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1 about Orchestra Linus Metzler L i m e n e t L i n u s M e t z l e r W a t t s t r a s s e F r e i d o r f

2 2 Orchestra subject: author: version: Publish date: title: pages: Music 1 st Kanti study sheet for the test on the 3/31/2010 Linus Metzler 1.0b 3/29/2010 Orchestra 15 ORCHESTRA TABLE OF CONTENTS Table of Contents... 2 Info... 4 Study Part... 5 Seating arrangement of an orchestra... 5 The instrumental sections of an orchestra... 5 The instruments of the sections: description and sound... 5 woowind... 5 Piccolo... 5 Flute... 6 Oboe limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

3 3 Orchestra English Horn... 6 Clarinet... 6 Bassoon... 6 Saxophone... 7 String... 7 Violin... 7 Viola... 7 (Violon-)Cello... 8 String / Double Bass... 8 Harp... 8 Brass... 8 Trumpet... 8 French Horn... 9 Trombone... 9 Euphonium... 9 Tuba... 9 percussion Rhythmic Drum Set Bass Drum Snare Drum Cymbals Timpani Cymbal Triangle Gong limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

4 4 Orchestra Maracas Tambourine Melodic Xylophone The score: organization and reading Parts of a string instrument Parts of a wind winstrument (brass and woodwind) Brass Woodwind Sound production of the instruments English names of the instruments and their parts Conducting an orchestra Intervals Sources INFO This is a study sheet by Linus Metzler about Orchestra, which was mentioned in the 1 st Kanti at Mr. Nick. There is no claim for completeness. All warranties are disclaimed. ksrstudysheet by Linus Metzler is under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported license. 4 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

5 5 Orchestra STUDY PART SEATING ARRANGEMENT OF AN ORCHESTRA THE INSTRUMENTAL SECTIONS OF AN ORCHESTRA In total, they re four main sections in an orchestra Strings Woodwinds Brass Percussion THE INSTRUMENTS OF THE SECTIONS: DESCRIPTION AND SOUND WOOWIND PICCOLO Transverse flute Pitched an octave higher than a standard flute Range of three octaves Used for special effects Originally made out of wood 5 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

6 6 Orchestra FLUTE Soprano voice Most made of metal Oval-shaped mouthpiece with a long tube Horizontally held Different notes made with the keys (levers) Range of three octaves OBOE Smallest and highest double reed Cylindrical body Range of three octaves Extremely difficult to play ENGLISH HORN A fifth lower than the oboe alto oboe CLARINET Long tube with a mouthpiece and a bell-shaped opening Tone holes covered by small metal levers The musicians blows on a flat cane reed, which is attached to the mouthpiece Manufactured in four different keys Range of three and a half octaves BASSOON Double reed Eight feet of cylindrical wood tubing Four joints Ten key controlled holes on the body Eight finger holes 6 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

7 7 Orchestra SAXOPHONE Mixture out of the single reed and the mouthpiece of the clarinet, a metal body and widened version of the conical bore of the oboe Most of them are curved at the bottom (not all) Twenty openings covered by keys Range of two and a half octaves STRING VIOLIN Played with a bow Highest string Wuning pegs attached to the peg box to alter the pitch of a string Ways of playing o Pizzicato o Trmolo o Sul ponticello o Col legno o Glissando VIOLA Second highest string Written in alto clef 7 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

8 8 Orchestra (VIOLON-)CELLO Larger than a violin but the same shape Four feet long Played sitting down Range of four octaves STRING / DOUBLE BASS Largest and lowest pitched string Sex feet high HARP No bow used Forty-six strings Range of six and a half octaves BRASS TRUMPET Sound produced by vibrating the lips and blowing into a cup-shaped mouthpiece Notes changed by the three valves Different pitches Tube is as long as four and a half feet 8 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

9 9 Orchestra FRENCH HORN Twelve feet long tube Sound produced by vibrating the lips and blowing into a funnel-shaped mouthpiece Notes changed by the three valves Often, the hand is used as a mute in the bell TROMBONE Tenor voice Cup-shaped mouthpiece Slide Nine feet long tube EUPHONIUM Member of tuba family Tenor tuba Three valves TUBA Big family Largest brass Lowest pitched brass Sound produced by vibrating the lips and blowing into a cup-shaped mouthpiece Notes changed by lip tension or fingering the valves Three to five valves 9 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

10 10 Orchestra PERCUSSION RHYTHMIC DRUM SET First drum sets around 1800 Possible for one person to play several instruments at the same time Usually consists of the following instruments o Bass drum o Snare drum o Cymbals o Tom toms o (cowbells) o (woodblocks) BASS DRUM Largest part of the kit Played with a foot pedal Low, deep sound SNARE DRUM Higher pitch than the bass drum Buzzing or snapping sound CYMBALS Made out of various metals Diameter range is from six to 22 inches Different main forms o Hi-hat In a pair Stick foot pedal played o Crash- and ride cymbal Stick played o Tom-tom Normally three in a kit 10 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

11 11 Orchestra TIMPANI Often called kettledrum Large copper or fiberglass shell Single drumhead Pedal Different notes possible (only drum) CYMBAL Used since the Middle Ages Often used in religious ceremonies See also drum set TRIANGLE Made out of steel Used in Europe since the 14 th century GONG Bronze disk Struck with a beater From Middle East or South East Asia in the 9 th century to Indonesia and finally to Europe in the 18 th century 11 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

12 12 Orchestra MARACAS Rattles From South America First made with beans in shells TAMBOURINE Jingling metal disks Drum Many different ways to play MELODIC XYLOPHONE Mallet instrument Graduated wooden bars Southeast Asia in the 1300s THE SCORE: ORGANIZATION AND READING woodwind brass percussion A score for symphony orchestra normally uses the order of instruments as you see on the left. It s organized like a timeline; every note which is under another is played at the same time. And of course they re also bars and time signatures. string 12 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

13 13 Orchestra PARTS OF A STRING INSTRUMENT PARTS OF A WIND WINSTRUMENT (BRASS AND WOODWIND) And a bow/stick with horse hair Basically, the woodwind and the brass instruments have a mouthpiece, a tube and a bell. Some of them got a slide, valves or keys. BRASS 13 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

14 brass woodwind string percussion 14 Orchestra WOODWIND SOUND PRODUCTION OF THE INSTRUMENTS the air has to vibrate lips tighter - higher note tube longer - lower note to change the sound, you can use a mute and put in the bell all use wind to make a sound longer tube - deeper note they've three differetn ways to create sound o-shaped mouthpiece single reed mouthpiece double reed motupiece they've got differences in pitch and size you can bow or pluck them they're only heard 'cause of the bridge, which transports it to the body and amplifiys it you can shake or hit them they're to subfamilies tuned different notes untuned no melody possible used for pure rhythm and to make noise ENGLISH NAMES OF THE INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR PARTS 14 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

15 15 Orchestra The whole sheet is in English, so just read it through and you ll learn them automatically CONDUCTING AN ORCHESTRA The conductor is the one, who controls the orchestra, gives the speed and tells everyone when he/she hast to play. She/he uses her/his hands to give the dynamics with the left hand and the beats and tempo with the right hand. INTERVALS 1. Unison 2. 2 nd 3. 3 rd 4. 4 th 5. 5 th 6. 6 th 7. 7 th 8. Octave SOURCES Wikipedia And many others for the images 15 limenet.ch ksrstudysheet 2010 by linus metzler

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