songs elaborated by him. In the same year he went to Saint v Petersburg for extending and improving his musical knowledge. s( He studied three years at musical schools of Rapgoff and later - of Polak. In 1898 he successfully entered the conservatory becom- t( ing a student of eminent Russian composer Nikolai Rimsky- h Korsakov. In Petersburg Suni wrote "Akh al vardi" ("Akh, Of Red th Rose..." lyrics by Avetik Isahakyan),"Indz mi khndrir" ("Do Not s Ask Me," lyrics by Hovhannes Toumanyan) and other solo songs p( and elaborations of folk songs, promising a bright future to him. es The most fertile period in Suni's life is his years spent in Tiflis. After graduating from the Petersburg conservatory in 1904 he set- dc tied in Tiflis. From 1905 to 1908 he worked as teacher of music at fu Nersisyan school, at the same time leading the school choir, con- th tinuing the work of his predecessor, composer Makar Yekmalyan. re: Moreover, he organized choirs, participated in concerts, elaborat- m, ed folk songs, wrote music for theatrical performances; one of di them, "Aregnazan," based on Ghazaros Aghayan's tale, later D, became an opera. 19 In 1904 Suni's solo song "Akh al vardi" was published in ex Petersburg. In "Armenian Folk Songs" anthology, published later, cir four of Suni's elaborated songs were included: "Sareri hovin evi mernem" ("I Love So Much the Winds of Mountains"), ir "Habrban," "Saren kouga dziavor" ("A Rider Is Coming From the an( Mountain") for mixed choir with piano accompaniment, as well as sci "Oy nazan" ("Hey, Gracious") for piano performing. Suni's interest was not limited by music only. Since his early he adolescence he was interested in ideas of labor movement. He was act involved in national liberation movement, was a member of dashnaktsoutyoun party, and under this influence he wrote many patri- aft( otic songs and elaborated others for choir. They were famous as elrq creations of ashough Dayi and enthusiastically were sung among wa: liberation fighters. As an active underground politician, Grigor Suni became a in t persona non grata for the czarist authorities, thus in 1908 he left hart Tiflis disguisedly. Thus the odyssey of his life starts: first he par moved to Trepizond, later to Samsoun, Chirason, Erzurum and nev 18 foil M ria Generated on :04 GMT /

22 other cities. But those years of wanderings were not passed in vain. Suni collected, recorded and elaborated a number of folk songs, organized choirs and gave concerts. From 1910 to 1914, while working in Sanasaryan school in Erzurum he even managed to create an orchestra. In 1914 Suni returned to Tiflis and involved himself in activity of the Armenian Musical Union with typical inspiration. He wrote and staged operetta performances, leading the symphonic orchestra of the Tiflis Armenian Board. Having such an orchestra under his command, Suni rapidly arranged and performed his symphonic works on folk songs motives - "Vana eskizner" ("Sketches of Van") and "Arevelk" ("Orient"). In 1918 the republics of Transcaucasia proclaimed independence. Sargis Barkhoudaryan and Grigor Suni had gotten delightful offers from the new established Armenian government to be the founder of a national conservatory of music in Yerevan. Suni refused and went to Tehran in 1919 for working as teacher of music. The main reason for rejection was the composer's deep disappointment with the dashnaktsoutyoun party and its behavior. During his two years stay in Iran Suni explored Persian music. In 1921, aiming to recover his health, he went to Constantinople, expecting later return to his fatherland. But in 1923, under certain circumstances Suni went to the USA with his large family. And everything started again. Suni fulfilled what Kristapor Kara- Mourza had done in the past: wandering in Armenian settlements and spreading the melodies of Armenian music, evoking the conscience of possessing their own and unique music, ignoring material and moral hardships, even his state of health. In various cities he organized choruses, participated in concerts, had pedagogical activity. Grigor Suni's life was difficult and stormy. In his childhood after his father's death, he had to earn for his family, making jewelry and participating in street concerts with ashoughs, when he was not fifteen years old. Later, inspirations and disappointments followed each other. Being a very dynamic person, he was always in the center of political and historical events with actions often harmful to his creative work. Because of his wonderings he lost part of his creations and often had to start everything again, yet he never gave up because of his optimism. The optimism is the most 19 Generated on :04 GMT /

23 characteristic side of Suni's art. In spite of his torturous life, often conflicting views, his music has a bright and vivid content. The theme of his songs is the gentle love lyricism, his preferred genre was dance-song along with jocose nuances typical for it, such as "Mayisn yekav" ("May Came"), "Indz mi khndrir" ("Do Not Ask Me"), "Touy-touy," etc. Grigor Suni passed away in 1939 in Philadelphia, never having any means for publishing his works. Unfortunately, it is difficult to say a complete opinion about his art, because the majority of his works are unpublished and most of his archival materials are in the USA, with his descendents. Suni did not date his study "Armenian Music," yet from number of historical facts and persons presented there it is possible to find the approximate time of its writing: It is difficult to say whether it was written in Tiflis, in the frames of the activity of the Society of Armenian Music Theoreticians or had been written for publishing in press. For both cases it could have an important cognitive and teaching significance not only for profes- t sionals but also for the wide circle of music lovers. The research presents the systematized history of the Armenian music from the pre-christian times until the beginning of the 20th century. The author divided his study into two parts. j His first chapter describes the ancient, old, and medieval musical t] culture of Armenia including the 13th century, i.e. the fall of the k Cilician Armenian kingdom, and is composed mainly from the s statements from the Armenian historiographers. t< The musical genres and instruments of pagan and Christian Armenia are presented in a simple way and language. The diver- n sity of them gives a chance to have an idea about the musical cul- A ture of ancient Armenia. Especially the existence of the rich group c of string instruments is a result Qf highly developed sound-feel- h ings and testifies the high level of ancient Armenian civilization. ai Suni tells in chronological order about the musical achievements A of Christian Armenia, about new genres that emerged with new R religion, about the existing schools, church singing, musical nota- n tion, everyday musical life and musicians. The study was written in a copybook. Suni used one side of m 20 r Generated on :04 GMT /

24 pages, the others remained free for his notes. There he wrote his observations about editing of some phrases. He has also some notes about the musical changes and news in Europe in respective periods. For instance, while presenting the important developments in music in the 5th-7th centuries, he compared with those of singing systematization by Pope Gregarious the Great (this systematized singing became an obligatory for all Catholic churches and famous as Gregorian chant). Suni wrote: "We do mention that to the Ambrosian syllable d, e, f, g from the 4th century Pope Gregory the Great added a, b, c, d, thus making free Gregorian [singing] from syllable." About the 8th century he noted: "Roma in : Charles the Great spread Gregorian [chant]." Near the subtitle "10th century" he wrote: "On 17th of May, 1050 Guido Arezzo joined." Or, presenting the music of the 12th century he remembered French troubadours and German minnesingers. Those notations are not occasional. Suni tried to see the evolution of Armenian music as part of music's international historical development and by comparative analysis to separate universal regularities from the strictly national, Armenian phenomenon. Suni wrote about the Christian Armenian spiritual music beginning from the 5th century. One can ask about the music of the 6th century, so here we should note that musicology does not know any stylis.tically stable new trends in Armenian spiritual singing. It was mainly a period of "fermentations," and the historical sources, that Suni used, also avoid that century. The second chapter of the study, titled "New and contemporary period," presents the course of revival and development of Armenian professional music from the second half of the 18th century. Several important and crucial occurrences for our music history are mentioned: the appearance of new musical notation and its role and significance for the Armenians, the polyphony in Armenian musical reality, the understanding of the fundamental role of typical touches of folk songs for national professional music among creating circles. The musical culture of this period Suni presented as "secular music" and divided into three parts: peasant or folk, as a minor 21 Generated on :04 GMT /

25 level, ashough (or in modern terms, folk-professional) as an average level and "social" (i.e. professional) as the upper level. Suni researched deeply the characteristics of those three levels. During his study at the Gevorgyan seminary, along with Komitas, he studied deeply the periodicities of structural, composing, harmonic, metric and rhythmic developments of the peasant songs. As a son of an ashough family, since his childhood he dealt with that form of art accumulating certain resources and knowledge in that field. As the fates decree, he lived in Iran and seriously explored Persian music, enriching his knowledge about the field of ashough singing. Nine years of stay in Petersburg he devoted to prospecting the European and Russian music and to state in current study in a short way everything that he explored for many years. Suni was one of the pioneers (if not the first one) who initiated such work, and naturally he would confront many difficulties. Today, Armenian musicology has gone deeply in exploring the history of Armenian music; there is a volume of professional literature and a rich fund for the next generations. Yet, for different reasons, there is not any published study with a simple and summarized statement of the elementary knowledge, that every Armenian musician should know. There is not any book where the history of our musical culture is presented objectively or the role of a church or historical figure in that history has been elucidated without any excessive caution. In this sense Grigor Suni has done a very thankful job, and publishing his study is an important fact in modern Armenian musical life. MARINE MOUSHEGHYAN 22 Generated on :04 GMT /

26 'U6 bpudi~sfih~hwu luuf ' uwj IpJPWZwL fllf7i7 J dwu/dni, w,,l dpl~ib t muq bpwu ujwufdwwfil -- fip qwqwyw jri"up w~fi InL"I', nifn/unl f~ffiab L, "pj 4wuwUjnLnLIJ hi, wijhbfiw/d fi na,. Luwnwgui4wi, 4Lduqui4wfi, 4Lpolw4uwi, pwquipujtiw~wjiia IL J1L k LL I1 jjdll Iib, p/in p)jfp/l-bnunl j 7mfLJJifJ /JJI1fLf~IiLf/ljnl, n op OhLJfiJL4/in LlJw5,UJgnLJf 111I7J/ - J7LfJI1nhi1J 'u J/i wp"lun/ w'ujqt ts/ilq/pi1q atr, hpttwl pbpb1 IL wjl, popip, rpllnpln 4nqdbppn~, np /nilpjnwqunl4 t /ipi~rbi: b:l, n poa/4blbm auatlf t/i pjlu pbz jpwi l/, wiatfi at/ifnzj j Fnqau/piiw jw L fllfilr wfrjrlli7~uwrlfnl 1t, liprw brpwo~lnnljbli jft2. /ippl fl4 W n- IfniL q.rlj'fhl'qj1i pwl(11(llwljp7jli UlpWnWJWJmnLlQ/iLl, 411m7&W-- Lfu L L ujuflililw4ufli wf fjplj/ubliij t LLwl11fLY JP W~l1 '.SU4JilLpj 4 11L~ Lpll Ir~fIII qwpw jruanlwi uiwun~bp/i: Zbfiv5 Lj-Lyt u4wb ~u dq117t LL17! L fi I"tJiuat'wpf i j i w11fpjb~m i1 fi wbd 0" /i unbiiii1i fili IliLn IL IL n"z. bqzpw4uwrflblbla fiwil 4wuatuip), /iu4 at/i~f/ib, 4(/i11 &L Oliui"Jli Z[p2w1111p/i (uutwp rtmi 'ILLL1p/i1J IL u LIm tiigbi7iif njiu4 wipujltnprbi/i t, IL I dljfijfi tnl/p/il IL fipjw JWLr JuLLb y1wi n ati nr ibhpt (f ui-- 10/ 11/iLJl"4LfiJJIlJ5 L',p ji/i t/iuljl, I1tuLLILLIIIlt f IP/i" fi wljnl/j bl 4.d bp. IrIilp biuwfwlu j7u p1aiij5ilj Lp2W- 23

27 brnlj, J/1UlJfjLWJWJfj /iiiifp7jqiiu?4,jjp//ullanlf wj7f JiuJ-- qpl/jllaj ILLJJf'J uwi/ijiii /ipuigiipi&jlljr 4wLJJJLL IL r fu117/ll1 PLLLWIJJLLJ7J1" uq 4iJ~~inLILnuji, 4Uy in~ifllp Ln14fLfiLJipfli/ I1YJLqrL tjli wli/i 1/11/g i, JLfrLAJILLLrJq 41"1 Uh jqfi, IiPwupdL-r iflhllj17lwi few/ifuw wi Z pgfwbp &w&lw&ub t ujuuinf"wjf'u b ~- yiiw~/i /JUJfJUlP /uw~nc1/, IL fjpui JL(JUJ/4J til" /uug ui ~/i 'P~"i/i'f mjpuh dbj/ir lhq JwJmrfi/ t, up 4WJ Jtnqni/u"_PlEfflji l ijrl/t 1'F7~ if/i IftI~L/UJILL4UJ (IflnfL/f., ii~fl-- i/ll AL /LP' lpq, npf ihmg 'L~wLL b/7"w 4IiAqp/ uprnw"jwp-- mnnl/j/i"lfrj LLujL1''FI ilnnp I/fjupIf' fll bl nj[tp41rf, php - 74itjiLAJf wlwfrrflli/fi 4wugpbL Li/ifIiL kipifiwg/ti Irr L LJiitIL Wwi iuinpnup3 (X IiUI"~L~f): fryff wluj~fli. <ctluuwp hu IJI{Lwkwn 4ffl C 4rUf >>, 4LinLflLLi W/i gi ipl- law4u f lfwi i"f /u~ w i qij p /ul lpjnqf Li fpnluijirarlipi ljw~f rpiqrjfjui Lipf,~Lip: 'DYLUUJAJUJLp1 ip Pli-p f/ijuml up 4wPjplh/pp liql1 t 1I/iLbLiw - iui p4f/i 'An /Jwfi qff/iili~/tin itujlwilp: fdt' I1npli~wug/ifi IL /Jt' i liutwj u/wi.-- liwt"/pl"iflpl J/iZwinwlnL"PL r IA tnl~ujw4uja i qllip/i ll ',u - LiiLLL pufihuuunhia'iwl"ufi, inwijwgwi/i"wlfr lp.- 11Ijui/iwni plip/jlwie (arjpwpinjhfujj, L1ppl~i wif'pnqjinii LipLLlurJwljufr 17ni/Ub7JjwLLnL/jJliwi'P), nu UJ/LbJI/lip LP LLL t IUniplfhuiynL Ift «(~j,~brru uuuu~j ui'jg 'V-pui/~p i/i- ZwnllWLnrjL1I <<4pi Utt"U UJlihhVp >i;> Lfi/i"5wL: 'L/iujuufriw fuiui-- LIL J, /ij-l LUI rl LLI 'L L / ( L uzl i ~ P w J L L b uj I1fi w p L r *Rng" 1iw4ijL - PLu4Lu fia 'lini lp/iw~fnp t 4lug "ufi win P3LIILnO brltar6 - liqzil lii Lipkwluwwjf Ui ql/lgifh-- p/i ZgupP JriufruwI uljwi L WJ Ipijfni/ Z1u1PLu11/jLL1U wj7j lip-- 24

28 riw-- -, npr wjdfj tj qn"jnl//iu nl7j/bi /t' wlj/ b~lp/i 2p~iLLf Lt "Lt! Jar' onibpw j/i l pljfqnlj%) blpuuljwg/fl bqtrwhuiljfi u wj 4&IL4 171: wijlj lat /[chatfi~pl (retchitative): ujn hliqlhgiwlw ~-lip g1135ni/nl/j(7huj Ji7Q 5WuJIJOp q/iljnl/d/lll illii/i <</,il> ulwiulh.- unwpwqp~ LL i n[u h p/i' <<J t.wul-j/p>: U/il b LI[I~nLU IL b(1q yjn J8 -- bhz Ih ufwp/l 1 Zr.li qiin- li'fi ij/vfiiyiii/ w LLJ(1I7LJLILLUJ/ir, ULpul/lft' 1 nut In/un".p Input-- li/-- ifwirjrpnl tf1jiabp/ri /7(iIg/p, 11p141p4?jr IIhiitL/7 b4w 'Jif4LJuinLIf i Wp-- 4 jr u iwj/4 frlip1 /wwynlif~hhpnlf: lip-- %6111/" - -1 it L finf l LJfiwIJnL/J/iUwifp: r //wp&ui1 hpqr/ip~,,ujruwpwl i nt. u/ipjwj/i r Irtnl2- h qhj Ih, wj7j /pninp ifb/rjh'/i/ipp. npril ut~w/i/r, r- nq pwuuwg w'z uwpoqz /4uJiwjp a <hqhpwuiw jpbpe'r, hpqifh jf11 IL) Ufrp~fni/ fl t iwl/i /ui/li1ni/ J"LquwJl/UJLnpnLJ/rlLAJ/zp/i Juuiw-- 1 ',u4, ipuiwiwju1ip/ fr nlpg: <2wJlruip~nL" wz /uwpoq/ 4ujw~j p ;[,f uuupliuq Furhp> (hinphfrwgfir): u' J~ lititt17p ppc wefiljjlb~jh j it, khi'wgnl It J/IuuwJ c/ul,f,. ijllaju IWpniLLi, qiu1thuquu f1lwurwpual~ubgnj, /yli uj4u op/%iw4j ill 'II, -5, LUP L~ibU ~JLjqUI J (AAP - fe~ai2 i-- nil wjdifl-"'1' wllqll/ulj uwq/: 4jwi jnli-- h 1 "ti -'r-ir 1ep~ 4-4lwmnwplh pnp v""p1#ui hqihl Mi w?/fi5fr 4-4uupfiw&- (urje zfi) It 1JLLL~jL/i j4- I1 1t uturnngni/ (ti jpip) It i- uiiiiiiljiilh1 fiu 111/111 wn/fiuwf wqljiizp/i if4. LI1UrwLLUrLLI U- t//ip Iipu blpnul/l IJ LAgLL4r UfUJ iuivnlrlw (jpuuiifnlpwi, i/iwlr * J"Lwz C~p if f in/iuug'lrnjlur pr wlfpliuwi~n f?iitii pupflgu ruwir inl, ppljlrwilnlj 4-p, *fw~utn1 ip/au - LIuwipw&r nullpltr~int SWLt 4uni uwptinuwrwz -- if/wi nuqiun] l1l1ifp1iv bl (wjoibm ua rbw wp fui 7i/ut1luwl d Ip) Wqfrp4-" LwpIhlpni, up l7ujui4u wufi/ ii d Jnqnjlji frrf4 hp/ f4-, JItutLt fr <p f gwi '11 if, iiipw UUJLUJ& 111/11/: «, IwUJUL111Lh1JpwpjarJtLr tal UiLiili 25

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60 'U- 1W Itb t ptatuq Urtil!tupti~gb uiqgwq qpwtu ntralwg Ut tupgthutnb MA rugqtuptugntt: gvju~g i uuuijtp fitutngtubp quin I lzn tqptu fiupwqungtipji ithtn' vuu-nul: fauil hptud2unntrabtg* ntunuluubipntqantpt Ii tyunqbnnpb jigp~w i uhuwpntqalnt~p U1U4U1- qpnipalwg Ltuinpuuwitju oqutit hip r~pw~g tutintiggw6 oplb- /~ Gtu1gGtpjig, npnqp rau~qxupn~jig UQ fiwaaht UlniQbb fituiptudij qan~tpp 1997 p4ttwtbg 4 tuldl uptufigntu UiG pitu~quipwuji waf1 ci pjiqtp UlntGbbj ~n Grlntd: '24bG fluultltut tg fitipwulnuutuq qptunp tipwd211tutltu opjib Gwl4Lihp AtwG, buldgutj 1h? u~rupiui thptd2tfltra1lnqfl tbngbg pq- 7 pggtub&it, wijnitwthtttui~b4t thpwdutnuiwqipbg ftu~nr14hit t T- lnilu utbntqt ilip hipi-ud2utntuig wugltutjiq ttiptuptipnql 1~thpj La! 4pu: U~lu Intituuun4 tupdtipwugnp tig Uuq. U titbplwqp, 4. 'nfthug- Gbultub, UJ. gn~tupltu~ji, U14. Otufigtipr}1u~b, R. 4Rnt2Grntuptub f0". l~ratlwi, li. (ia'tufhiqwltu ptuiuiaq qjwnu1gwq fintljtub- 1,- UAG «4uggu.tq b GinuwqpntrnLipO, bpbiug, 1959, Uuj. 17L 4t'hffipluG, 41tpijucjb fitul iptud~turluq ugwtvnlitrtutba. il- bptuq, 1935, U4t.DufittipjtwQ, 4(tul tipud21nnt1altwq guttnt- Inanrilbt hpwud~turtug tjtuuntlntqawq ti uitiuntipiwg fitupgip'i, td Q~diqpuqr, 1958 (nntuuhphq), 1t. (i~tufittbiqtwq, cbpwd~uinnqpju ~ul1nlngp fib 4tuiwuutnw~ntt5>, bpthxuq, 1977: -UirntipQ Q2tlt t U'nqjuhu 1unptiGwugntG iu1q ugutuiunrnq, np GU uutwibp uunirlbtg fiwuing fituduwtuipqw u twtntlt Qltp' 6GuptunpbGi tui tbnupdhip QlipgwtuigQtitn4 Wti ut qpjg itlbg~t by dtilugtutrn (V rlinp ): cipjiqnp U'wqpbutnpnup trtg tp tui ntunig~ut itnuihpjg, n- pn~ t't' Gtipy1nut ndlliq U1tuuttbQ ahtnppipnuidtipp tdnthnsug 1G tii ud2tnullu ntuntgnl1ip Qnpnqlqtnt qnpbntu (XI q.): %ltiutug~thpp fibgq t aji2a1uqwtpltuq 4tuu~utt~ uuinirltu- 57

61 qnpbnrl h tiunupnrl tupptiutnwuitnwtip t~bq' tipcbzqhp, Ggwcutbntip, ugtwpnr1gtip, 41itqtuuG tipqtip nt qpnt~ggtip tuqwcirinriatip, dnrinpudiwq fipwutgwpupuj1q jatwnpngbi ugpnrihubn~tul rlhpituuwqgtip: t-1yirl db2gurtupnttt «qntuwug* pung oqtnunpbq4hl L npputiu fituitupdtipp fibgq fintitwphg «tiitdnu* ptn: UA.hnyupjwGG tutntuaaatugaril t qruug~uipb tipl~nt funttlp: lj~ntuihbqtpp tqq~quitibi1 aw juuptuput wg mn~hpbg lug 4i fiugriu tbg qwfliu ipugiu uypn~iubin~ui~ hpudb2ulghip: Upl~pnpr} luilrpig tguiwuw- Qri thg dlninw4xtlug' ri qpwui qnutuggtipp: t'wgrptugtutn{ fivil tutwwitwqfipgtipb i 2ttt~tanGt G 4tuptqi tz G4L.nit, rip du tugtuwl.~dggipb- 4ipwuptptntGp luunit iidutuljug t htqti: %rtuw(gthpp idi'1. unwpuw4tiq tig, ti'4 qrigwpwg~thti, fitutw- 4tthu ti1?gurptupltg &tuiwutnuignttl: -RpfiutnnGhiniqwG Uiutn- Up fiwuunuuiriug bip opb Gw t wqgrjtigntqpntgg ntgtigw4 qniuuwutug wupgthuuin 4ptu' iuuu~i~iwuptup 4rnluhhtn4 Gpiu pwuprlugcbtnwgwg nt qwwt u up GuwpG tpirp5gripni2flut: s %rragf Uibh 24utu 1 '-wuaintpwa~wg GtufiwuGq qwijunglipbg tp, rip utufitlwgut4bg tp UlniGlwg tu2luuwpfflbg: gb~ghitil t 4nrigtij f rruripbrpui tlth G~wwtnp lbghlnt 2Gripfibi4: 6' (d'irng pudt pi/li1jwg wgitwgnip fiwl ptnugwufi~riuntt&iwg it? untupplip tdhl4gwupwunralriggtip t rirgtigtl: &4uGuiltG pwugwtiqifl4rafllg tl 6twGuittti U. U~phirnwGbi niuwtulitnp: UiuliGpG pqi/ing lrp qlp uig-lwgnt~ btauqi t qpugq wul-uluwni l4bg: c1.. f'luwhtuggiwug fhwutwttnnui t untpfipigni «tiv~ - funul 4 fitulbtignuli Kt'ov-em>> (pil &di) ptuntipp: tudljwqtubnntpitu.g UIl? tuig Ghtunniul lz lli bdtuun, nipp fiwitiupdtip t wulipq uihiptfibgl G: OJn/u tig 4nrig4rii hiljhqrhgw1l~wg tipqgirinra~tg tii btuuwpntg ibtflnrpghipb figpgnrpntg fiungugtipp: 8mg, gnzjg, gnlgp fituupiugntpjntigp fib G 4 guil rfli2gtun~uptug 4tuuunwGnri Uib 14rirp1bg 1jug4wb t btiuipbi, bbiuutuuwpnriqjnrghtpb UL dlttu 4.nrpig' jatuwipngbi fititn: 4wgtprxuG 4tugriGhG tigpur~pnri t, nip KqtigoGp>> btugit t (li'wqdlwg bhub1 duhuguu twtiuug 4 ugwgg rgui4uwpp filrg 4wultuuuntwGni I nhtil t liqlipwdwjp: " LGni dwujawpl~nizlpp raurituig 6hiuf fituundt ituugwl~bg 4twuriu~ tfq, rip 4tuitntupni tig rpb iipqhip. l4tupwq~grilu t GtuUl ripuyiu nqlptpqtu4 rjtiptuutug: Pwdfp/nl l4tudi Owagqn, w11 p~qatipgnitlgtipri i/wawin, 58

62 Iw- waling, pw pmn, pwaqling, pwdq/mng: Z4unwpgmut lz ppu- '1T, IbG, nptuwfp, I4uhiJr4flq QgwtuupwG: U,1Q tlntpu t UgUI qnpuqii- 6ntpalnfflg 1112 tdrg'qupnnil: I-1rptuintuG liriuiwulip, iuwptir puia1 t Qwijp U iwptug npr t1uqug ttiriigntrangtip IiQ uiufliw~qti: L4QQ lj'hj w~t U11iUtU1]1iU1 fiutuitual ptutl2irn fitultuptjntil t; fituipt~lhu. "U'Ii~plpnitXp %, tqg6fw(4i Gu~ounipiG,tultuunu- 4-Ghiug tu2lutupfirl* qpprg tz (fitn. II, '-gtiir, 1835 pa., k2~ 294): tnq~~ 24 Rtupp fiiig finigwlputi I/ipwG t' lnptutnp tqutria4nq Gttuiqw, tpwg: 4jiQ fiwuluwtg tunh~uqgpnipluq itm2 fir2ut~uugpnn G t 1Wl- piunttut U tutitquir fltf upwgh phuph (gtu itulq lwijlg niqlr) iqui- nftggw ttu wpcqtub f1t: bpphilq GntlGuwgqth t 2Quipr, intuqliir, tin- uwtltnuwpwlr fii: afl1- "~ q. Z4tugnd~iQ gawpwflwp 1l wd 2gwpwrineptuantipp fiwlwhtupin- mn4 fil-g intitwph~h fihuv pratpqilwurni 1Z npugtiu 4(. awntuftup*' Qljtuu4r ni~h~tulnq4,b /iiwau npp inuil wutir, l uiiria- S- 4nrq GgtuqiupwG tp: U,1G l bptunqtq t rah npt.lfiu dihgtu1 wuitup U n k rah' flhiuhu hipqhignluip Ggtuqiu1 gnrq qnpb4p: U~nwtiQ11p qn - jnutl lzp l icsnplwiu, thp1.pnprp' lioiup nil/lw: WuG 14Ru~nGp uiwpwubgw6 t Giut uwpudiwg hipgrnhpnuil, np- 1Wu- uirhq 1ppjnul t: JRwaU: G ''1Iuipl OhilwuGn ( ) Q2wutnp qhipilu~wgr tipwudfl2-1ini iuuhun Ip: 'bpwt ptugqiurwr ui~juwunn1ra1n1qgtpfrg tlhln 4iu- Pwud2niuA~wQ pwunwpwugg tz (Musiklexikono, Berlin, 1882): ant- "-IjiGp hipitnlg Gnti~Qwgnu5l t Gwupf Ranu, hipp firith t p~rgntgrpq 4nfl tgwfilwihp~ifj yin ptunp, npl Q2uGthLnII t Kl iuul pgwup : tpphilg wugqtuinulp GnlGwugnt ; Qtuit uwugul plruil vina wgtu- ugwuiwg~ fithui, npp Gntl~Qtqhu KpQtp tz G2tuwQ l U 4hti~uQlw qpuagnp ujalntp~thpnuir qnpbtubg4t it npuiu tpulg tiguiqu-,wt- PIUGhpri pgrfitw~nip wuk~wnul, 1ru1 Gnp fi~rjilipti~ntul (IX qi. w- uuu~b)' npugiu thrthq.guinqr gfiuiptulj ituqgtwnui: 'i,wd flif~u- 4U1 Ggq~tuptuG t, mlqr thituiitnlt tllhqwtnp tutpithq, uthlu~lduwt Nihu fiutpntuu- u1upftugnpgwb t Ut mi~l nptuggwb rpgnattsg 1tuatl W~i GlntraPg tuuiipuu,4w6tu lptugtgri rdiqn~iuuinp: rg 'y U hiptiptmtj wupttu it UprutuuL iu 4twxu.titn SU1tu~gr '&4Ih1pq d~tlrtitbh-, uuuqgp U hipq* ( iu,1882, ttuluhipq, it2 Io O $rp turp ~rifiwgntp tugtunul it, np fifig Ut t1?qwruitplug t.ul1uutgnii1 nplh it liq4tuq~unp 14w15 11n~rl2wmn tw1pg 2pG- Un, " tiugq gtuqtuiptughprg: $nqhpp tli i G n utrulg tqqgallu, 59

63 wtiih itwullw, nut~plw, thq.tiplw: UJ'hipphprniTp nl. t'a6hrittdr at22-4tub qpi4'g t: (fi. II, t2? 252, 253): 2i U1Qgltirnxti thpqtifing t l 4ht ptwuwgitnrq uprqqp (1pwd~ (Jht f41 ~iinutg): 0pn2 wuripintp~thpflt fih2wtunu1 1; tigtdf 2pwcl GtwI tipqhtflingr tlwufig: 22 bgpatrpqntx t, np qjwlinap 6wpln Gr p LunQQ t: 1ThUIGnu 4lip 1ThL 1GpW1uit 4ut2rpGPf t 12utn wiuqwuip Ul qpnt- II, t2 253): '' /qwpwi/ir7 nq mpdigp fiui~rltntil tz fitul tl2gqtwrupug dtutnbhtwqpntjaltuq dii: bq~awrlpttnui t, np QijtuitupuiQG rntil w-- 4hfli fifig butmnti: U~ltgiu thg 1Gn~g4h qiqupijwb pgn4( tirt~tpliw, iji Wu1Wlu, ulr[wiiw trnquwtlg ilh 2WupJ qnp~ib Ghp: U ti~ptpntdp' rlt fgtidluig G24iub qppig t (fitn. II, t2 253): 2" 4wurwi// p firg 4t di2guirwppug 24uliuuumtuGnuX tqpn~tiurn- Gtut TauanpnGr rliptuutuq, dihguituprnlg lr: 4Gntil Gnt1Grul4 qn- 1ntlalntG tig ni~thgth fiiuunlj tutwptuupwfigtip' t4wpjuwtwpwggtip: 2" U'ti~pthpniTG tupgub tz 4. ZuwgniGrn 46tw2tp 4 Jiitn~p fij-g 4wttutuuwiQ xit1 qpj g (4hiGliuiD1, 1912, duiug 2-pri, t2 205): 27 «.. npt Iiu UTup-U~pwu liiumnrw tuni r 4rnpntGg rniufg tit iwagpauiag iupwgg r qntuwgu~pugtg Lul qinwgr dnrnituw P rtw~ir wupnigtiug. U'rnqutu IunphGwugp, wiutnt~ntiantg 4~wing* U., d&%: 28 cjppqnp UlntGPG Gljuiuir iutfr IrrtiiwliuuiutuwG' pbrutnn- Qhiud~tuG 4It itunhphtulpuuiudiwg' flhptugnutu~twg qiturgtuituipwu- Iunuriirainiri tn mpp2iptlpj: UjGntuwi~tGwlGrt itipw.gnurn- 1a1ntQp nptqhu ljpng, QntlGuiu qtip Giu~tuGr uq'u2tudnt~pt~ 4 nttut fiiugrihpipiq lw~np Pp uwtfilugnu.jp: rt U4tbwGp w2jig flutuwinp 1.wI fibtauilnuwlug 4poG1 6wtung ppntd qpnid t. Qtu 4 pwupf flng 1P2wtnwu4 rgpgfg rntatgnigrg tijip flisawnu Giuuwflipg fiwuuinuqp Z4iuthltpatbtut I4hGtug. Ut n't uhtupwl4nluwtb 1.twl I pgrint1qw qwuu' pnqiugrptul tuiqqug t2 pwlg tipt pwgr rpp irn1ntuuuuul, npt qtuguuitunwrigq tu~ u~iupbugj flu dwppg... (n% URflitwQ, w~ba fiuiaunp 4tutI fliiaugnuwul4wg l4pogi i g g 4lGhtnplj, 1895, t2 410): ' Gnt atupatulj t l n~xjtht qlluwunptuuytiu lpuuiwtpnrt 4i n uunirlbtuqnpbnrq 4bG qntutugp: wxjbup u *lp tnp nigp dib p wgp Uh14QtuntiajntG' I4iG qrauwug, npp tgwipnid1 It pqntl t, p1ti~a 4wppji mhip l4bg, ttjutnu, uilnngrlg: q. 4wgniGpG Ktuipapo fiwuiltd- 60

64 u- nixtl t w4wpd* 1.puU upul iphg K4inpq>> rturnhpb fitim, npp G2wu- Gtudpiul t K...nunttJQ,.wtuumtnnhlr, fwpiwpntrprjg: 4wntittu- W tnij tilp tupfldiuuntulllt4p flwunrq fiim np t11p G2wUiQU ihptudb~itup, hipwd21ualltug k Q Gwwtupw, np wupnttiuuip uwj l' ipindtp it v '-.&ugnt~nt qpprg ho («0'u2ti t it lug~nlp 'KUw~lwnGf qw Gghinj p utiuduiq, u2luijp fiwqpuiwgt, u tunhinpu ju luu ipndlnarf, tigtutn4 ptur utpuq u, t12wutntu- LuG btg 2t tuig tm2?ph' l~phlitp 4 It ' Up~tfntnpb filiu,, pgualwuwug pwp hoprwplgti t Wqgrltigntpa11tQ~lipb, Ut, l wt Aw6 tiqwmdt~uwlug,u- pwghfiwtl~g. fiutlliwtwg d2wulntllab tnwupptip ntnpu1gipnlti f LU iwdtnutg tt duirawnrptiwugdir piling tlnl, G 2WugrtgtraPtGn-mpwdtwpwGntrajntGp tupldnu-ipig pgnpn2 uigqpnigj Gtipfi ntpwugn- wa 'tuurg: &ul lipudtnniprlntgf jphruuinflitwinq' ampn phplug tiptgtuptulbg Gnp pngurluntpalntg, ptulg 11gtugti'u lljupnq 1G p lip uwpqtl rtuiptipn4 fiqltuw, fldu~lhu wpqgtub wuputufituititui'rng~lip 1lftuntluQ ahuig, UI~gltunuTt 2it4nptub~ tiiipd-- MtuflUnunlntralntCig, npp fitugnuntpalwg n pht uqrligntr rilngfl tp, wlt Gptu pnrltu fitupniutn dunuugqntrlnlgp: b 4tip~n. u- hupnuq U'wu2tnngr 4t Uwufitul 'lwtppal' 2Gnpfih4, qptipr qlntnrg fltnn, flwil ppiuingitffwug tiptud~unntpatug fibdp lug rptungnuls n- 4lurtu filiutuiwug 4wuunuGntds abiugnpu awiugtirltu- U- GQuiE~ipp, npu 2Gnpfi114 dnrlnqprlwuqnutuiwtfwq tiputud~tntpuig 1- htlutntunnpalntap, fttwtugntpwtul G (ltwrlui G) ftlut llupq~ aitw4npnttl U flwul fin qinp lipturd2ulnllwg InlptuwPt l4nig ianrlghp: 4J «~rttoin tntuni) tnwurdi fitrdlm ul 'itliputuu 0Oonp fiwgi tz: Ouintraaw11 tbturwrpptug ppriuuin~i~t~uq hipud2utitul paig?wflp dnuyngniprxlipri tuflglnul catwtnpgw unrwlwug awiltui- ' lgtip i, lulio ntuinlgpb itima, npp if.pa wunw1g gwpthpb ~ 'G~alg9nu p-putnghtu wg igwi2tnn~tip-wjg lipwud2nntautug 2~i 'tpl.luttqnpqh1i t nputhu ntpawia, pht rpwtui tunu5 tithwtnph1t t ntparg uuijh-lb awgh-aruuigt tp: d'til litu pgpuiu-gntt t- 1' wgagtugt1 hog utp~tlug 11 wup~huluug npbutnngp-u U2tulltlrhIp- It p G fhtutnnd1 ntraawlohp, wilgntiitnutuuphhuuiltli uwufitltug~lipnttt t tupguttliu hoirh 2Wupp wtuqqwlg ntraawiohip, npngg p4nal 61

65 GtulL fituillutluiqp: 4Vpthpr cunuxdr fiinn U tiupntg U'wu2tnngG rn Utufitlw '1huppq4pwipu~tut thq rtinhu fi wgnuultu 4tuljwuuiu~tfT qnlntiantg nt~qhgtu~ alutlgthrlwu~wl]qhph ttuurg fibg niutlnt~pp tl i ptlwpgtwtnptht hqg fbi Qwju~ntuutngtu14 t2g~twihg thpqipp, tintqutiu mthhrliir~tpp' juipwqgpttn4 fiwulliu, udi ntraclwugr Wftunwd lnn2flp fitu~p' 4 prnti (U1 awiq, R~ atuia, qi &iuiq, %'1 w1g), 4 ljnrpi (U1 linrim, P, 1gnqm1, q- 1gnqm, fb lgnrlm) I thpl~n uihtari rptu~ugwhtp: &tultlu qwu ntramluqg wgght t qwupamgmltu dib &ugugwpfi, tib pxuwqgw ugaqixrpudppqtuqnpqti t: Swtra fitwuwtttpwafb thpud~muwpuq dwuufntintttu cpbnp S wuliuignt rlh3ajwqwpn1ttjtwtp p~rgiugnip fiwtuwpwupr t pthp4lq ntrawl Gb iunijalmgp 4i qnp6gudpugrg 4tpuippnrq rlpnilraqhpp, nprg dfb uthqtt Luthlntinidl t fiuuhil m1i1g h %. qutguuiwuui~ltwgp,. L,)1- ttg61wugp, t. Ii'wu26lwQp 4 Gthpt opltipp: " lutuuqpntpalntip fitul m1i1guwlwptuq thpwd2ulwlgu qpniralwq wuptthuuin tz, npgl uquthl t a~tuqnpgtit VIII ritupniu: CIturlqw x, upri brugtqi nt u1g~qpug~i rpullugugnm~p Ituu]4Lub t Uudiil4tuGnu UlniG~hgnt fihmn: 4thittu tt2tulltilugg nt tntupn~tugf dt~mullgi UG 'pfiqnp cnqbg, U CQwGr tu bphllugl G, 1utuwuntp SwupnGthg1G, bitiputhu CMnpfitufrG ti tultnp, ututiuii XVII gtupntil tupig tlnpugwb Itp tulq GQwugwphpG p~latpghitnt pwututhag, ti i1bqgl opu tl futwwqp ptuqt~uwab t~wmplufghtp hpwudfl2- ntuq~tntralwq fitutulp mignild hg wuntirb4wu: " S U'h~ptpnttTQhpG tupttwu tg %11 tca6b6iwugb 21awNountrapiG 4tuliwutnwuGhtuig wu21uwupfihr qppig (fhtn. III, t2 120, 143): 36, 4gnipip fitul finqihnp hipcg figtuqnilg tnthuudg t: UGtqwaniJG umtnwghit t wuutn4wu~w2g~uig uiurlttnulthpfrg 4i opfigntraltggthpbg 1ggjui& ffrahint Li nptqhiu rlpw~g fitutitu gwuiwpcttp11 ugtwtn- 6xuuntq: tutwqh t IV-V rlr1. Li till(i ti qp'hpr q1ntnp wgtu~ritthl tz pwu- Gtwtnp: U~nui~t lgniprlgthpp fliiiulni hiphipwg~i mngrg pturlltugub t 4np-p hipqhp LIQb: 9.tupitq 4 LiptuqmhtuGtuinq 1lgntprlGhpG ut dibnthi hig 4gnipqwpwG lin~g4wb dnqnmtubntipntil: XII tuprg uliuwbr rlpwtip Lin~i thg 2tupw~wGip, fhtutmitqwutnuuuuwputp 4-gntprtuGGthpp' OmupwL Gng~thp: Utuuni- GtuqpntiplwG ih hipphig fitugrrtqnui t l4gnpq ptunn, npp Gntl- GLugqhit t Lgniprlji fihul: j' tayhrg fitul tub~rwrlxupltwg thpqhgnrlntralwq tnthuul Gtplg It, thppbtug Gnt3tuggthl t wwrl fituul tugntialwg ftiu: QI~ui l. f&wuflmibqlmugr, qwtgap, umturm, dtohqhrg Li finppputl pj 4uqmtt hg tpgt2wup: %tugapl' tututuntnqtutlu, u'aufl' ututttfbl Alluiul- 62

66 Snl Iualp fintqiuug, tfihrbyg tunwgtqt 4u fintgtultug pgntlra, bulg t- ;U ti~ptipnui~dhpg tpwp i 4(Q Qwjuouni~abiQ Ztuituuumtu- - Ghuwlg tu21uupfirv qppig (fitn. III, t2 116, 189, 143, 144, 145, 210): u ' 9bGptugtpGtqfipp Umnlih ptipnuli hap tutip1plq ltutip puwn q bv~ahnfiirqjwuq dbiputiu M1XnpfituqtG thpqiufiatg 4 thpudb2u1v q]nt qpp (1p1±uG, 1973): 'uq JiupqwrnpntipjnGp Uiqhltgrnl it tupupnqlnipjiit chwlwuni- Y4 qing uniwnqtpuu 4tuing launqnuri, qh tim ptii fi UflLp lw 4 b fin~w1.tutnp iuuuiniwubtupgwlq tit f fiphi2nulwupu urnpp tub fupgq Uh&b ntluuifig U'iuph~tatugG: Ut udthgiul~hi wuihitu!g qw~- INi dipa fihufitwt tit fiwiwtuhtul, qtuluwuq htflg tit quluwulq nirgiug L4 U pgpqhwg uilgui 4tupuutnw~hwulg hilttlqhginl uiq~ptul tit fiu tuinuniq tutqt, tuniu2gnpr~ntitiw~p ZnqinlG U~unnlbn% nip inl- ItupnrP q uitituiiq ptpb l iti~tuilflv: [tt- nth- tap 'UtniibuGnu OiiptitltuQ - XIII-XIV rlq1., tutwtntiwqflp 4fiwGciu fa'tlinpw ugf - XV r}., tuuripqiii UfiithnG gtwpnqinu - XVII r}., uiturthpqnt i- Utn gtif utnpfliupn (hitui Uiluiflp t~rgti1gugf) - XVII-XVIII ViI itt- qq qpfl, tnuurlhipcpi 'lt~inpnu '1,wijiiu~gf - XVIII q~., umuqhtpqni B2 1Unduth Ulni~thgf - XV rl., ittuni~iuqflp, tnuipqri Z4ngftuGhtu lniq - XIII qi., tiiuu~ni~iuqp, ituflufunthfw, uiiuhig inhpqnt Upwibi 'Utunqin2 - XV q~., dwgpuu~atpf, uiwrtipqnt _ IG U'lituu P~n~u-pthgfl XVI-XVII Tj. winihpqni: U12luiutiht t fig Idipcq (Lt~ri4) piurltuptuppt wp ghullntgnuwpiugnu1i nptiqhu ptp- W-tn.ig n tt1ltup 4 t ulrl tgutwuiunn4 hipptlg wuttxugqhit t Qinli tlngw~tlu- ljtuifitutgth 4IniuI - XVI q., uiurthprnt: 14% "2 VII rpupr u14q1 fl uniupuflg iptud2tuti p tppt funupinq A 4li- U p4tqfl finttwu~wunpnilawiut Sflqpnntinu thpqfl 4 Gttuitubrni WU- PflnPPut nt Gl ptu qwrtltut~nuput bg, 4twuuuiiuQrg fituuinnt.l fiptuhpq O~ u Utuipqfup ahtn~twp1 tgflg wuptithlug hipq-thpwd~tnnratug I- W uanptitug, uinhuwutunptha filwuintutnphii gnpbtp, npflg itn~n hptud~tinipltw qupqwgnutp Gnp jatu4, uuiwguu4, is dutitufig udjf I1ituttaf~2flhpnql fiitwunpgtub Gnp nfp utnutuqw /unupnbfi- U110~ uwqtnutip: 63

67 Uiwap fitul db2flqwrpluug finc4np hipqtupgthuuir dtunpphpbg UhI4Q t, btui t pitupnqlig It# ftirgt4g t %prinp lbui wgrq: luptu qtuaahipf Nupthpfg tt GttGop&u4 ip gipp 4~n qtul hg quqltp: SUth~phipu~p) 11. hg~p6&wth~ Gi2g1Wu qpp~g: Un~irntuuii ahnwqgphpuxl Iut Nutuuipnt.ltG idug 1ST ltrnpphli niunidgtuuripntjintg, npuihtg, fithqtltln4 (I.. %tutq'uuupulligri (S'i~fpp thpwducltnu4ug*) ptugtuunpnqrpntggipr igpu, 4wuprlwuqiup J1wpia It wthfwlpdfig fuwq lip fituu~wgn.an.gp ctlwljhpuq t npu~gtu hipwud2mntlplwg wuptntfwwl wtiut~n g Gtip~g t~ti4b' hgntugrng, tuu4gpg t~itt~ ntnpulbrt tgunwnrl G2wG- Gthp: 1uwuiqugp atintuqphpr fititnwqwtu tntqntnntalntgithpp tguwpqhi hq, np jtuqucgpnq~angp 24wiuiuixiwt nu1qlntflqn t ni- Qhight Iuwu unp Situpn~ltigrng 2tUutn ut: (Stu' 0,-. urawag ~w tulwqtu luwquiliq Gnttqpnirani~p, tphwqg, 1959): 47 U~pptuuir i lguunwgh ituuri % tjulb2w~uq qptil t uijuu41iu. «Sluptu1twQ fituru~ugi dwtutthuljwqprq 4hud ntiphg int- 9f-G. Cult tn~uuw4 tulgp' ptuqlgp hrgwuiim p awiqrg wguu1wn tiitwgb'd fr unipp tihtuutnuutu. pu~qf tuutntugop, nz qrtuit Inrt 6wpupwwpt, 6(hupltigwG piu~ntnp 4t pwcptlturlpnituq tirtutul ihrghrltitug LL QiltuGtatug hipqng d uttuutugntrahuig, np Iutnlpnuugtu 'ua~pntuduniqp l njiq, taut hi -gnpr, fiitu~rgipa fituutoplg tipqnttpg. tit. quiwugbi?1 uu~wli opligw~4f lw11talt 4twGlptiul W2- utpfitiu UrunutuGw1l qpthwu2, fitutttiq qhigt qntituinlg hit nul4tiqgwp qwuprgnij, tit Ining piuigg Irunu p 4puli' wlu oph~ua puigjup, brpt qgphigix hgrlug1~uitnp tnwnu np ilin1 U ut~pntut~ntqp Ii lust tit lpq'np opb Guilft... qnip ptuptluphut tbig 1885, t2: 254): " 4iti. tir2g GttpliG t hpud2u-wu~puui wg tlwutnlutp, qwplntnpnig tipqhgnrtntalnig~hpr dngquntg l n~4hit t lrwapijdw fipu ilb fitutntub n1qhghil t niunigngpuuljtuq Q2wQwu ntiplng: U ugpntutlwag dinrgngbnt~tlpp Ijnf4t hg Gtut luwqqprl~p: "24uiltauparnaI [jvlnq~itu~ (Ptiuptu 2jutuppanul, ) rata. utnqibi t fiwilwtu~wug GnumuqupntipjniQp, npg wggtttu it-ntq rptuw fijig uwqtuqpntialnitfg rlihul qgiwlbg Gntu-w 64

68 pnitalnt.g, li Tlptu 2QnflPUrh ugtwfiituqgtig tuqqtufig dniqngprl~tu- 4w ~tg 4 i6nqttnp tipwudnnttgluq tptun nid drltnwtgntialntg: 0i o, 4-, qul.i pu-, fun, 0l, uiqw-ai pbuggnttx t nputjtu tigpnttu- IN 4wG qin, nti, fi, csiuw, unl, jjw, u/i phalni (1.uilT' c', d', e', 1', g', a', b'): f u.r'tu~igtugp " (luuwqbp-fig tu11tuattg ilwjgtupntiwg*i UpubpntragntQp lntlu t tniuil 1874 ga. t~?i1ltubqntd: " %Ihnpq IV (-Phphuuih~jtwG, ) - twgurnflul nu t pgm~ tpqlit 1866-bG: Stu- "'. (?fttulgb «2twlGwqgptiwu tipqhgnrtntqartq u. '1hutnupuc4', qb rp fipwutnwpugttt{1l t LutWtp2Wu~gutxnnll 1874 ta.: «Upqh- LGP gnqjntgabuip upprnl ttntwpwqgb (parlqp1lnal 1; Gwhb fincltnp wni g O~p 4 aht1rpahp) 1-PG fitut~npp fithwtnupruug4h1 t 1875 ga., 2-ptip' G pa L~utp2tuulwutnntti, 1875-pa fiptutntupu 4it 1 Gl othwi p pw~angpv: nt- ". Ulni~pQ, ciw4tu~ipwup, GlluItn niap b. UpqGltpxtGp «.u~l UG, Gtatiu tlwgl4uug lipqwupwgp*, 4wrttwp~ttwt, 1880 ta. UJ. 1-turrlntuplwagp x u4 tu'w w G awlgaqptiuq thpqtupw~ip~, 1-riQ il- 1uU, XUpuI14wGGtip, tipqtip 4i twqip, '-1tWqwp~Wtqgw, 1890 ta.,.& 4nrtngprtu~G thpgtp, flui wp hg ht ainl~gaig Utufiuf Utup- WRn np Iu4tucrn t~tfhwba, 1884 ta. 4 wul fipwwtwpw l~n G~aap: " lt' tup CtdulgwGp ( ) ptuiwawgltwb llwinwup- 14 Ot 04a4 opu lt ltutnupipml t fiwgl tiltiqh1gw1~wg wuptupnmt- 1tu 1niaahipp dtuttuw4l: "5 4Ppputnuapnp -Impw-U'nipqmulr ( ) titibtuntlg inu2. 04Ggar fling tipwud~unntqalwq tgutiintlawgu i2 ptu~agt~u lntnu- 1a~ua Ultu nguunnutlq in tnwupunttulg lp: Ulu "~ R titupw-untpqtug t~dxpwbpa t fipwgbp41it 1892 la.fi* l li~hpp 1'144~iCnpq1tua 6tii p nhiljtnnp U~ppuuutiu Utirlpw- PrG iliina fipinglipn4: 1893 ta. GnltutppaG inqinin 1 wupawliqlii gp h1. 9hpin6 tytu2tn~bg: f 4'tpup ttipupulgin qtgpngpg flidggti t 1842 ra. lu1du In?l~nUtuignt?in~pnhpn4: bp1~wp ininppip wglg hlii 1; fiinl I: 12uldn1ig wunin~wqnp o~tulugliprg UUdti: l: '4' 44fituGGhiu Uu ti~intpginq ( ) U lhpuwgtlw 0'4hGinplua fihingnp wqqinl tugg 1~p: 19.lud2uiftltunf ntuntgb, 4i tipgti1bt futlgpr riuj4wtp ugtui2utnntutu WrPhlnm fipinqbppqhl 1891 ra.: -a 65

69 62 %4npq. UntphQ~lwGg ( ) - 1 tupanrffdnu tz pgtinpgl 1912 pa.: 6'tuptu1ltiG 4uultpVH2 ( ) 4wituInrddnu t pguipgtit 1892 pa., 1AnGr~uAt1W qplqt t1895 pa.: 41-. U~tupwu-U'ntpqtG ntunl1~tuufrptitnq U. bl dwlig hp pmtlu p~qbuiiw6u wu21uumnntran1qt, fiptudtupitnul t fiwuing q~uutnuu pui4i Gthpr~tuGtu utlwg hip luwpwri tnwpptiptul~g 4, tuntug- Gtiprig titi1p fli~tqn4, bp tipq~.ujut1f4i fituianaw~pljnul uilq tqtn- VA~ I41iPtqn4 fiqltg~htnt qnpb: "5 -~ Pw1bI4' di2w1iwc '1winwupwp fipwuttupwupgit t 1877 ra. 4tiQhtnbntd «' oitupndiutnfl* tupgiuutuwpw~tuw, qptutg-tipud~tntw- 14tuG ututnl4tipluqtutpr} fitu~qhtu tp: 4puupWWktu4hti t: aa. (fir4ihurntt, umqwquptl t: a41i~iiubhntd, juidpwqbpg 1:p qvtup1bqhg ILn~tuGfl: 1912 ra.: l-iwqtlu~pujbj~hpg trfq 'nui~nu U'Utihla 4i U~quiui UtuGntiiw~i2: UQ1Plltpnrt Gtgutn upti 1p fitutsuipt f'ih4u fitujilu ltiuq rpqgpng Qhph hpwdul~t-rituuwuinntghipf U l firtt~rngh ptuptitw41it 1hpwd2utnntpalw r.uuwgwgrtt~wg qnpbrj: q)pw fiwiutltp p~lpntpawti12 G1uJtlp?}Jnr1 opud2unuaiu t d1wl1v (1908 pa.) xlb~ngt~hpn4 tntugwqtgbq U. UtuGnlt~tu~fl <G~b, dnrign~utg, U. U'tu~ndtlwtGl 4 fl'. Ut1iw~ fttkrpwd2-i w6~~ wijpphgw~tpq. 4 tuiiq: 1914 pa. pglllipnlpalndlfl qbtnwip2tutt 1wqtiuw4bputhg rli bi O1pu4: Ibn~npui4n4 aiqijqpwgpqr Grptg dnqtntprltutwq lipqtip: U~patuwwluipl wtriwit~lghipq tb U1QntLt- 4quA Sh-I~nt~ It UulhpIrrpiQ U'btrJpptu~p: '-Itip~bUu 41ipbau- G1ig pa. fipupguptullig aitulquiqpgub Ginrp~ whptu1 tupqthp 4hip~wqpn4: U,. Stip- f4n~qruwutp utnhrbthg 40ipwlt t- tnlntuithp* 2Wupp1 ubd4)nqib GqtufwutlIpr fiutp: "U1Qnl2wuqwG Stip-rktnfgt~uGp ( ) llndtyunqftnnp Lp, hipwd~tutiin, UituQ1xwgtupd, fiuutupu&tutjtu qnpbr: 69 Uurbtn U'tirpjGp ( ) tiptducllt~uqlitxi 1i-, 1 nduunqguinnp, wqqqpwqui, 1ipwud~tnunutltw ixr 2Wupp tupdb- W.U~gnp 'ui21uu LmTthalnIQUpJ fihrjbiftu4litndhrnuttut pnuqng w- 2t1pUpU1gUP tftillp: 70 Sutp fitul ulpnc~turn~tt xln~nrtil (dilwuiiawiha) hipqwt uinbttbntpalug dwtgpliplig I: t'tugnttlp fir t, bp pintuxgrpualnippltudlj, t1irttludbwi4utg 4 qwppgub~ntppluttp RiI1thgGnu1 t: 0itnupuj 4fil 4 qnpbhptulrgi wupbtuqtipp: Swrjj 4nIqnqg1gnG 66

70 rainlgp, rftigt w1ugwg. tuqwm n~r, qwuprpnpnpntdlthpl U. qnpbrut- '92 dig wnhul wuggnitdhpfi (u~twuudthpt) wnulntin p~n, nlitrgurn~tuigbng fituputntratgp: Su irrn uwuntt p QutpwgutG ip tpc t, fi muppthpntrjnig 2UPtudIuIQP' Ppu~nGtuquAG I 4k wptupnt- rpntplwq ctdiugwiq 1.tunupgnuT t nputihu Qiprlbp 1gtnnp G2tuGtu- 4G np uin~thpfg wanwuafi 2nl1, fiu qnprtint fiwudwp: 4twl UnGnrjffq In hpquuhgbtratg wilu dwgpp qwpcq~tugdtwg duh 6wui~uiwpfi 1; tugghp: Swupp1ipttni1 1G fincjlnp (tyul ~ugtulug) 4k tu2lupfifli 377 muiqghp: lj~nwpqgipn Z~witutnt nt gwnntgqw~tpn4 pgrjiupau q nt qwupugwt Uk, tip1pnptlighpp' utrld, fitugijp: Surtipp 4iptupat_ uilpgnul 1G bthuigw liaatnwupnutnq, fitutikpqwtujlq uirtgut~l j )21 Intl 'TpuGi n bthulig fitul, ui11utt nfi uutul] idgntlr1j 1kptudfl2- aut- wrntlaltg ptwpilpwtung tniuug Uk, Iru1e Cqprinp twptilgugnt tnwqhltpp' walrp wupgtuuifl qptuwggtgwb 1gnrnrpGtkp: putlwpq-tnt ( ): 72 OripPQ (4ngfiuGQiku LiulptuugthtnluG, ): Bb Rfl4WGfl (Uhtiph ti ngitug, ): i u 7 UlniGnL d urtguiuafgg~pflg al2rnrlwtulug wuptuui ntbp: unltdgtuuflpntqa1uirp qptp1til UC% Ln~twGp, U'. U~rltutuGtp, fidi alnwulnul U. 4QntuipiuGp, 0'. U4raLuluGp 4k Wultp: '-Iiuptih t ~i (i. 0. tultu~if «9~ntutuG 24wuiuur*, bptaug, 1963 pa., U. U~riwiltuGfl WG Z*Lwj cpntuwgghipp h. qnuugwwtuntrltu1]wg tupttiuuip, tptauq, pa., U. 4Qn, wpjtu~l 4tul qntutugwljuig tipqhip*, tup~kwg, 1976 th. Wt2h U~tnrpntQGtkpp 1k tuipq: 4l '«Gtp fwtjwtutpv uliuti t lfipwunupwl4tip 1861 pattu1rwt- GJg 9'Utjplti1 bpwtughi Uk X'Urptulnu (a'w26ltu.gh GwfjuuAhn.- U- Gtupittailp: Uu u1q 41g tdu fitiuin Gptu qnlntipjntgg ngrlfituul41k. t1: 1862 pa. q1pipuntu5 fimqttit t w.4tup fiu~ultg tipw tu uil]g p~4tp1nlng, npif G1LIwU1LUII2p rntulntiplwg tmti tiptwd2lnixff wg n- Lp, qbg tupiantg tqtitilq ltp: tnntig rqtu wgflg 4tput utjnil l~ 4QGup f1l1wti wg* ujitupptipt wg fip wmwtpturntp WLu wgqtud S. 2ntitf 76qrpiuG Qntruw~ltuG ( ) -- tutrg fiwulgtud tg o- " i'pl bptugltugp ( ) liwiltnahi t 04-1lm~t vw tip- - qn4: 1J- UniGflf fitugtgtupup G1]unl nigfl liwpwu~tiuin $tuiqtu- 0- Ga XIX gtppf tuphuluwfi tuunwt~bg 1gntugnqflunpGtipflg ithjflq, p6 uuigutil 1; wjkpuilwg pwiunpnfifl Gijwqwtuunidpp 'llhpunij: 67

71 1t bbnqupu 8IiqpwQuGlt~ ( ) Iufl2fP Gthprlpnu1 ntdb fiutputuiug rlit2gwldnl~pug tipuid~tnntpaitlg tuuuutphqgnu5: *UqltiuwGqp Utqti~rrultuw ( ) -- fihu urtlnq~. Iiptuchnnipra fihtwvrlhp: O'fnHxlwGnu U tirpwqu ( ) -- fitu rguuau~wq rnduwgur flbdurip: 'z Uwupqgu Pwupluntuw~tiQ ( ) -- pntqiludtup utntirbtwqnpbr, dtllltutjwpd: M' ic*tu lipwdh2mn pkinptitnbi1ghpr pqlipntrplntip* uunihq64ti k f(i 4qjiunt 19191x.: "' 4.wtuutnwuGntti jun piwgtlti h21uu~n11rig 6ituutnwutnntijig fihurn Gnp 4tnu gitupnqnt~ 21rin1.wdndu IiqW4q fiul 1d21 4mlh1P wup41iutnri ptugtqntlq GipljutjgntgI Gthpr 2tuuuiuiG fipwuglphpu. qnpbrg: UphUG 41njuunrlpthgrQ 'Hdludinu U1rpltu~p (1921 pa.), U4l. UuhtGqfwipltwGp (1924 p.), Utq. U'tqirpwGp 4i 2tutn flipli- Qtip: U'uutnptuu4tiu [V. U'tilniia 2wui pn pa. 2 iultuuuntu~ntt Rirtsturgpgtg wunug tipltud2uitu1~ug fiuuuwiuininint' UphluGr ihpwdcmtw~wq uumthnrtuq, npli firispri gjpiu 1923 pa. pwug- 4hig uthuiutpi l4n~utipgwulnphwag: q1'. UlnitihG 19341& 1. '. &- ltttilturgntrpt. fqi bp igw~t~uuqputxtnt tgutntnul t 1919 p. bpl ugnutl tuqcptulg tipwud2inwugng p-wgtlnt fiutduiu G tuwlf2hq fiwgpwugtinntpalwg 1.intugtpntpituQ bptuqpthp dluuhq: Ujiri qripbi 4t1t4wqpttipnt ituiltup fipw41ip trg utntugtql U. upfuntrtwplwurj 4 IiGpp '9.. UlntGi: 68

72 ARMENIAN MUSIC Discussing Armenian music is the same as describing its 109 history, its development, all the changes it has undergone from Lbthe most ancient times until the contemporary period. uqb- Due to economic, political, geographical, climatic, religious 1921 and other circumstances, music is not the same in all nations. 02- To discuss the history of Armenian music is tantamount to jw-studying all the changes that have taken place in the course of 1IG time in that branch of the Armenian arts, to reveal all the distg tinct qualities that are characteristically Armenian. And, because the character of every era and every nation is reflectuged in its music, as the greatest expression of soulful emotion, t~w thus that historical survey completes the picture of its entire t U, cultural development. And it is from this greater point of view that the survey bears an ever greater significance. In order to do this historical survey it is essential to use both oral and written -sources. That may be easy for the modern and contemporary periods (to give concise information and to come to certain conclusions), but it is difficult and in many cases even unachievable for the medieval and ancient periods, for the simple reason that musical determinants such as the voice itself and its means of perpetuation (through notation), and especially the absence of a writing system or during the period of its primitive development, all create obstacles for the complete realization of our intentions and compel us to suffice with fragmented and disconnected pieces of information. As is the case for all nations but especially for the Armenian nation, the ancient period in music is covered by the thick darkness' of the historical past and it is impossible to say any- 69

73 thing with certainty. This much is known to us, that the Armenian people, like all cultured peoples, had its own songs which accompanied all the events and phenomena that shaped their lives, being passed on by word of mouth, reaching Khorenatsi2 and Magistros (1l' century). Those songs, for all intents and purposes, as Khorenatsi himself states, "We have heard by our own ears," and were called gousanakan (minstrel) or Goghtan songs, and the singers - gousans (minstrels) or Goghtan singers. The main homeland for these minstrel songs were the wine rich regions of Goghtn in the province of Syounik. Both Khorenatsi and subsequent historians mention the following types of minstrel songs and stories: novels, tales, legends, sun novels, epics, recitations, dance songs, show songs, lamentations, and love songs. Vep (story) - was a versified poem (against its verisimilar, sometimes entirely imaginary in context) which was told, sung by, as Khorenatsi says, "song novels." Novelist signified one who told a novel, a singer (the verb to tell means to sing - tell a song, tell a game, this man is a good teller). Zroyts (fable) - was a mixture of reality and fantasy, similar to current tales. Yerg banits (epic songs) - was a song that recounted and praised the life of heroes. Tvelyats yerger (recitatives') - were songs about imaginary heroes, that were composed in chronological order that included telling a number. (To tell a number is a certain form of singing that even today exists among minstrels and in operatic works). Europeans call that form of music a recitative. In Armenian church music there exists even today the "number" mass and telling the number of the pokhs'. Yerg parots yev tstsots (dance and show songs) - were happy or sad songs' that were expressed by dance or pantomime and were sung at concerts and public performances. Geghon (ballad)9 - were short lyrical songs. Mrmounj (lamentations) - were all those melodies that mourning-and lamenting women, tragic mothers "', would sing 70

74 he while dancing and clapping around coffins at funerals. gs "Dzaynarku [elegiac] lamenting women took to bury [him]" ed (Khorenatsi"). ag Those songs were accompanied by various instruments during and after Khorenatsi's time. For example: tsi re 'rs nd 1tn STRING INSTRUMENTS Bambir2 - served the role of today's minstrel saz or chonnt goor It had gut strings and was played with a plectrum nd (mzrab). It belonged to the bandura instrument family which is is, widespread among Asian nations and recently reached Europe. "They used to sing with bambirs." Its other type that belonged ar, to the same family was the metal stringed pandir, which was ng played with fingers bearing bone picks. ne Harp or Psalm Player - was a metal instrument (a primiell tive form of today's harp) with gut strings, which was also prevalent among Asian nations and especially the Jews. t- "David used to play the Godspoken harp..." "Aman, Asak and Etan were the head singers who used to sing with metal nd harps."" In ancient times this instrument was known as a "Psaltirion" from Psalm. It had ten strings which were played by the fingertips on both hands. That instrument can still be gat found in various corners of Europe, accompanying this or that rm solo instrument (mandolin or violin). Some church hymns are called Psalms (Psaltirion) because r they were sung with that instrument. Catholicos Hovhannes Bagratuni, during the funeral of King Ashot I, mentions, "They re played Christian Psalms and sounds of blessings." Lyre'4 - this instrument was made based on the harp, but its tructure is more complicated and perfected. In its lower secions it has echo compartments. In earlier times it had three gut at trings, but later that number reached eight to ten. It is played g ith a plectrum. 71

75 Jnar5 or Chianoor - which must have resembled the cur- si rent chianoor. It was played with strings like the Arabic ebab. sc Kanon'6 - belongs to the lyre family, but with a simple G structure. The word kanon implies that it is an Armenian th instrument but let's see what foreigners have to say. In ancient of Greece there was an instrument called the kanon, which had one string and was called "monochord." But that is not the ot kanon we know. Kanon is an Eastern stringed instrument sim- m ilar to the tsitra, according to Rieman's dictionary ". It was nc played in Arabia and Turkey, then spread to Lesser Armenia, Ai and from there to Transcaucasusia, bearing different names among various nations. Aj Vin8 - was a medieval Saz-like instrument, very similar to the lute. Armenian writers have passed on very scant information about it. The instrument accompanied singing and had nine metal strings. Chandir - this appeared in later times and was the preferred instrument of the Armenian minstrels of the Middle bu Ages. It combined the utterances of a sad heart with the melancholic sound of the instrument. They have given the chandir asi many names, such as chang, cheng, changir, chunkir, chnkir, bu chongoor, choongoor. As to which one of these is more current, Vc it is difficult to say, but we are using changir, because it has been recognized as such from most ancient times. The changir er has maintained its existence until now in distant and peaceful villages. 2, I said, minstrel, take your chongoor At And sing something heartwarming for us, We long for your sweet voice, Say something heartwarming. H. Hovhannisyan be dr II= Very Rev. Fr. Aristakes Tevkants, who was himself a min- fi strel, mentions in his introduction that the chunkir was a much en older instrument, placing it during the time of the Goghtn 72 th(

76 r- singers. "Which sensitive Soul hummed our myriad national. songs, the honey-sweet songs and melodies produced by the le Goghtn singers' chunkiur, which, after a thousand years... for in the last time; they still enrapture the mind, the heart and soul nt of many of us."'9 id After discussing instruments that accompany minstrel and le other songs and dances, we do not consider it superfluous to 1- mention here also those instruments that, although they have is not accompanied songs, but they have had significance in a, Armenian life, both in the pagan and in the Christian era. s Those instruments are mentioned by the following Armenian historians: o d BRASS INSTRUMENTS Bugle" - "And Smbat ordered the playing of the brass e bugles..." (Khorenatsi II, 46). - "Once again after a small-scale massacre the king (Trdat) r ascended to the peak of Ardzan and he played the alerting bugle so the entire army would gather in one place" (Zenob, Vol. 2, 45). s "How many bugle-players are in the troop of music playr ers" (Eghish6, 167). I "Vahan Mamikonyan ordered the playing of the war bugles. And the country shook from the sound of the bugles" (Ghazar, 2, 86). "And during Artashes' funeral they blew copper horns in the front side, while lamenting maidens and mourning women, dressed in black, were walking in the backside" (Khorenatsi, 11, 60). "...In front of Trdat's coffin there were melodies of God's benediction and aroma of incense... in the backside of the coffin there were horns and harps, mourns and lamenting maidens." So the bugle was made of copper and resembled the pre- 73

77 sent-day military bugle. It was used during war-time and re peace-time (for parties and funerals). Trumpet - This was also a copper instrument. "We hon- ro ored Trdat with horns sounding loudly and horridly, with va organs 'and sonorous ghanons22" ("Dashants tought"23). CO Horn-- Eghish6 mentions this instrument. "A large horn sy found among the Persians." Sul PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS Mentioned are...the drum and the cymbal. "They Were olc drinking wine while playing drums and dancing" and "they stn took great enjoyment from the dancing of the kaqav dances"' wh we cre and from the minstrel songs" (Grigor Vardapet, Lamentation 2). Both the cymbal and the above-mentioned trumpet are still nee used today in many Turkish Armenian churches during certain od services on feast days. It is not clear in what provinces under what conditions and ing sal we circumstances, under whose authorship and with what the melodies these above-mentioned songs were sung during the pagan period. Also were they strictly popular or secular songs, and or were they at the same time spiritual, sung at only public }he gatherings or also in pagan temples. We can say only that prior lam to the historical period epic legends provided musical material, iral the real result of which was the appearance of epic songs and oral tales. In the course of time these songs were cultivated and be I refined and they later formed the foundation of larger artistic ay works - oral stories ("such as those gathered by the royal son courts"27) about some real historic figure. a' The introduction of Christianity in Armenia certainly sig- con naled the persecution of everything pagan. The diverse epic, nc heroic, royal, joyful and sorrowful songs that formed the spec- agi trum of Armenian life in the pagan era must have been sub- ng, jected to the most severe treatment by dispersers of the new 74

78 religion, in order to uproot the old and establish the new. And we can see from all those books that were "gathered by the royal [pagan] courts" and burned, burying in their ashes those valuable treasures of Armenia culture. These books may have contained the pagan songs notated in the khaz (music notation) system of the Assyrian and Zend languages. Changing the life of a people is not easy. Customs that have survived for centuries are not readily forgotten, particularly if they are associated with a nation's unique and characteristic creations expressing the deepest spiritual feelings. Like individuals, nations are always struggling in that ageold conflict between old and new, and we can even see that struggle after the introduction of Christianity in Armenia, which continues for many centuries. Unaware of an afterlife this song of life (pagan) finds its salvation right in this world 2x. Even though it was oppressed, it nevertheless was sung in the XI century and even in later periods. So it is not surprising that our Christian clerical authors were not able to suppress their anger and indignation concerning those pagan songs and melodies that had been popular with the people for centuries. Fr. Vardan Hatsouni in his valuable work entitled "Meals and Parties in Ancient Armenia" writes sympathetically about the diatribe of our historians, as if he is reading Khorenatsi's lamentation for everyone, while we consider it completely natural for people seeking a secular good time. "I consider the subject of these ballads and party songs to be loving, romantic, and lyrical. Eghish6 refers to people who have become enslaved to the 'lewd sounds' of those 'pagan songs'...the son of the Alans characterizes the songs sung at a wedding party as 'pagan' and 'witchcraft.' Shnorhali also considers those 'minstrel songs' as witchcraft ("Universal Encyclical," 42). And from later centuries we have 'joyful aghs' (lyric poems), in which the old filthy lyre is still playng, and can be compared to the 'filthy ballads' of the 1yzantines...and to the 'shameful songs of the Caesarians."' 75

79 "The real minstrels," continues Fr. Hatsouni, or at least a good number of them, had a worse position than instrumental- t ist which the loquacious Mandakuni has portrayed in such live- t ly fashion. Some of them whom we might also call "charlatans" (Oskeberan Encyclical, 851), as they were actually called s (Parpetsi, 511), contained filthy and stupid words. The a Catholicos would hear "much jesting, foolishness, lewdness, r and emptiness" in the mouths of those debauched minstrels. Mandakuni's eloquence proves that those "debauched min- n strels" were none other than actors jokingly revealing the evils ( of their day. Even in the presence of the Catholicos they would present comical scenes. And a little later the same Mandakouni e adds... "one must lament the senseless pranks of lewd and pos- e sessed invitees to a party who are satiated like demoniacs, and who scandalize everyone with filthy mouths, swearing about o some people, gossiping about others, creating enmity among w some and satirizing others...and our royal kings (and catholi- o coses) and noble princes viewing that stupidity 'were prone to a' laughter' (as Pavstos might have said)," stated Fr. Hatsouni. in That information that resulted in anger among the likes of s( Fr. Hatsouni nevertheless is valuable and worthy of praise. pi That anger emphasizes even further the circumstance that as in bi ancient also in medieval times there existed chansonets Pf (singers with loose morals) who combined their song with the lil music of our minstrels, receiving praise as vardzaks9 from our Pe authors. Fr. Hatsouni gives additional information about them. In "The artists...quite often appeared at parties. Arshak was often tq the target of gossip for his extreme excesses at orgies listening CO to the songs of female minstrels." (Khorenatsi). "They were drinking... wine...with whores, male and female minstrels and pranks" (Pavstos). the "Some of the noblemen and soldiers violated the devoted fo1 places of God with male and female minstrels" (Nerses the ca Builder, 52)31. In particular the Christian era places a strict separation between religious and secular songs, and the religious songs ml 76 At m1

80 serve those struggling in defense of the new ideology against the more popular secular songs that have survived for centuries. After speaking largely about secular music, we now consider it necessary to move on to the religious and stress that our authors have made certain references to religious (church) music. We expressed our opinion about primitive pagan religious music when talking about the secular, so let's move on to the Christians. Our religious music being strictly Christian in origin, nevertheless one should not think that it was void of pagan influence or that it doesn't embody pagan elements3. In the early Christian period as our spiritual fathers were obliged to change to Christian certain pagan feasts and rituals which had deep roots in the nation and created the very essence of that nation (maintaining the old form but giving it a new meaning), so too would they alter the religious melodies. And indeed there are such sharakans (spiritual hymns) and religious songs, the nature of which leaves no doubt today that they were pre-christian and pagan ("Aravot Louso"32 and others). That branch of music - the religious - has certainly had a more prosperous life in the Armenian reality than has the secular, and that life has been secured and placed in the care of many assiduous persons. It was the monopoly of certain privileged, secure, influential groups of people who even had the rule of the country in their hands. In its essence it was not subject (under given conditions) to new, outside influence and it was maintained more unadulterated, and it has reached us in present times. As great a role as the religious institutions have played in the maintenance of Armenian religious music by adopting uniformity in all areas (in various parts of the country) the application of the music notation system I, II, III tones33, etc. for Armenian songs played a similarly great role in the future34. Already some research has been done on the Armenian music notation system. The issue is an extremely specialized 77

81 one and the last word has not been said yet, thus it's left for us to remain silent for now and return again to our historiographers to see what information they have given us about religious music (in the Christian period). 5TH CENTURY There is a reference to religious music notation as, early as the 5th century. "Sahak the Great conducted effective classes, with the help of many Greek scholars, because he was extremely learned in music notation" (Ghazar Parpetsi, 11/25). Besides that reference there is Movses the Poet's "Words representing musical notes." 7TH CENTURY In that century during the reign of Catholicos Nerses the Builder a certain arrangement of "sharakan songs" was defined (because of the difference in the sharakans sung during Vardavar), about which Kirakos states: "Each church conducted a worship service every day according to the meaning of the day..." And to do that "they chose wise men, who would visit l every place in America and they certified this same arrangement."" F 8TH CENTURY a The "great philosopher" Stepan Siounetsi, a student of s Movses, studied in Byzantium "both the Greek and Latin lan- r( guages. He was fluent in the arts and in writing in a philosophical style." "He composed religious songs in sweet melody - both sharakans and ktsourds6" (Stepan Orbelyan). The same Stepan Orbelian writes about his (Stepan's) sister Sahakadoukht - "She was a sister (to Stepan Siounetsi) who since a child had received the conduct of monkhood and was 78 t

82 isolated in the gorge of Garni, living with a hard life of asceticism: her name was Sahakdoukht. She was very learned in the musical arts and behind a curtain she would sit and teach many and composed sweet sounding ktsourds and melodies", including 'St. Mary,' which she created in her own name." That is to say the first letters formed Sahakadoukht. From that century on the Siounik region became a center for musical education. 9TH CENTURY In the 9th century we see a reference from this same Orbelyan about St. Tatev (in the Siounik region). It was full of philosophers of musical songs, deep as the sea, it was rich in the number of schools preparing celibate priests, as well as painters and incomparable writers" (Chapt. 40). 10TH CENTURY In the 10th century Asoghik talks in the following manner about the prelate of the Kamrjadzor Monastery (C, 7): "Behind him was the scholar Samuel, talented in his knowledge of the Bible and in music..." I should not'forget to mention also Fr. Anania of Sanahin, the author of the Ode to Shoghakat and Deacon Hovhannes the Philosopher and genius, who wrote the Ode to Mighty King Trdat, and the holy Catholicos Nerses and his wonderful Sahak and Mesrop who composed the Ghevondian sharakan with a sweet melody and appropriate words, the beginning of which reads, "The holy church today was radiant" (Kirakos). 11TH CENTURY In the 11th century there is a reference about Theodore (Alakhosik) (Catholicos Toros of Honi). In the year 544 the 79

83 great musician and pillar of the holy church, Catholicos Toros, died and was buried in Honi, next to Catholicos Sargis." (Both Sargis and Toros of Honi are not placed in the order of authentic catholicoses). This century is considered a flourishing period in music. In this century there already existed in Sanahin, as Grigor Magistros has stated, oratorical and musical schools. "And those who entered oratorical and musical schools staged performances; competitions, and beautiful vices." And, as Magistros acknowledges in his analysis of grammar, in that century or shortly preceding it there were certain reforms "in Armenian versification and measure of poetry and song, influenced by the Arabs. And so, as the Arabs became thus knowledgeable in the arts, so too did you, through great effort become educated in the language and literature and then in the arts." And then he tells how the Arabs were at that time so well educated and knowledgeable "of mathematics, music, geometry, etc." In that same century there is reference to a musician named Daniel, to whom Grigor Magistros had sent a letter. 12TH CENTURY In the 12th century Yeghia Vardapet (from Havouts Tar) made certain arrangements "in his monasteries (writes -Kirakos). He beautifully arranged the order in his monastery so everyone was singing together.""' Here there is already a reference to polyphony, and it would t be impossible for the leaders of our spiritual life and the arts, who had studied in oratorical and musical schools in Alexandria, Byzantium, and Greece, not to employ to this or that degree the principle of polyphony in our lives and in our e schools. The 12th century has given us two great figures in the S realm of song and music. One was the reformer of Armenian to 80

84 church songs and melodies Nerses Shnorhali, and the other the learned song writer--musician (the author of "Khorhourd Khorin" - Deep Mystery), Khachatur Taronatsi (Kecharetsi). During Shnorhali's lifetime there were already shortcomings, distortions, and innovations in Armenian church songs, melodies and rituals, and the need to correct, put in order and arrange for one, universal form had been perceived for some time. With that purpose in mind Shnorhali first entered the Makinatsi and Taghinetsi monasteries, where Armenian church songs, melodies, and rituals were more authentically and faithfully preserved. He deepened his knowledge there and wrote an admonition on preserving those melodies and rituals, which is entitled "The Order of Church And Rituals...Until the Ninth Hour"" by Nerses, Catholicos of All Armenians, who returned from the Makinatsi congregation, making up for shortcomings and correcting mistakes. Shnorhali was not only the creator of numerous sharakans (religious hymns), but also the first secular minstrel. A minstrel scent is already blowing from some of his sharakans. After following on this secular path were the clergymen Khachatour Kecharetsi (the great musician Khachatour Taronatsi), Stepan Orbelyan, Hovhannes Tlkourantsi, later Catholicos Simeon, Patriarch Avetik, Petros Ghapantsi and others", who rejuvenated the extinct Armenian poem and song and with their lyric poem formed a bridge to the secular song. The secular nativity songs composed along the lines of Movses the Poet's "Christmas Song" (see A. Sedrakian's "Lyre of the Moush and Van Armenians" and G. Sherents' "Saz of Van") provide the most prominent examples in strengthening that bridge. Among the famous minstrels we forgot to mention Arakel Siounetsi, Fr. Hovhannes Plouz, Mkrtich Naghash, Bishop Minas Tokhatetsi, Nahapet Kouchak4, who in clerical times emphatically stressed the rights of the secular and forever secured its liberation from medieval hindrance, for the court troubadour and patriarch of all the minstrels, Sayat-Nova, the 81

85 "khalki nokar" (servant of the people), who entered the rundown shack of a peasant or laborer as a consoler of the people and as a teacher. Later the baton would be passed on to Shirin and others. Nerses Shnorhali was the creator of beautiful and sweet th melodies. Kirakos says about him, "...He composed many sweet melodies and sharakans in Khosrov's style42 for the co church...lyric songs, and verses, since he was responsible for the resurrection blessing in third chord4... He preached about sol the Divine Liturgy, its sweet melodies and its mystical sharakans. He also spoke about two gandzs"." He wanted to Fa say that Shnorhali had composed utilizing the Khosrov's style, "re which was altogether different from the form of other Doi sharakans. And we can truly see a balance and a logical con- ou nection between melody and words, something that is absent in pal other cases. Shnorhali was a contemporary to the Arabs and the Ali Jews in regards to innovations in versification and the musical (do arts, which are mentioned in the Jewish Khosri writing. Grigor (w( Magistros also mentions the Khosri writing4 The second prominent figure of the 12th century is Khachatour Taronatsi (Kecharetsi), who was the holy and virtu- =Se Ri of Sev ous prelate of the Haghartsin Monastery famous for his knowl- 1), edge, particularly in the musical arts. Kirakos Gandzaketsi adds, fon "There was a celebration of the holy church (Getka) and of the mu; holy priest Khachatour Taronatsi, prelate of the holy monastery ciar that was called Haghartsin, a holy and virtuous man and a arra famous scholar, especially in the music arts...he brought the ore( khazes (music notation) from East and he enlivened bodiless ed melodies46, creating works of genius that were not widespread in Sha our world at that time. He composed and taught many...and that then took a well deserved rest after working very hard." So it appears that the music notations were initially brought OUr from the East by Khachatour Taronatsi, lifeless melodies were or enlivened by him and spread throughout Armenia. In the history of Armenian music this figure is perhaps the greatest. 82 o

86 13TH CENTURY J' In the thirteenth century in Cilicia, during the time of the Rubinian Kingdom, the monastery called Arkakaghin47 became the center of Armenian music. It was in that school that "They created modulating and e complex melodies (resembling divine services, they called )r manrousmounk48), as well as ktsourds along with complete it songs." al While thumbing through a medieval research manuscript, to Father Alishan was ecstatic. In his "Sisvouan" he mentions, e, "range of songs, that are being noted with khazes and symbols r not in one, but in various ways, and more than seventeen vari- ' ous aghvakan melodies were noted on the margins of the in pages." From the seventy types of melodies mentioned by e Alishan, the revered author of "Ayrarat," such as agavni al (dove), anmeghuk (little innocent), darbin (blacksmith), lalkan r (weeping), hoviv (shepherd), etc., it appears that the majority of the melodies were secular. Alishan also gives the names of is several musicians (from the same Cilician period), such as a- "Seniors Avag and Toros," "Venerable Nerses" (son of Levon I- II), "Toros Tapronts" (the head priest in the kingdom and the s, former ambassador to England), "the brilliant and sagacious ie musicians," "Hovsep, the greatest among an array of musiy cians, who was the head musician in Drazark (Van). For the a arrangement of sharakans he mentions "Grikor Khoul, the honie Ored teacher, musician, and first secretary of Sis," who "delet- ;s ed the unnecessary parts and added missing parts of in Sharaknots, the copy of which calls Khlktsi" (Sisvan, 517), id that is to say, as an arranger of sharakans. After giving some desultory information from the works of it Our historians regarding singers and musicians of both reli- "e gions and secular music in ancient and medieval times, let's iove on to the modern and contemporary period. 83

87 MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY PERIOD P After the fall of the Armenian state one period (until the E S' beginning of the 18th century) of Armenian music has left no A apparent references. From the beginning of the 18th century our so-called period of renaissance again uncovered that tc branch of the arts from the ashes, and we witness hove cl Armenian songs and musical notation (khaz), that had been ol long forgotten, produce new arrangers and creators. In the beginning of that century, Hambardzoum Limonjian49, a clerk A in a church in Constantinople, who was familiar with the lan- cc guage of old music notation accommodated those musical notes (khaz) to the current European music system, selecting sc seven (poush, ekordj, vernakhagh, benkordj, khosrovayin. in nerknakhagh, paruyk) characters, which form the Armenian bc music notation system"', that is well-known among foreigners. Ai particularly Turks, who still to this day employ that systern known as "Hambardzoumian." Being the main reformer of the Armenian music notation during that period he with his system (notating and dissemi- gr nating this or that religious and secular song) not only secured its existence, but also its raison d'etre. That system developed. A spread, and had its followers. Leaders in Armenian community life and the arts studied cu that system. Later, during the Amira era, Baba Hambardzouni a taught Armenian notation to the famous Douzian family. The a priest of this same household was Fr. Minas Bzhshkian, who had a reputation as a well-known musicologist in the Crimea. uir Trebizond and other areas. A short time later the second generation made its appearance. Nikoghayos Tashjian' of Constantinople published his t "Textbook of Armenian Musical Notation" using that same u' tur adapted musical system52. Music lover and sharakan scholar Catholicos Gevorg IV'. seeing a variety of notation systems in the Armenian church in r various regions, tried to bring about general uniformity and 84 io es in

88 sought to perpetuate our ancient sharakans through notated publications. Thus, he invited the musicologist Tashjian to the Ejmiatsin as a teacher at the seminary and a specialist in t no Armenian musical notation. tury In a short period of time Tashjian taught Armenian notation that to many students and with them he notated all the Armenian low church sharakans, songs, and rituals and published the results )een of this difficult task". the That venerable publication of religious songs with lerk Armenian (Hambardzoumian) notation, despite all its shortlai comings, is worthy of admiration. ical Armenian notation became a required subject for all tins schools and for the clergy. Soon that subject aroused great in. interest. One after the other song books appeared containing mian both religious and secular (national and popular) songs in ers. Armenian notation5. tern Thus, the reformer Tashjian emerged as the leading figure in this renaissance period in the history of Armenian music. This great transformation in Armenian music produced tion great interest and a theory of followers. ired Many people were not content with the narrow definition of Armenian notation. Because of their artistic inclinations and ped. desire to acquire knowledge, they moved to educational and lied cultural centers and studied musical notation using the wide )unm array of European music. The European music system, which had been refined for centuries and had established a certain artistic and scholarly discipline, by virtue of its cultural triumph was going to expel the weak - Armenian musical notanea. tion - from the scene and in its place the European was going to rule in dominating fashion. ear- All those roads that are closed to money, weapons, brutalihis ty, and to fire and the sword, are always open to peaceful culn~e ~tural captivation, and the only way to counteract this is by establishing peaceful, but more forceful methods. But V h Armenian life, deprived of such counteraction, would dozily h in accept that powerful mind's powerful system. The sworn and 85

89 defenders of the old religion, to say the least, tried in every manner to resist, but that resistance was powerless in stopping natural progression, bringing about the inevitable result. Tashjian, the greatest ambassador of Armenian musical notation, had an immediate student, Makar Yekmalian6, who at the St. Petersburg Conservatory had already tasted the European system and realized the great advantages it had over the Armenian. He didn't consider himself a worshiper of his deified idol. On the contrary, he demanded smashing that useless thing. Left to wage a struggle against this powerful trend were idolaters with entrenched traditions, deprived of the real means of resistance. These people, who lacked any preparation in their knowledge of the arts, would naturally utilize the excusable and inexcusable means that were characteristic of the weak-pretense, deception, exploration of the people's most sacred feelings, with the sole intent of creating a resistant spirit in order not to be swept up into the flood waves. And that's how to explain the motto - "There is one God, thus church music must also be monophonic" - at a time when the pioneer European disseminator Kara-Murza" appeared (in the 1890's) with his polyphonic mass in Ejmiatsin, in his capacity as a music teacher at the seminary". At the same time the Nersisian School" board of education, which had handed over the governance of the school to one of the leading figures of his time, Hovhannes Spendiarian" of the Crimea, invited Makar Yekmalian, who had graduated from the St. Petersburg Conservatory as a theoretical musicologist, to teach music and religious and secular choral singing'. Yekmalian, who had already prepared his mass for three and four voices and which had been performed under the arches of the Armenian church in the capital city of St. Petersburg, with the maestro as choral director, and which had earned the praise not only of colleagues, but also of the conservatory board and the music capella, attempted to do the same at the 86

90 very main church monastery in Tbilisi, hoping to receive the supping port of the prelate. -In the monastery's mother church the mass, sung by the Nersisyan School choral group under the direction sical of Yekmalyan, not only did not bring about displeasure among Zo at the people, but had just the opposite - an enthusiastic effect - the thanks to which the prelate, Bishop Gevorg Sourenyan' (the over present catholicos of Apostolic Armenians) appealed to F his Khrimyan Hayrik and received permission to publish his mass use- for three and four voices. Khrimyan, along with his approval, sent the following encyclical to Yekmalyan. "It is desirable to vere find the basis of Ancient Armenian melodies of our ancestors, pans that were created and sung over the years and recorded in musical notation (khaz), the real significance and the certain )wl- sounds of which remain a mystery to us. We sing in the tradiiex- tionally learned manner but we don't know if we are singing. nse, precisely the way our ancestors did... With this encyclical we ngs, give you permission to complete your work and use it in our t to church. At the same time we appeal to our able and pious comthe patriots to generously support you, so that you will be able to be mi- publish your work...63" This wonderful work by Makar Yekmalyan was published )ly- by an extremely ardent and pious Apostolic Armenian by the r at name of Grigor Meghvinyan. In 1896 that work was published in Leipzig-Vienna and on, entitled "Singing the Divine Liturgy." The appearance of of the orn Yekmalian's developed mass with its polyphonic religious style replaced all the other similar but less valuable works by novice composers. Disappearing from the scene were Kara ist, Mourza's' (Caucasus), Chilingiryan's (Western Armenian - Smyrna and Constantinople), Fr. Chorekchyan's (Nor ree,h- rg, the )ry Nakhichevan) and others' polyphonic masses, as weaker works, that could not withstand the competition (Yekmalian). Besides the mass, Yekmalyan has also written polyphonic sharakans, such as "Norahrash," which is unpublished... Long before the Yekmalyan mass (in the 1880's), by the he invitation and at the urging of Archbishop Ignatius 87

91 Kioureghyan (presently an abbot), "The Armenian Church Liturgy" for piano and a three-voiced chorus, was written in Armenian and Latin by the Italian composer Pietro Bianchini, along with a few accompanying sharakans". Armenian religious songs were more faithfully preserved at the Mkhitarist monastery at San Lazarro for the simple reason, that, while Catholicos Gevorg IV was trying, with the aid of Tashjian, to have the singing in the Constantinople churches recorded and popularized, just the opposite happened. The old Armenian church melodies brought to San Lazarro from Ejmiatsin by Mkhitar the Abbot, have been maintained sacredly and immaculately at San Lazarro. Komitas Vardapet and Grigor Mirzaian Suni have made t attempts in this regard. Komitas' religious pieces did not find success and acceptance for the simple reason that, as a contrast to Yekmalyan's European church style, they brought nothing r new to the spirit of Armenian music. Instead, they intended to stress the artificial dominance of another foreign style c (Wagnerian) in Armenian religious music. From the musical works of G. Mirzaian in the religious c realm we have under our disposal "Christ is revealed among us" and Yekmalyan's requiem "Ee Verin Yerousaghem," both of s which were published (for four voices) in "Gegharvest."' Grikor Mirzaian was one of the musicologists who promoted a purely national direction in music. According to music critics, in the above-mentioned and in other publicized but unpublished songs, he approached the subject matter with more serious interest of purpose, bringing to light in more striking fashion the unique elements of national music, in many cases refuting the traditional forms of polyphony, generally accepted in music. a SECULAR MUSIC Secular music is divided into three main parts: peasant, which represents the lowest form of music, minstrel, which is 88 t

92 ch in ni, 'st ile to nd an by ic- the middle form, and urban, which is the most sophisticated creation. PEASANT The author of the peasant (folk) song is unknown. That song is as pure, simple and clear as the creator's soul. What we mean is that, although the author is unknown, nevertheless the song was created by someone. His primitive creation passed by word of mouth through classes of people, where it was refined (unauthentic parts were discarded and new things were added), de taking on a certain form, that is only characteristic of that peond ple, who gave it that form (folk style). That is why the folk Est song represents a striking expression of the soil. That song is ng to not artificial, it is spontaneous, a real expression of a nation's emotions and moods. Every phenomenon that is an expression 'le of life has its corresponding song. For example, horovels of planting and threshing. Songs of planting, harvesting, milling us of the grain, threshing, transferring the chaff, songs of the mill, baking bread, gathering and watering the flock, fixing the cart, separating skin of the wheat, pitchforking the hay, lullabies, praising the children, dancing. Wedding: praising the bride and a groom, satirizing the wedding party, wrestling, mourning and s, joy, feast days and holidays (Vardavar - Transfiguration, Ascension, Navasard - pagan new year, etc.). LIS of Many people have been involved in studying the melodies of these songs. Particularly worthy of attention are Komitas Vardapet (Caucasian songs) and musicologist Grikor Suni (Caucasian and Turkish Armenian songs). "The Armenian Musical Society"' has contributed somewhat by gathering and recording on a phonograph some songs of Shirak. Benefiting this cause were musicologist Anushavan Ter Ghevondyan61 and Nersisyan school teacher Spiridon Melikyan61. The late t' 89 Kara-Murza was the first to arrange and harmonize folk songs.

93 His role was not so much in arranging songs, as much as spreading the idea of four voices among all classes of people. In this regard a few of Yekmalyan's polyphonic songs created great interest in intellectual circles, making the arrangement of folk songs in great demand. We must give the laurel for meeting this demand to our two musicologists: Komitas Vardapet and Grigor Suni. We have already discussed somewhat attempts made by the above-mentioned to make Armenian folk songs polyphonic. but that does not signify the last word regarding polyphonic forms of folk music. The Armenian people still have great expectations of those two unique musicologists as conveyors of the Armenian spirit. The people still want to hear their last word. ASHOUGH MUSIC After the singers of Goghtn during the Middle Ages...our troubadours appeared... Taghasatsutyoun" in the Middles Ages developed so much. that even our leaders were enchanted by it, such as the Catholicos of Sis Hovhannes Tlkurantsi, and our King Hetum I. It continued until the 18th century, when a demand is felt to liberate the Armenian song from the clergyman's cell and make it accessible and alive for everyone; in other words, to restore the sweet memory of the singers of Goghtn. Personifying that idea in the new era were Sayat-Nova" (18th century), and later - Shirin' (19th century) and in the contemporary period - Jivani with their followers, who represent separate minstrel schools. In order to stress further those ashough (minstrel) groups, we will note in a general way their four periods. 90

94 ch as ople. s cre- ange- laurel mitas )y the ionic, honic those spirit....our nuch. s the Im II. o libake it re the t idea Ater - vanie is. In will Singers of Goghtn Birth of Christ Spiritual Poetry Taghasatses (minstrels) Khachatour Kecharetsi Mkrtich Naghash Minas Tokhatetsi Kouchak Nahapet Ghounkanios Naghash Hovnatan [Asoughs] Ghouko Nitayi Toujar Ashugh Baba Kamali Shirin Azbar Adam Haves Jirani Malyoul Yanghouni Ghayrati Shayti Khertegh Jamali Fizahi Fahrad Khayyat Amir-Oghli Dosti Sayat-Nova Shamchi Melko Cherkez Oghli Tourinj Keshish Oghli Miskin Oghli Yerem Oghlar Mayif Alvan Oghli Yaghoub Oghli Noumay Sazayi Paytsar Jivani 91

95 The Sayat-Nova school generally represents a pessimistic, romantic trend, which bears a truly Georgian inspiration. The Shirin school, on the contrary, represents an optimistic romantic trend and bears a Turkish inspiration of the rose and the nightingale. The Jivan school represents the national inspiration of our renaissance - a nationalist trend. Moving on to the subject matter and general characteristics of the Armenian minstrel's songs, they are divided according to content and their chronological development into: 1. Pagan-heroic 2. Religious-ethical 3. Romantic 4. Chronological-descriptive 5. Advisory-oratory 6. National The first one appears in the Goghtn period, the second in medieval ballads, the third in the modern and current periods, the fourth in the medieval and modern periods, the fifth during almost all the periods, and the sixth in the most recent period. t As to how the minstrels used to sing their songs in the Goghtn t and medieval periods, studies have not been conducted, as we can say nothing certain about that. Even in the modern and cur- c rent periods very minor, almost unnoticed work has been done t on melodies, and what has been done applies more to the forms of songs and versification, rather than to melodies. For example, we know that minstrels have 1) dyoupeit, 2) gazel, 3) divani, 4) ghoshma, 5) dastan, 6) semayi, 7) myoustazat, 8) sharki, 9) moukhammaz, 10) ghelenteri, 11) darbedari, 12) yedaklama, 13) bayati, 14) gyaf, 15) shaki, 16) taghala, 17) bayatavour, and emanating from them 1) the dyupeit of Kurdistan, 2) the I Van dyopeit, 3) the Topkhana divani, 4) the Kyouniat divani, e 5) the Mousertes divani, 6) Byupayi divani, 7) Nakarat divani, 8) Osmanlou divani, 9) the Marakya divani, 10) saghr divani, 0 etc. forms of songs that bear foreign names, but how those s songs were sung, to this day no study has been conducted. a 92

96 We know only that the saz, baghlama, and kamancha, and more recently even the tar and violin have replaced the previously used instruments (bambir, etc.) of the Goghtn singers, as accompanying instruments in the modern and current periods. They have had perfectionist instrumentalists about whom legendary accounts have even be created, such as the renowned saz player, minstrel Ghoubo (who studied in Turkey under the famous Mirza Pasha), who when playing, had birds perch on his saz. "Keshish Oghli would cut the membranes of his saz and then play" indicated that he was a professional instrumentalist. The musical Nitayi played tunes that moved the strings of Sultan Mohammed's soul and saved a group of young men, including his own son, Isahak (the future minstrel Nomayi), who were being taken from Erzurum to Constantinople. The sweet tongued and dispositional Shirin was a completely fiery, rabid, passionate, and protesting instrumentalist, etc. The melodies of Armenian minstrel songs are an unexplored field, that is worthy of serious study by our Armenian musicologists74. It is that study which will bring out that dimension of Armenian secular music in all its beautiful and characteristic forms. We are awaiting that beautiful day. The third subdivision in secular music is the urban. At last a branch about which to this or that degree something substantial can be said. URBAN (most sophisticated creation) This branch of music was operated only in recent times. During the period of renaissance, Armenian intellectual circles expressed interest in this form of music, as well. Those intellectuals, having the kind intention of establishing similar music in Armenian life, rather than appealing to the unadulterated source of Armenian music - the people - to borrow from them and using that popular material as a basis to create a more high- 93

97 ly artistic structure, instead, on the contrary, they opted to place Armenian words under this or that work of European music, altogether unauthentic to the Armenian soul. This is how to explain the appearance in Armenian words of Verdi's Traviata, other operas, and some musical pieces by various foreign musicians ("For our ancestral nation," "March gives us spring flowers," "Lord, protect the Armenian nation," etc.). After such a period we see the publication of a periodical, "Haykakan Knar" (Armenian Lyre)" in Constantinople, where leaders were already showing more serious intentions. It is here that we encounter the names of Tchouhadjian6, Yeranyan", Papazyan", and others, who became advocates of having one's own, rather than borrowed songs. Tchouhadjyan even went further with his attempts to create the Armenian opera, "Arshak II." Besides "Arshak II" Tchouhadjyan wrote "Leblebiji Hor-Hor," "Arif" ("Kyose-Kehya"), and a series of opera - operettas, urban marches, romances, and dance music, all taken from Turkish life (and in the Turkish language), but all of this did not find any substantial respect; because it basically took the wrong direction. The mistake lies in the fact that r 1* Tchouhadjyan and others did not arrange songs emanating as real expressions of the Armenian spirit. These songs could have served as material for the greatest creations with musicians giving them corresponding forms according to their broad world outlook, thus becoming the outstanding voice of. the national spirit in the period of Armenian sophisticated musical creation, something that is stressed even today in the history of national music in the development of great music. Instead, these composers were altogether estranged from the Armenian life, spirit, and style. Blandly following only the European style (remaining captive to their traditional forms), they created melodies that were utterly unattuned to that life, in which they should have found fertile soil, that would grow and bear fruit and glory. A repetition of this approach to Constantinople Armenian life was brought to the Caucasus Armenian life by Kara- 94

98 ace Mourza, who, besides his innate talents, had neither higher nor sic, average musical training... ' to Since the works of a more seasoned musicologist like ita, Tchouhadjyan did not register success, it is only natural that ign ing Kara-Mourza's works were subjected to the same inexorable state as his predecessor's. Among our educated musicologists in this period was Yekmalyan, who had been very active in the cal, field of Armenian religious music, but besides his musical edutere cation and training, he lacked a creative nerve and thus was t is unable...to make his mark... n76, Worthy of mention is...nikoghayos Tigranyan", who creat- ; of ed piano works for eastern (Persian) and in part Armenian folk yan songs... ian After Tchouhadjyan, until the beginning of the 20th centu-.ote ry (1900), existing secular musical works (and, in general, of Armenian creations) presented a most dismal picture. In the sic, first day of the 20th century it was as if we could see rays of but light on the Armenian horizon. Interest in Armenian secular music was developing and the number of people studying hat musical theory and composition in the capital cities was as increasing. Attempts were noticeable to be free of the old uld reigning blandness and to create something if not Armenian, than at least eastern. The works (solo songs) of musicologist A. Spendiaryan" ieer (from the Crimea), "Ay Vard," "Mi Lar," etc. and G. Mirzaian's of "Yete Mi Or," "Indz Mi Khndrir," etc., even if they did not ted stress the Armenian, they at least characterized a certain east- ;ihe trn trend. the Here more serious intentions are already noticeable, accompanied by talent and paramount musical training. the Komitas Vardapet, who has played a great role in collecting is), and arranging Armenian folk songs, remained, like Yekmalian, in Unproductive in this realm. His attempts to create new nd songs...in the likeness of Armenian folk songs, were, in essence, unable to enrich this realm. There was lacking any ian great artistic structure, there was no development of ra- 95

99 forms...the difference was only that the folk building was whitewashed and made suitable for housing, but such amenities are far from being highly artistic. The peasant building always remains peasant; it never turns into a church. But it would be different if we used the stone, brick, and wood to build a church. And finally, it is the simple truth that a copy cannot be as good as the original. It is better to have a bad original, rather than a good copy. In 1903 G. Suni's "Akh al vardi" and then "Mayisn yekav" and other solo songs opened a new era in the world of c Armenian professional, secular music. Here the composer, free from the influence of both classical music and the Russian V school, brought forth the beginning of forms and a style p authentic to eastern and Armenian life. If one can really say that there exist the fruits of Armenian secular music, then its h founder and outstanding representative must be considered G. tc Suni. Unfortunately, unfavorable conditions in Armenian life did not afford Armenian musicologists the opportunity to publish n all the feelings that had accumulated in their souls. er The future Armenian reform movement, the sparks of df which we see now, perhaps will afford the opportunity to bring ar all of this to the surface and this give it a complete critique. After G. Suni, musicologists R. Melikyan", Anoushavan Ter-Ghevondyan, S. Barkhoudaryan82 appeared on the Armenian musical horizon one after the other. Melikian (in training and talent) was a fan of the European classics (Mendelssohn). Recently one can notice in his works the presence of new musical elements, but those elements have not been refined yet and it is difficult to say where they will take the composer. Ter-Ghevondyan bears a severe Russian influence (Rimsky-Korsakov), although...he shows a tendency to approach the Armenian (that is with little eastern intention), as. for example, in the solo song "Kaynel em" (I am Standing). Barkhoudaryan is a happy exception among the three. Because he passed through that Armenian music school, he is 96 ii

100 vas altogether the opposite of his two friends. He does not bear any,ni- influence. He is unique and is as outstanding a representative ing of the eastern style, as G. Suni is of the Armenian. This cirt it cumstance is actually a happy phenomenon, because there is a I to bridge to pass from the eastern to the Armenian. We have apy hopes that this authentically eastern musicologist will cross rig- that musical bridge of eastern nations and reach the Armenian. Barkhoudaryan writes...for the piano. His "Caucasian av" Sketches" must be considered to date the most beautiful and of outstanding example of piano composition. Free Besides the above-mentioned musicologists the musical,pan works in this realm played more of a negative, rather than a tyle positive, role in Armenian life. say Concluding our remarks about Armenian music we have i its hopes that as the Armenian nation has its unique place in archi- I G. Lecture, painting, and literature, it will also have a unique place in the music arts, with her own characteristic. did The appearance of the Union of Armenian composers3, its lish national musical direction, the intention of the Armenian government to open an Armenian conservatory of music, and the of decision to invite the best representatives" of Armenian music, ring are a confirmation of our remarks. van the (in sics ake resnot flu- ( to as. ree. e IS 97

101 NOTES A part of Grigor Suni's archival materials (manuscripts of hip musical compositions, letters, memories, articles etc.) is kept at State Museum of Literature and Art of Armenia. Composers relatives arc keeping the largest part of his archive in the USA. The copied xersions of the study "Armenian Music" and his autobiography given to museum by his relatives in 1997 for keeping at Suni's personal per sonal file, are used while preparing these manuscripts for publication. 'There are no written examples of ancient Armenian music, whi medieval music has not been completely read as of yet. Nevertheless musicologists have succeeded in bringing to light pages from oui musical past. Valuable in this regard are the numerous articles and works by Spiridon Melikyan, Hakob Hovhannisyan, Aranm Kocharyan, Alexander Shahverdyan, Kristapor Koushnaryan, Robert Atayan, and Nikoghos Tahmizyan. We can name a few: Robert Atayan's "Armenian Musical Notation," Yerevan, 1959; Spiridon Melikian's "Sketches of the History of Armenian Music," Yerevan. 1935; Alexander Shahverdian's "Essays on the History of Armenian Music," Yerevan, 1959; Kristapor Kousharyan's "Questions on the History and Theory of Armenian Monodic Music," Leningrad, 19' (in Russian); Nikoghos Tahmizyan's "The Theory of Music in Ancient Armenia," Yerevan, Suni has mentioned Movses Khorenatsi because he was the first to present a comprehensive history of the Armenians as accurately as possible until his time period, the Fifth century. Grigor Magistros was one of those mentors who played a huge role in summarizing past accomplishments and reviving music education. " The gousans (minstrels) in ancient and medieval Armenia were creative and performing artists - singers, instrumentalists, dancer. storytellers, and professional folk actors in public theaters. In the early Middle Ages the word gousan was used as an equivalent to the classical Greek word mimos (mime). A. Koushnaryan has designate] 98 E E z 9 L

102 two groups of gousans. The first were from aristocratic feudal lord dynasties and performed as professional musicians. The second group was comprised of popular, but illiterate gousans. Acquainting oneself with the colophons in the works of Armenian historians shows that the reaction of contemporaries was very contradictory. The gousans were sometimes criticized. sometimes praised, particularly in medieval Armenia. The adoption and consolidation of Christianity had its standard influence upon minstrelsy, gradually f 1 bl'altering its ethical and ideological orientation. State S Goghtn was a region in the Vaspourakan province of Greater s are Armenia and bordered the province of Syounik. It was nicknamed Nvr cn wo per "ginevet" (winy) because it was a famous winegrowing area. 6 The name tvelots or tvelyats has various interpretations in Armenian folklore. The most probable explanation is recognized as ition Manouk Abeghian's theory, that is to say, that the name tvelots songs xhile has originated from the word to tell (a story). Grigor Ghapantsyan 1e1es' compares the Hurrian tiv and the Armenian t'ov-em. In musicology a ou' it has one meaning, which is equivalent to the term storytelling. s and ' Pokh is the name given to the separate parts of lengthy units in kra'i church music. ober The concept of tsouts, tsouyts, tsoutsk in ancient and early oberi medieval Armenia is on the one hand tied to rituals, on the other hand ridon to theater. evan. Vardan Hatsouni suggests that geghon (ballad) originated from enlda the word geghgegh (trill, humming) or geghgeghel (to trill to quan the vel) ' During the burial ritual the leader of the crying women in ic '" Ancient Armenia was called yegheramayr (mother of elegy). " In ancient times singing at the burial rituals were specific, parfirst ticipating women, who would perform songs of lament. The word is dly a interpreted also as tragic actor. 2 Bambirn or pandir, and in other versions pantir, pandern, huge ede bambir, bandern, bandirn. It is considered a string instrument that has a handle and is plucked. It was no longer used after the late Middle Ages. Information has not been preserved regarding its spe- We. cific use, its number of strings, its tuning. According to another thejcers ory, the bambir is considered a percussion instrument (using the root n the bamb as a basis). to thc nated 99 ' The quotation is from Ghoukas Injijyan's "Hnakhosoutyoun

103 Hayastanyayts Ashkharhi" ("Archaeology of Armenia", Venice, 1835, v. II, p. 294). 14 Knar is the old Greek lyre, a stringed, plucked instrument. The structure of the four-stringed and later the eight-stringed lyre (or Armenian oudi), mentioned in ancient Armenian literature, is not clear. Sometimes it was likened to the jnar, harp, and psaltery. 15 Vardan Hatsouni, comparing the words jnarahar or jnaravor with classical Greek, translates them as kitarahar, taking into account kiph which was a typical, antique, plucked instrument. It was used both as a solo and as an accompanying instrument. The first was called kipharetica, the second kipharodia. 16 The kanon is widespread in Arab countries, as well, where it is called kanoun. " Karl Riman ( ) was a famous German musicologist. One of his numerous works is "Musiklexicon" (Music Dictionary), Berlin, The vin is sometimes liked to the lyre, when the Middle Persian word vin, which means "some kind of lyre," was accepted as its root. Sometimes the word is likened also to the Sanskrit vina, which also signifies "lyre," and was used in written Vedic sources as a general name for string instruments, and in modern Hindi (beginning in the 9th century) as a name for a wind piped sitar. Vina is an Indian instrument, which has a wooden hollow frame, technically rich, and has a resonator made of dried pumpkins or some other material. ' The quote is taken from Fr. Aristakes Tevkants' "Meghedik. Taghk, and Songs" (Tiflis, 1883). 20 The pogh (pipe) is a general term given to the epiglottis or mundshtuk wind instruments in ancient and medieval Armenia. The pogh was not only made out of copper, but also wood, bones, or horns. The quote is taken from Ghoukas Injijyan's above-mentioned book (v. II, p. 252, 253). 21 In the past the organ was called a multi-wind flute (or Pan's flute). Some sources also speak of a water sounding organ. 22 It is supposed that ghanon is the well-known kanon. 23 "Dashants Tought" is the treaty signed by King Trdat III and the Roman Emperor Constantianos, according to an unconfirmed report. The quote is taken from Gh. Injijyan's above-mentioned book (v. III, p. 253). 24 The term galarapogh (bagpipe) can be found in Armenian 100

104 medieval literature. It is believed that the instrument is of more rhe ancient origin. This is how they called some bone, wood, or copper wind instruments with twisted stems. The quotation is from Ghoukas for Injijyan's above-mentioned book (v. II, p. 253). not 25 The kaqavich (dancer) was an actor and solo dancer in a professional theater in ancient and medieval Armenia. vor 26 The quote is taken from Vardan Hatsouni's "Foods and Partying nto in Ancient Armenia," (Venice, 1912, part 2, p. 205). xas 2 Movses Khorenatsi, "History of the Armenians," 1,14. 2s Grigor Suni has in mind the difference in the pagan ideologies of the idealistic - Christian and materialistic. Nevertheless, paganism it I as a religion, is also a worship of the supernatural and offers its definition of the afterlife. 29st. In the old days vardzak was the name given to a female minry), strel who performed primarily but did not compose. The word "vardzak" has several connotations - female minstrel, who danced ;an Iot. and sang, a woman with loose morals, a mime or prostitute. " The quotes are from Vardan Hatsouni's above-mentioned book ilso (p. 210, 212, 215). eral the tru- is a ' Because Armenia was located at a political, geographical, and commercial crossroads, in political and cultural contact with both east and west, naturally it was subjected to influences, and depending on the historical circumstances, sometimes eastern, sometimes western influences have appeared in the different periods of Armenian lik culture. The rich, flowery style in our poems speaks to our adoption of characteristic eastern principles, while laconicism of musical or the or ned thought and the logic behind composing the material speak to our adoption of the western. By becoming Chrisitan, Armenian music acquired a new personified content, but how could it renounce that rich heritage, that was not an influence of paganism, but its legacy, refined and coordinated in its modes of expression and developed in's musical though. Finally, thanks to Mesrop Mashtots and Sahak Partev, after the invention of the alphabet, the basis of Armenian Christian music became the melodies developed in Hellenistic the Armenian, due to which folk-minstrel musical thought and a harort. monic system formed the unique monuments of Armenian religious III, music. 3 The author of the poem "Morning of Light" is Nerses Shnorhali. ian 101 D The eight-tone is a melodic system in the medieval Christian

105 music arts. It is tied to that theory about typological melodies developed in the past of several nations. During the first centuries A.D. that theory was recreated in Christian music as eight voiced, although, in reality, more than eight melodies were joined together. Over time eight voices, specific to western and eastern Christian cultures, emerged. Later, in the eastern areas several national eight voices, including also the Armenian, became separate. After the invention of the alphabet, Mesrop Mashtots and Sahak Partev reassessed the old principle of melodies that existed in pagan Armenia and rearranged the mostly biblical songs and typological melodies, editing the first large segment in the Armenian eight tones - 4 stems (1st voice, 2nd voice, 3rd voice, 4th voice), 4 sides (1st side, 2nd side, 3rd side, 4th side), and melodies of two keys. The Armenian eight tones has experienced a great path of development and has been rearranged on a few occasions. The eight-tones theory and its practical applications were codified, under the leadership of Grigor Tatevatsi, at the music school at Tatev University. A brief summary of this has reached Grigor Gapasakalyan, Hambardzoum Limonjyan, Nikoghayos Tashjyan, and the present day. 34 Musical notation is an Armenian medieval musical writing art form, which began to develop in the 8th century. The idea and its initial realization is associated with Stepanos Suni, Grigor Grzik, Anania Narekatsi, Khachatour Taronetsi, Nerses Shnorhali, and others participated in its future development and dissemination. However, by the 17th century the key to reading those characters was lost and even today there are numerous manuscripts in musical notation which remain and enigma in musicology. 3 The quotation are taken from Ghoukas Injijyan's "Hnakhosoutyoun Hayastanyayts Ashkhari" (vol. III, p. 120, 143). 36 Ktsourd (attachment) is the most ancient type of Armenian religious song. It has received its name from being attached to biblical psalms and blessings, and consequently sing as attachments to them. It originated in the 4th-5th centuries and until the invention of the alphabet it was communicated orally. The first ktsourds were generally short songs comprised of three verses. Developing and increasing, ktsourds were collected in collections called ktsourdakan. From the 12th century on they were called sharakans, and consequently ktsourdarans were called sharaknots. In literature we sometimes encounter the word ktsoord, which is the same thing as ktsourd. E 102 I

106 " The melody is a type of Armenian medieval music and was vel- sometimes used to mean dagh (musical poem). According to.d, hed, Nikoghos Tahmizyan, the church poem, the musical poem, the melody, and the andante formed the scale. The church poem was dicher. tatory; the musical poem was emotional compared to the declaratory; cul- the melody was even more emotional, while the andante concluded o"- lion the scale. 38 The quotations are taken from the book "Hnakhosoutyoun the Hayastanyayts Ashkharhi" (vol. III, p. 116, 143, 144, 145, 189, 210). and " About this work see Nikoghos Tahmizyan, Nerses Shnorhali: dit- Composer and Musician (Yerevan, 1973). (1st 3rd )nes ged ica- the has iko- poet. art 1fIl zik, 4() Stepanos Orbelyan - XIII-XIV centuries, historian. Hovhannes Tlkourantsi - XV century, poet. Catholicos Simeon - XVII century, poet. Patriarch Avetik (or Avetik Yevdokatsi) - XVII-XVIII centuries, scribe, poet. Petros Ghapantsi - XVIII century, poet. 4' Arakel Siounetsi - XV century, bibliographer, poet. Hovhannes Plouz - XIII century, bibliographer, philosopher, Mkrtich Naghash - XV century, miniaturist, poet. Minas Tokhatetsi - XVI-XVII centuries, poet. He worked as a secretary at the archiepiscopate in Lemberg (Lvov) and for that reaoth- son they sometimes called him Lovandatsi or Lehatsi (from Poland). lon. was ota- Nahapet Kouchak - XVI century, poet. 42 In the beginning of the 7th century under the patronage of the music loving Persian shah Khosrov II Aprvez in Ctesiphon, singer and instrumentalist Borbad and his colleague, Sargis, who had been in's specially invited from Armenia, undertook the task of arranging and ). theoretically giving meaning to Eastern songs and music. After this eli- the development of music received a new impetus, and the new style ical em. the which emerged with the standards of the time received the name Khosrovian. 43 Third side. It is one of the melodies of the Armenian eightvoicier- es, which has the following scale.,asitly nes 103 " Gandz is one of the genres of Armenian medieval religious

107 music. It originated from the sermon and its author was Grigor Narekatsi. Songs that were based on the words in his songs were called gandz (treasure). " The quotation is from Ghoukas Injijyan's above-mentioned book. 46 In the archives of Komitas there is a short study on musical notation, where, relying on the explanations given by Grigor Gapasakalyan in "Music Book," Komitas Vardapet developed the concept of bodied and unbodied khaz (musical notes) as one expression of music-intonation that is as characters in the modulation sphere. Subsequent research of manuscripts with musical notation has shown that musical notation existed in Armenia long before Khachatour Taronatsi. (See Robert Atayan's "Armenian Musical Notation," Yerevan, 1959). a About the Arkakaghin Monastery see Ghevond Alishan, Sisouan, Venice, 1885, p. 254 (in Armenian). 48 The Armenian medieval musical-ritual book, the flowery musical collection was called Manrousoum (Short Study). Its one section had pedagogical significance. These manrousoum collections were also called khazbooks. " From Hambartsoum Limonjyan (Baba Hambartsoum, ) created an Armenian music notation system, which became the transition between the old musical notation and the lined system, thanks to which a respectable heritage of national folk and religious music was preserved. so This system correspond to the European do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, si bemol sounds (or c, d, e, f, g, a, b,). Nikoghayos Tashjyan ( ). 5 Nikoghayos Tashjyan's "Textbook of Armenian Music Notation" was published in Etchmiadzin in " Gevorg IV (Kerestejyan, ) - was elected Catholicos in $4 Nikoghayos Tashjyan's "Recorded Music of the Diving Liturgy" was published in Vagharshapat in The first volume of "Music of the Divine Liturgy" (including also religious poems and melodies) was published in 1875, the second in 1878 in Vagharshapat. In 1875 the "Sharaknots" (Collections of Hymns) was also published. " Grigor Suni probably has in mind Yeznik Yerznkyan's 104

108 3rigor "Recorded Children's Song Book," Vagharshapat, 1880, A. were Baghdasaryan's "Children's Recorded Song Book," Part 1, sharakans, songs and poems, recorded by Deacon Sahak, ioned Etchmiadzin, 1884 and other publications. 56 Makar Yekmalyan's ( ) polyphonized Mass is perisical formed today during Armenian church services. rigor d the pres- ation ation fore sical 57 Kristapor Kara-Murza's ( ) greatest contribution to Armenian musical history was the infusion and dissemination of polyphony. " Kristapor Kara-Murza was invited to Etchmiadzin in October of 1892 by Aristakes Sedrakian, rector of the Gevorgyan Seminary. In November of 1893 he was relieved of his position. S The Nersisyan School in Tbilisi was founded in 1824 through the efforts of Bishop Nerses Ashtaraketsi. For many years it was one han, of the leading Armenian educational institutions. ' Hovhannes Spendiaryan ( ) was a distant relative of musi- ction 6' Makar Ekmalyan was invited in 1891 to teach music and conwere Aleksandr Spendiaryan. duct the choir at the Nersissyan School in Tbilisi. 62 Gevorg Surenyan (1813?-1930) - was elected catholicos in bar tern, 63 Khrimyan Hayrik ( ) - was elected catholicos in I the He issued the encyclical in folk " Kristapor Kara-Murza, after studying M. Yekmalyan's newly published work, stopped performing his own harmonized version of a, si the Armenian Mass and became one of the first to undertake with his choir the extolling in proper fashion Yekmalyan's version. 6 Pietro Bianchini's version of the Mass was published in Venice ota- in "Gegharvest" was an artistic, literary, and musical journal. It cos was published in Tbilisi from 1908 to 1921, but printed in Venice. Its editor was Garegin Levonyan. ing 67 "The Armenian Musical Society" was created in Tbilisi in of ind in vas Its organizers were Romanos Melikyan and Azat Manukyan. The society intended to gather together music teachers from the Tbilisi Armenian schools and fundamentally improve music instruction. For that reason, through the efforts of the Music League (1908), that predated the society, Azat Manukyan's "Pnjik" (Bouquet) collection, A. n's 105 Manukyan's and R. Melikian's "Musical Alphabet," etc. were pub-

109 lished. In 1914 the society organized a scholarly expedition to Shirak. The folk songs of Shirak were recorded on the phonograph. Members of the expedition were Anushavan Ter-Ghevondyan and Spiridon Melikyan. The latter transcribed and published the recorded material in 1917 as "Songs of Shirak." A. Ter-Ghevondyan created a series of "Studies of Shirak" for symphonic orchestra. 68 Anushavan Ter-Ghevondyan ( ) was a composer, musicologist, pedagogue, and public servant. 69 Spiridon Melikyan ( ) was a musicologist, composer, ethnographer, author of several valuable musicological works, and one of Komitas' finest students. * The tagh is a genre of Armenian professional monodic song writing. Its origin is ancient and its content and advanced melodic line remind one of future vocal and instrumental arias. The characteristics of the tagh are its expansiveness of form and volume, its free melodic style, the existence of flowery and instrumental-like passages, its richness of rhythm and intonation. The tagh is basically a lyric song, but it is not canonical like the sharakan, and during the service it is performed as an insert to communicate a certain splender to important holidays. This genre of Armenian monodic song writing has progressed greatly through the centuries. There are two types of taghs - religious and secular. The first kind are expansive and developed in volume and in structure, the second are terse and concise. Taghs are reproduced in solo performances with concert-like luster. They are not only Armenian, but also generally the highest form of monodic music, while Grigor Narekatsi's daghs are the unsurpassed monuments of that music. " Sayat-Nova ( ). 7 Shirin (Hovhannes Karapetyan, ). Jivani (Serovbe Levonyan, ). Of Suni's contemporaries the following have been involved in the study of minstrel music: Garegin Levonyan, Moushegh Agahyan, later A. Kocharyan, Robert Atayan, and others. It is worth noting Robert Atayan's "Minstrel Havasi," Yerevan, 1963; Moushegh Aghayan's "Armenian Minstrels and Minstrel Music," Yerevan, 1959, A. Kocharyan "Armenian Minstrel Songs," Yerevan, 1976, etc. ' "Armenian Lyre" was first published in 1861 by Gabriel Yeranyan and Nikoghayos Tashjyan. However, six months later its publication was halted. In 1862 the "Armenian Lyre" music society T 106

110 rak. hers was established in Constantinople. Its purpose was to keep the musidon cal spirit among Armenians alive. That same year the "Armenian :r ial Lyre" periodical began publishing again, this time through the efforts s of of Tigran Tchouhadjyan. 76 Tigran Tchouhadjyan ( ) - the composer of the first ser, Armenian opera, "Arshak II." " Gabriel Yeranyan ( ) - was famous for his song, "Cilicia." ser, " Suni probably has in mind Karapet Papazyan, one of the first and western Armenian composers of the last century, who created the "Armenian Theater" orchestra in Constantinople. ocnlg " Nikoghayos Tigranyan ( ) - played a great role in dic Armenian piano music. 'ac- free as- y a the 82 Sargis Barkhoudaryan ( ) - multi-genre artist, pedader ing "Aleksandr Spendiaryan ( ) - the founder of Armenian symphonic music. Romanos Melikyan ( ) - the founder of Armenian classical romances. gogue. "The Armenian Musicians Theorists' Society" was formed in of Tiflis in tel- " After the establishment of Soviet rule in Armenia the new govise. ter. ernment embarked upon a course of inviting the best representatives of Armenian culture and the arts to Armenia. Moving to Yerevan of were Romanos Melikyan (1921), Aleksandr Spendiaryan (1924), ;ed Spiridon Melikyan and many others. Particularly through the efforts of R. Melikyan the first musical institution, the Yerevan musical studio, was established in Armenia, and this became the basis for the opening of the state conservatory in Grigor Suni, in his 1934 autobiography which he sent to Rouben Terlemezyan, talks about the in in, government plan of the first Armenian republic to open a national conservatory of music in Yerevan. Sargis Barkhudaryan and Grigor g Suni himself had received invitations to organize that task. n, c. el is ts 107

111 <U~bbUWiA'flFfM'VU> /ziuigq i wlliip WLLAL fldi7nl ff (WIrL-p, 8ni/4wU t u b'~rw~)'np fl""1 ZWJ 4P 4IiqJPJ 4P 7WL/fLJF UljalP w1,llfnii4ufl fiwquipw/juwlf/p u~iun, 4bqhi/w4g ujwpn4w~pui VWq- JfW/J/IL U7wu[ q ig /4 It"~ LLz< 4ILpqw Utj u4- U"h [W 4 fd'nnj t- Wwr/JZ Pl" wgnlfj (alui) L wirnlq rw fi 1I/1b- YffIL (IjLptjuq -), 'P nlunl5/1fj ~tf 1LJZnMq 4wfdw if/ IL Plwu-- j/i: llpb4~ t 4w/znL-by Ubbi ifi LL (In q4uali~u t4lawrhgnlii, nfl JwJmrrfi/t ~p l np u JLfr qwln zwfi~ (r1 fwipuui4 -- i'h,-s bg1-p UL Snfn/gqP iwfui] pufi~iwuuhq~r: r7,bhl~ t 1876 JL/,i UIIU LjwIILtdIrf l0--li 9Wlhl"4JCTLLII/ flpl 9Mm141 f r'ipljli IL Iffpl417L LJIf I i4llwlulljinlj OnnjUWIj b'pwciruiu41u1i Wfnl~t- 4pfI ll17j/lr (PnA wlnp)7 um7wt~i~ j bhlqli gni~nl~bwlfg I p1lflwc.ty'"41lbj dllfftrnqjc i JWL4JLI~LL ILZLw4WLflP rnllfuajpfw p ulp~ ii~ijl/, /4ijui> t I& wdp12 Jnqn'/Pq~fi 4p/ lijnldp/ uuluwp4wbi tp 1883 [jl fife JLi4bilif t /jblhw4uwi ifuuiing, Lr wfj4lfjjulu4ll4 itll5/15m IrflL~lU di" Jw&"i /nnljf flui~ipfuui7jul5 uw~ "n~inm Ufl/fpbhfL.L U4Jrf a fibi/ UI(I~LI/ pf An4 I1blIin y, Jfhlhnlif t 4UJ~fi IL nfljf '-1/lt1I~f mrihuww1, 4wLp4LL ifuafip /i~f lnw4 nunwpillw& t bi~ I/UfpIsr jjwfnl fll uwhptfljrj/il-p Uf4ijIfL- itm if/i n1u/, IL fd" dwfanljf bilj UJILLJ~g/i uflflf IIJi j~iiljy&ljfljfl t ffr 108

112 Lilfl Zr(wO'~flU~LJjbLLI7 (4LLJJIW4W~j dtujjljlj i1(nl filj1j): u pdcw- JilfiJ1ql ru 1tfjr'rJ5. fllufllrs&i 14 ilnq~wjnu] fawdfsup ir~ w~l-- I01iM 9U'II'IP"P' r- J wfl. filwff JIwllJJ 7JI( IlLLJ-- gini7jilj, 11M17p/Iihpi/ ppu711wwuiw ujw mwllu i jl JTImnj, 1889 p.l /ji~ii pw a" t~1j1ifl 4 (z'lj /;A WJ w JJ1LuJ4 LWJ Impv kfu1,1~ f('49"ji7lj 4, flwp w tuf r LLrW LJJ(L1~ 4 ww J 4'Iw j4 /udpw4ffnl fjhwu, "pp Lfqg /4I, pt4 9011""L!!LJpwphwj(ILI IA /14' '?wlr Wwpingu UwpfnL fuuajihwlj: 1890 [JL/P bq/ipwl,4wi/i opg A- jil Z Pwr1w if/i wuturw4ni/ wpduaiwfinlj 4 nui~hp/if 1wr'uqiuIii Inn~p7b1LF/' Wip4uqwJ'ihL-rn/ /11 [J11L('( 'Ippi(41(': Ipaps IlrIi.Phg/ Zpgwfifife: JL/11 7-1JlJ 4 1 Iif/iwa-/ifli kf- " pw1i~ (lsw/il f71 (it' jit".111 "'11 u izl-wbp w~~ur lif u, t 4" / w w~ u Ip-n p i r tg, liii if/71 w ji w u tw7 o/j _ (Lu"J'"~ J1 " ujjl LU LJ71lf 7Inj"iuju c w Jl w Iw,14m wif j!lll qw'nf qwultbmhu UJfwUJWL7JlL I Unqjnifnll Ulnqnifn-- LW]~~, Y ii11,/ 417wrL/p~nLf 4 LLJ nc1,jrpu wlwtir h(1wc [''rfirw 7 fp 'Ii ~Iwp fil qirnlth11' 4uI7 ohruifti7iui, rp'4/i' 71(LLJ *I24 w4wr g: UJI~IL7Ji7 &n1 q (,rwt ri~qpil[j LLLf(' r Ii- '("1 U/ tlii 4 LLIL '1LJIL7 IL 7iii i 4UJLLL L7J) 4 1,, fiud, rl r l wii 4t ~, 7 /ib I q/i7iw tnp f1 i nzltj/~il7 J ''w llfiji77ip IL 4LIw(Iu ifip 4b-r nl LIJUIL ucij 4 hn 109

113 IrpLLulJ, ArL4 JfhrLLwI~wfi--npIrrjw4jwb Unqncfn iltp "'/rnp- IfiLLI 1JjiLI~w15p/, JffLLJLLLIJf Il hpp JfwnJuJJfrw 1L4 t /i1 dnqzil yj.w4wfr] hj&ptliih qlptuj 11prw I~wznwpw&} (<U(1(-1Jjp#7LJd) fihj~iwfj/ilnlji1(1jj IL ULi(L1r171J, npr t1bnqpu bpijw4w- 29w1JbL1(1IInfJIILU7J 1lL"17L5h UW(WL1 'Lip't* 1IJWLIU7L11nLhJ Jw~nIrrL7LJ 4- I7LP11rflfI hj1 IrZPJLmfcIhIJ1 uwtfu1ww it 4pL/JIJ710wJ(1hjruIPt bpwj r fi/umwtfnp 4~wgw--WnLLgrw1 (JZw- I!L~L4 Wqi"r1j1.bfL[hLJ g11 yffliph lfljflj ): 9yi/uj~ng uwh- (YcufrU jjwljibl 4oO IrJI1LIh LL 4L1lb1LLJ ir)ii1h"bwlnn ftmubp (wppwhl t ia fwr iow j/~w fali,w~~i~~)jjiljwic~fwfrl fhw1 ituiu ulpr mnrt i/ bwb: Unqndfnb nj JpUqif 11irf it Jfnmlh 71-1f wljj liz rwr JbWLLwqiLw4LI1 1u Jg~ p14/ rf.ll ff wg uqwj''p &f"nlj bp w ~ti (/1gldhinq tfli [rllul ] [1uiwJ/ tffrt h pwdcf1nnl- U'IJL.[1L11j ZU,m uplulf fim 4l~ripunq U1 tnui 1 fujful tf tp. <<14- i17l t4? LfnfltLr~ff, 11(1 UuLwLLJ IT h1lp, uii I~dlJWLrnIL/Jh1jThy Jff4 L frnl/fj/ ilfiaj )), fi11 nor jw'pw-wi~l"wj/ljf Lbnwrgl tnlj"il~~ liz lw ullj fi i2fill!: 4,ujiw.-U'nLp qtul 'i/ t~iip/l mrwl u - /upll w~pq njjt~lp, - YgU4r liz nlcftf. fo jjiti tlnljf, 017 lw jwj k/, b oju, Ur.. f/w k' 4I W 9ItlrII17,fL j1tf /Lp hp tcii mujul Mb4fr~nLf0'fI&~ fil illuil- If' rpnlfljtlrll: wj*.), ((41nq '"Pty, uw p>vp, <<bp/ i wppjrl oj, oj ~: bpn m-w- 4gpi 0phrtopj tom), [Jt" w jpiripg z tfi dl~ftd[ /4] Sw j11 cpdk,4i iftu IL /, b4jw tufi5r~ 'fllffitliwlir ipili LLILf L 1p h- p~wdfmmrwl i I~ULZWff 4!LJpLILI1W5bfIL 4iiiituiji IU1nlru~p'Lbinti U'fwl wp]r b4lil'uiiwij/1 IspLrtiuW4LLII pwpdlp ulwwu'pl1 url lwfij tu1illl, 9 fpitip j p "fiptlact lvpw jnpn L/J[fiJJ fj / JL/tp, ' qnlp4l &tu1jwpl1qnfi LfLr, JUIL/iLgwfI y 4inliuhpWWPL L 110

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115 liti jl~u tlfwbjlapqlj-"p Lyb hjir'i, wj~r (.rqwj4 t lwjjblfls nh1ltu urlwlrlim~lllop fll fu1lurjlj q~fll f/uw LL if/ wwppi t ifluublulnp IILuUIII WIJI7IIL~l WpdwuLJUlLi: LLrw pii nlrtuwhh PL7 op/4iu4 hb~ 4uinuiJiiL (bmrwifuwj ul 7 ILbfj bih/ 4wifwfl W/piq 4r"wuipj~fwmp/iw ifacbwu, 1897-/i5, w 1711u11Th uwtwifpl 4/iflJ hf 1L i/ipiq hp LAf"Ldf 4lnfiuhrpji/wmp/iwj/iz 2pgu.I/ip (1899 p9.) M/iifu4/iJ-4np uw4nz// i qipqifwifp 51AIgpLpUJ/iJ j Jwf,7J(bJLJ' (S~pwurwprw4bfnL /JIJJL 1L1L [J1IWfJ Swifwp) fd'lifwrfbwiuf i/i dit if/i li~npp, ui. huw4 hub/ tltj uqf wpr1/ix jpjqdhb if-dpt.-lpp f r jnqpljiwub L-pqJ'p/i ((~rwccj 7iw&) hzp4nl ufppw4bb pp:.9"p" mwjw/ ctrpi$j/b/ I4nqhip/i 1nw4 imjpl5 JlunJ pdi. U. PLrwLLw1lJr 1903 wz~wlrip /ip &w/i.gni/ Lpwurwpw4nLrif tt (<11I14/iJlJAJ))> 4wLJ urilwljnjllj uq ) ql wpr1/i> LL djnnipr~ui4uli hpquhp/ib wncwp/i ujpw~qj (<U Iw rbp/i,nq/ ifi, ttwppp wfi, <O 0J bwiw~pfd>l Itt w 4n~~r n ifin5:jrrlurlnlif [JlL/i r, wmrwpu47ljilfarfi/fri pulrw4/irfi if' -: Jb1L~uwLujL dnq~nrprf w4wlt] pwiriwifwjb l-p-- b'~p/ mufu~ljbllff u~unifn"l/jhwbj ift? 1903-ifr 4pwmw-- Pw4w6- w~q. wrtw~/i uipui4p /ilp ~Iw/zfurfi~'up LnLlJi: 1900 fjl/ ibc bwu tjfjnlif t 'uwj IhLLipfLif finjbiultu /ilp biw/up'ifjjwyp fllfrbi7flq wiiiiifi/i LLQ/iJLLrw4wb LAJ ipq, nlrf if2 wi,pu- Lrrlp, ItLIlr LLfL hiqpwjpldip/it bj 4 uthi f/~i-i d w1'wl tl2 u /i fim/w ir iiwj4, rpjw~~frw nljh'uaj fjijl fj/i4n~~lnw LL unlly/iuq/irjif/ turwi'fiiin puliwu&: 'Aw~9iw4f ipp pwpw/ i/ul bir ttl(z/uwuwfaih q~wum/i urtu~nu~ua, qw~b ulrnlfjhl-ulh) 7yrwir/ir uww bipuw 1899-/ib JwUl il ILJJ5UI 1417 qhgui4 hpv'"wup/ik qh1lpuqup/ uupiioi ifuwip fjhi/jftcw~4jlif J bipw & lbi~p iii rmhuw t4ii~i Ifl ff/l lipr: gi)jwwoli/ phpliff"ld bpw wjaqludi wpul1iop tij pwqifw~fwjiw&} l4rligu4fh f0 lbufi *,wifwp: i4himwq~wiiu liw wlrnlif t wrjqf 4Uinnp~ibuip /irjlpu LL if/ ZmPP kp4hpf, "pn ' fr A, b '4wifwuuinwu/iiwlinLJ lpw wjli JUJJlJAwlrwLLUJ pjgwqu p4u~ p ifpnirnbliflbl pl fl IILqq~ a~l//ilr/iul, pwjy bi "P ~t 4LLbl '11ul fl 41Hnpr gpli4i 112

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127 <AUTOBIOGRAPHY> Grigor Mirzaian Suni is one of the veteran Armenian musicologists. He is the great grandson of the Syounik region's famous ashough [troubadour/minstrel singer] Teymour (Melik Hovhannes Mirza), who was invited by Shah Fatali (Fath Ali, Shah of Persia, father of Abbas Mirza] to become the head of the musicians in his palace. He was the composer of a lot of Persian songs (tasnif), such as Mirza Seyin Sigahi. Grigor Suni is the grandson of Mrs. Mashinka (Russian) and ashough Dadasi Sunetsi (Atabek), who himself was the teacher of ashough singers Hatami and Balayi. He is the son of Hakhounts Anna and Hovhannes Varandetsi, who was famous as an illustrator, singer, and folk poet. Grigor Suni was born September 10, 1876 in the village of Getabek in the Gandzak region. At the age of two, Suni moved to Shoushi, the capital city of Karabagh. Suni's father was his first music teacher. In Suni's teenage years, he was called Ghali Boulboul (nightingale of fortress Shoushi). With his enchanting voice and his beautiful singing style, he became the source of admiration for contemporary master musicians and the general public. In 1883 Suni enrolled in a parish school. At the same time, after school, he learned the art of jewelry making. That same year his father died in an accident, and orphaned Grigor was compelled to take care of his family by, besides his schooling and the honing of his craftsmanship, also singing with other musicians. In school for the first time he got acquainted with written music. His music teacher was Rev. Fr. Garegin Ter 124

128 Hovhannisyan, who himself was the pupil of Nikoghayos Tashchyan, a schoolteacher. Ter Hovhannisyan paid special attention to Suni, and after years of hard work and dedication, in late 1889 Suni became a contemporary Armenian master musician, in the broad meaning of this word. At this time Suni became a member of a secret group which had Poghos Zakaryan and Martiros Saroukhanyan as members. In 1890, the day when the Daraboulagh [a place in Karabagh] guilds were having a celebration, Suni presented his skillful works of jewelry and with the traditional slap of the headmaster Badam, he was declared a master jeweler. That same year, Suni and jeweler Moukhan, who came from Bakou, organized a "Kargah-Shakert" student-workers union which had some success during its short one-year existence. In 1891 Suni went to Ejmiatsin and became a third grade scholarship student at the Gevorgyan Seminary. The music teacher at the seminary was Very Rev. Fr. Sahak Amatouni (a student of Tashchyan), who didn't really teach anything new to Grigor, but the atmosphere in Ejmiatsin inspired him toward village folk songs that he was not familiar with yet. From the very first day at the seminary Grigor befriended famous musicians Karapet Amatouni and Soghomon Soghomonyan (later known as Komitas Vardapet). Grigor wa; excited about folk and instrumental music, such as Soghomon's religious (sharakans [hymns] and taghs [chants] sung by village peasants) and folk songs. Amatouni was lazy but he had varied interests. He liked minstrel songs and after taking a close look at the songs he would give his valuable opinion. Grigor appreciated his older friend's opinions, because in most cases they were in agreement, but Soghomon, who was a contributor to the "Meghoo (Bee)" and "Nor Dar" (New Century) newspapers [in Tiflis/Tbilisi], did not care much for them, especially when they pointed out distortions he made on folk songs and demanded that the collector of ethnographic songs give the authentic picture of folk expressions in songs. 125

129 The music teacher for notation, the Very Rev. Fr. Sahak Amatouni was replaced by Kristapor Kara-Mourza, who had limited training in European music (and that influence would increase in the future). Grigor immediately began taking private lessons from him on European music (basic theory and harmony), and, in return, Grigor gave him lessons on Armenian music. Soghomon was not close to Kara-Mourza and, in addition, he led the reactionary group that waged a struggle against him, lowering himself by insisting that "God was one, so there must be one voice in music too," to which Kara-Mourza wittingly replied, "You're forgetting that God is the union of three beings." This would lead to the dismissal of Kara-Mourza and his being replaced by Soghomon himself. Kara-Mourza gave Grigor all his belongings and strongly encouraged him to go to Tiflis, Moscow, or Petersburg to continue his music training and also his general education. Grigor made his first attempt at polyphonic music, transforming some folk songs into four voices, such as "Andzrevn Yekav", "Vay Leh, Leh", "Sona Yar", "Arazoun Baghouh Mean Am", "Hov Arek Sarer", "Yeri Yarum Oy, Qy". During two consecutive summer vacations, he went to Tiflis (to his rich paternal uncle's) where Dr. Tarsaidze treated his eyes and where he also took private lessons with Makar Yekmalyan to enrich his musical knowledge. Bowing in reverence to Yekmalyan's musical talent, Grigor nevertheless didn't like his drabness, visionless verbosity, and extremely conservative direction, especially the circumstance that outside of religious music, he had no other interests and he looked with disgust upon any phenomenon that had no religious stamp. In the fall of 1895, after finishing the course at the seminary Grigor returned to his hometown of Shoushi. In the Khandamiryan Theater he gave his first choral concert consisting of village songs he had collected and arranged for four voices. With the money generated from the concert and the promise of help from the Zhamharyan brothers, he traveled to Petersburg to continue his education. 126

130 In Petersburg from 1895 until September of 1898, he attended Rapgoff's, then Polak's school for the theatrical and dancing arts. In spite of his financial difficulties, he took lessons in voice training, piano, music, theater, and dance. Then, with Banchenko and Calafatti, he continued taking free lessons in music theory and composition. In September of 1898, he received a scholarship to attend the state conservatory, to major in specialized music theory and composition. He passed a very successful exam for Rimsky- Korsakov, presenting in Tchaikovsky style some of his own songs, such as two romances: "Yete Mi Or" and "Indz Mi Khndrir," a song, "Arevelk," in the form of a waltz, "Sareri Hovin Mernim," an Armenian folk song, also fifteen of his collected village songs that he arranged for four voices and that captured the attention of professors Rimsky-Korsakov, Liadov, Glazunov, Solovyov, and Bernhardt. At this time he had his own political beliefs. He was a Socialist Revolutionary. He graduated from the conservatory, spending six years there, from 1898 to the end of May, 1904, under the cleansing hand of Rimsky-Korsakov, who had no mercy for mediocrity. Grigor not only successfully completed the composition course with talented classmates like Mikhail Cherkov and Gnessin, but he also enjoyed fame as a talented composer of fugues, for which he was granted one year of free lessons. His fugues served as an example for future generations. Even before entering the conservatory, in 1897 he tried to organize an oriental ensemble. During his conservatory period (1899), with the encouragement of Rimsky-Korsakov, Grigor sent some of his works to the censor's office, having in mind to publish them later. The songs were "Indz mi Khndrir" (lyrics by H. [Hovhanness] Toumanyan), "Akh al Vardi" (lyrics by A. [Avetik] Isahakyan), as well as two notebooks of folk songs for four-voice choir. These songs remained in the censor's office under lock and key for four years. Then in the Fall of 1903, Dr. A. Budaghyan paid to publish these works in the Armenian "Pushkinian" Printing House. Akh al Vardi and the first 127

131 volume of folk songs, "Sareri Hovin Mernim," "Habrban, "Oy Nazanum," and "Saren Kou Ga" were included in 1904 publications. In the history of publications of Russian Armenian choral folk songs, his first volume published in 1903 had no precedent. In 1904 he wrote songs about workers that also had no precedent in Armenian life. In these songs he calls upon the serfs, laborers, and villagers to unite "to support the cause of labor and open the road to socialism." The members of the Dashnak Party distorted the words to "Dashnaks support the cause of labor." In 1899 he was given the position of church choir director which somewhat relieved his serious financial situation. During this period, using his position, he cleverly changed for the first time (before that nobody had used the method) sone religious music pieces. By contrasting polyphonic voices to the homophonic, he opened a new epoch in Armenian religious music. Later on he burned these pieces along with songs that didn't, at the time, coincide with his political thinking and tendencies. If something did indeed survive there is a need to collect them, because those works may shed new light in the history of our sacred culture. His "Sourb Sourb" can be found with musicologist Gourgen Mirzoyan, "Miashabat" was found in his brother's papers while "Kristos I Mej" and "I Verin were published in different issues of G. (Garegin) Levonyan s "Gegharvest" magazine. In 1901 he finally organized the first Oriental Cultural Ensemble, which gave a performance in the Hall of Benevolent Meetings during the annual program of the Armenian student union. In 1902 he wrote two romances, "Miayn Kez Hamar" by Ada Negri and "Mayisn Yekav" by H. [Hamazasp] Hambardzoumyan. In 1903 he received a work permit from the Imperial Music Society to go to the Caucasus and organize concerts. After the first big concert in Shoushi the next day, Golitsin'S officers searched Grigor and placed him under their watchful eye, and canceled all his concerts under the pretext that with the r i I 128

132 proceeds from the concerts, Suni was arming the people against the government to solve the agrarian reform problems. [Prince Golitsin was Governor General of the Caucasus]. In 1904 he participated in a music competition based on Isabella Grinevskaya's "Bab" dramatic poem depicting Persian life, and from more than thirty musicologists in competition, Suni won first prize. In ten days that piece had twelve performances after which the government forbade any other performances and confiscated the text along with 18 pieces of music. That same year he organized his first quartet of refined neyer [ney is a duduk, like a wooden oboe] that became an object of admiration for Rimsky-Korsakov and Liadov. Rimsky- Korsakov even tried to include that instrument in his symphonic orchestra but the lack of a specific instrument and experienced players prevented this from happening. Toward the end of the summer of 1905, Suni, along with Armenak Ter- Mkrtchyan and Zatikyan (with the nickname Smerch - Tornado), was actively involved in organizing the soldiers and sailors. Because of these activities he was pursued and searched, but that fall he accepted an invitation from the Nersissyan School [in Tiflis] to replace Yekmalyan. While teaching at the Nersisyan School, from September 1905 to October 1908, because of his position as a leader of agrarian reform movements in Lori, he was pursued by General Zolotaryov's group of Gendarme Cossacks and by the police. Because of this he fled to Turkey. Nevertheless he was the hero of the day in all realms of Armenian musical life, who singularly carried on his shoulders this serious responsibility. During this period he disregarded the mentality that in school only those students who had a natural-born talent for music or had hereditary qualities could succeed in music classes. Because of this false conception 80% of the students had been freed from music classes. But Grigor Suni struggled vigorously to make music classes at the Nersisyan and Hovnanyan schools not only mandatory for everyone, but also a priority. Suni raised the quality of the choral groups so high that, under 129

133 his direction, they were able to successfully perform choral pieces of translated operas (by Aristakesyan) as well as enhance the performances of the Armenian Theatrical Company, and school and public gatherings. He tried hard and finally succeeded in separating the church from the school. At the funeral of Archbishop Aristakes Sedrakyan, the choir of the Nersisyan school didn't participate. This incident created an uproar in the pages of "Mshak" which was the result of this struggle. Unfortunately, his followers were not able to carry on his achievements. In 1906 he wrote the operetta "Aregnazan," by G. [Ghazaros] Aghayan, [opera having had?] that had no precedent in the life of Russian Armenians. Later this operetta was staged in the Artistic Theater by the Armenian Theatrical Company to benefit actor Araksyan. Continuing to be in his political thinking a left Socialist Revolutionary, during this period Suni worked with a group of Dashnaks on a new revolutionary program (he belonged to an opposition "separatist" group) and played a big role in organizing workers and peasants, as well as terrorist activities. In those days he wrote workers' songs "Hogh yev Azatoutyoun (Land and Freedom)," "Anoghok Krvi Sheporeh (The Trumpet of Inexorable Struggle)." At the end of these songs he calls the workers, landless peasants and freedom-loving intellectuals ("to rise up and destroy tsarism, feudalism, and capitalism and to establish socialism"). He also restored some Dashnak chauvinist songs, changing their words and giving the songs a proletarian quality. In October of 1908, a disguised Suni escaped from Batoumi to Turkey in a Laz raft. In Trabizon, Samson, and Kirason he organized very enthusiastic concerts of Armenian choral and orchestral music, as well as some Armenian-Turkish-Greek concerts. Then he traveled to Lesser Armenia and on his way from Samson to Sebastia he collected and studied folk songs and dances from the surrounding villages. In Samson he tried to organize a break-in at the armory that 130

134 belonged to the military authorities. He wanted to distribute 2000 new model rifles with millions of bullets to arm the peasants and workers. But the Dashnaks who were friendly with the Ittihad, "the authorities in Constantinople," not only interfered with Suni's already designed plan but also in the most vile manner (including the threat of betrayal) tried to eliminate this "dangerous" person by isolating [ostracizing] him. It was after this that Suni wrote a song: "Rise up laborers with muscular forearms. Strike the anvil with your hammer. Crumble the old and build the new. Death to this dark system of capitalism and long live Socialism; adopt this slogan." Making Trepizond the center of his operations, he had an opportunity to do some research on the remnants of folk songs sung half in Armenian, half in Turkish and the life of Haynak (Armenian Muslims) who lived in the river valleys of Surmene Karatere and Yambol. In 1910 Suni moved to Erzurum where he continued the same work on a wider scale, spreading his activities into Hamshen, Jermel, Deresi, Tortum, and other nearby regions. The results of this research were enclosed in two big notebooks which he presented to the Mayilyan expedition in Tiflis (to poet H. [Hovhannes] Hovhannisyan) but one doesn't know what was the fate of these notebooks. In Erzurum while working at the Sanasaryan School where Professor A. Khachatryan was principal, Suni established a new epoch. He founded a little symphonic orchestra, a choir for four voices, upgraded music lessons to the highest standards and became the favorite teacher among his students. He acted in similar fashion in the Armenian national school. Outside of school, he established free voice and instrumental music lessons for young laborers, and with these students he formed the first Armenian workers music band, comprised of 40 individuals, which became the envy of military orchestras. He also formed an 85 member coed choir that played a great educational role in far-ranging Armenian and non-armenian circles in towns and villages. At this time his relationship with the Dashnaks intensified, but their insults and dirty politics 131

135 were useless in trying to win over the laboring masses. The unions that Suni formed with the working peasantry continued to multiply and grow strong. Suni was not content with only this type of activity. Every year he would devote four months to collecting Armenian folk songs and music. Traveling to the provinces of Erzurum, Bitlis, and Van he would collect and study a huge number of folkloric materials (seven thick notebooks with almost 500 songs, including poems "Vren Ouzin" and "Heyran-Seyran"). While in Turkey for those six years he rearranged "Aregnazan," giving it a popular operatic form. He also composed "Revival," a symphonically arranged piece in five movements. In the Fall of 1914 when the First World War broke out, his [tyuoznakya] rare works, which had been entrusted to the care of the missionary, Mr. [Robert] Stapleton, were subjected to the same fate as the treasure that had been handed over to this Christian pastor in Erzurum. In Tiflis, Suni had his first encounter with musicologists of the new generation - Ovsanna Ter-Grigoryan, Anoushavan Ter-Ghevondyan, Romanos and Spiridon Melikyan, [Sargis] Barkhoudaryan, and [Kristapor] Kushnaryan - and he engaged actively in musical life. The hustle bustle began. Under Suni's direction a big benefit symphonic concert was held in the Royal Theatre with more than 100 orchestra and chorus members and soloists participating. The concert featured orchestral works by Yekmalyan, Suni, Spendiaryan, Ter- Ghevondyan, and Barkhoudaryan and songs for four voices by Yekmalyan, Suni, and S. Melikyan. This was followed by the Music Society's symphonic concert, where, along with the works of senior musicians, the works of our younger musicians - A. [Armen] Tigranyan, Mikayel Mirzaian, D. Ghazaryan - were also performed. This was followed by the daily concerts of the Tiflis Protestant Church Symphonic Orchestra, which lasted exactly two years and had as its official leader the only Armenian conductor in Tiflis - Suni. The great demand for Armenian orches- 132

136 tral works spurred Suni to create original pieces and compelled him to prod others to compose, as well. During this period he became a member of the Armenian drama group at the Zubalov public house, and for the Turkish group, he wrote a musical drama entitled "Asli and Karam," which was presented there, under Suni's direction, on several occasions. Suni formed the Society of Armenian Musicologists along with Ovsanna Ter Grigoryan, Anoushavan Ter-Ghevondyan, Barkhoudaryan, and Kushnaryan ([Aleksandr] Spendiaryan was permitted membership if he came to Tiflis and wished to join). Suni began to research Armenian music and he taught at the Kamoyan Music School, led by the threesome of Yerznkyan, Khanoyan, and Vardanyan. During the Republic of Armenia under Dashnak rule, he refused on numerous occasions to accept an invitation to establish a state conservatory of music within the Department for the Arts. In 1919, during the Menshevik anarchy [...], Suni moved on to Tehran, Persia [...]. There he established, in typical fashion, musical excitement, by holding concerts and other musical programs, and researching 8 of the 12 dasgahs that had not yet disappeared from the memory of master instrumentalists. In the fall of 1920 he left Tehran and returned to Tiflis via Mesopotamia, India, Egypt, Constantinople, and Batoum, not being able to travel through the English chain at Ghazvin (Iran) by the shortcut from Enzeli to Bakou. This travel was both long and exhaustive. In August of 1921, in a sick, decimated condition, Suni barely reached Tiflis, where he met with representatives from Soviet Armenia, and in particular with Levon Toumanyan, the Tiflis representative of the Peoples' Education Commissariat. He donated his entire library to the Soviet homeland and moved to Constantinople with the clear intention of returning to Yerevan in a couple of years, after regaining his health, in order to participate in the building of a proletarian Armenia. 133

137 In Constantinople, Suni taught music and choral singing at the Berberyan, Yesayan, Kentronakan [Getronagan], Hintlyan, Bezazyan, and Karagyozyan schools, as well as conducting the Uskudar coed choir, at the same time giving encouragement to the newly created "Hayastan (Armenia)" of which he was one of the founding members and president of the music sector. In the shortest period of time Suni created great enthusiasm in Constantinople. After concerts by the Uskudar chorus and separate performances by various schools, which had already commanded the attention of the entire public, Suni formed a united coed chorus, comprised of 350 singers, trained them for six months, and while he was about to announce their concert, the Kemalist crisis began, turning everything topsy-turvy and compelling him to move with his large family (9 members) to the United States of America. Setting foot in New York on Sept. 10, 1923, Suni immediately went to work, organizing musical performances and choral concerts in all Armenian populated cities on the East coast. After a big concert in Boston, Suni became ill with inflammation of the lungs, forcing him to withdraw from his previously mobile lifestyle. Remaining in Boston in the fall of 1923 he established the "Armenian Arts" society, holding several theatrical and musical concerts in Boston, Providence, Worcester, and Haverhill, and he participated in an "international song competition," winning a first prize for Armenian folk songs. Then he gave several public lectures on the arts, the significance of which was how the red line of class struggle was shining, like a diamond. He was consistent, and theory and practice were united and in harmony. The coed youth had gathered around the master, championing the arts and Soviet Armenia... preparing a progressive battalion of new art...but Suni was bedridden at Deaconess Hospital with complications from diabetes. How happy would the militant prostitutes of the Armenian bourgeoisie have been if the Master had permanently left the scene. 134

138 at But the lion Karabaghi squeezed sour lemon on all their hopes in, and desires, and being out of grave danger, was now recuperhe ating in Philadelphia, in the care of his dear friend, Dr. [Lucy] to Guzelyan, who saved his life. ne At the end of summer in 1925 in Philadelphia, still fresh in In the memory of the community were the public lectures on the in arts that Suni gave to the Armenian Student Society. This was followed by the impression of the amazingly wonderful conr- cert with a chorus of more than 100 singers at the Metropolitan ie Opera House on April 3, It was autumn. Suni had recov- D- ered somewhat and was already back to work. id An energetic period began in The "Hai Arvest" i- (Armenian Arts) Society with its musical-theatrical and dance m sections became a force here once again, and the chorus was Is also ready and won a prize for song and performance in a competition of nations. The Society also supported and enlightened i- the events of all community organizations that were sympad thetic to Soviet Armenia, to the proletarian homeland; isn't it st true that it is now Communist? h The tempo intensified in The Children's Opera Group s already had presented an opera in three acts, earning the admiration and astonishment of the community. They were sure passed by not one, but two, adult groups, that presented very complex pieces. All the Dashnak intrigues, conspiracies, and I, entrapments failed in this purpose. The children, the youth, " families and the public, full of enthusiasm, were wholeheartedly supportive of "Hai Arvest (Armenian Arts)" and its direc- 1 tor. It was too bad only that the Master broke his leg in three places at the "HOK" (Armenian Assistance Committee) Fall l picnic and it has been six months that he has been bedridden... but he doesn't know what it means to be idle in bed. During this period he produced a large volume of original works, solo songs, duets, choral works, a series of songs trumpeting the struggle and demands of the working class, and then arranging for four voices and multi-voice peasant songs, especially those that highlight the exploitation of the working peas- 135

139 antry. He also arranged many, many pieces for orchestra. Perhaps that accident was necessary ("there is always good in evil"), to bring to life all that had been stored. But work continued, as in Philadelphia, also in Boston. Some of his students, full of energy, became conductors themselves. It was Suni was back on his feet. With great enthusiasm he continued to develop his previous projects and began to create new ones. He had already formed a 50-member Russian workers choir at the Russian House, given benefit concerts for them, and participated in a glorious all-workers celebration as a memorial to Lenin. He enhanced "Hai Arvest (Armenian Arts)" with a neatly composed string quartet, at the same time giving radio concerts with his chorus and soloists, producing great interest in Armenian songs among Armenian and non-armenian circles. In the summer of 1930 Suni was invited to Boston, on the occasion of the city's three hundredth anniversary, to form and conduct a big chorus and symphonic orchestra. Time was short. There were only 12 days to prepare. He reserved the right to choose the choral and orchestral works that would be played. He threw out of the program all the nationalistic (religious and secular) pieces. In that short period of time he produced an artistically exquisite chorus of more than 100 singers and a rich, comprehensive, and challenging program which earned the unwavering enthusiasm, admiration, and thunderous applause of the entire Boston community. Let's not forget that we tore down hundreds of tricolor flags, cleansing Symphony Hall of those dirty pieces of rags that the Ramkavars had allowed in order to appease the Dashnaks. The bitterness of the Dashnak defeat could be seen those days in the polemic struggle that "Hairenik" (Fatherland) [Dashnak newspaper] was waging against "Baikar" (Struggle) [Ramkavar newspaper] The Maestro's students continued his choral work and in the next two years they won two new awards for Armenian folk songs (Suni's) at international song festivals. 136

140 In the fall of 1931, the Armenian National Musical Society in New York, after dismissing their Dashnak conductor K. Mehrabyan, invited Suni as their director, agreeing as a precondition to adhere to his red, class struggle policy. In the shortest period of time, Suni turned a chorus of 30 singers into one with 119 and held several musical performances, concerts, and radio programs featuring laborer and peasant songs. In the winter of 1932, that chorus with soloists and symphonic orchestra gave a fantastic concert in the Metropolitan Auditorium on the occasion of "Armenian Song Day." The insincere silence of "Baikar" and the overt curses of "Hairenik" were proof of the great victory of the proletariat in the field of arts. That fall, Suni was bedridden and confined to complete rest by doctors, due to dual complications from diabetes and heart disease. His students in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia are now continuing the great work that their master began, benefiting from his written suggestions, advice, and assistance, while the master himself continues unceasingly to create and to carry out the responsibilities of director of the "Banvor" (Worker) musical section, that has already published Suni's two laborers' songs - "Workers of the World-Unite" and "Soviet Armenia." 137

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