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2 RESEARCH CENTER THE SCIENCE OF MUSIC ARTES. JOURNAL OF MUSICOLOGY Editor-in-chief Prof. PhD Laura Vasiliu, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Senior editor Prof. PhD Liliana Gherman, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Prof. PhD Gheorghe Duțică, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Prof. PhD Maria Alexandru, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Prof. PhD Valentina Sandu-Dediu, National University of Music Bucharest, Romania Prof. PhD Pavel Pușcaș, Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Prof. PhD Mirjana Veselinović-Hofman, University of Arts in Belgrade, Serbia Prof. PhD Victoria Melnic, Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts, Chișinău, Republic of Moldova Prof. PhD Violeta Dinescu, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Germany Prof. PhD Nikos Maliaras, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Lect. PhD Emmanouil Giannopoulos, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece EDITORS Assoc. Prof. PhD Irina Zamfira Dănilă, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Lect. PhD Diana-Beatrice Andron, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Lect. PhD Rosina Caterina Filimon, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Lect. PhD Gabriela Vlahopol, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Assist. Prof. PhD Mihaela-Georgiana Balan, George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania ISSN ISSN-L Translators: Assist. Prof. Maria Cristina Misievici, PhD Candidate; Lecturer PhD Sorina Postolea Proofreading: Assoc. Prof. Carina Ionela Brânzilă DTP Ing. Victor Dănilă Carmen Antochi Editura Artes Str. Costache Negruzzi, nr. 7-9, , România Tel.: Fax: The rights on the present issue belong to Editura Artes. Any partial or whole reproduction of the text or the examples will be punished according to the legislation in force.

3 Foreword Issues 17-18, integrated in the current volume of the scientific periodical Artes. Journal of Musicology, dwell on two fundamental fields of musical research, namely byzantine studies and academic creation musicology, which, due to the depth of their specialization, belong to two distinct and parallel areas. This time, the themes suggested for the two sections initiate a communication process. Byzantinologists were challenged to evaluate the achievements of byzantine musicology by focusing on the most important creations, on renowned theoreticians and on the main investigation directions. Generalist musicologists took note of the integration of the field, of the historiographic methods, of the semiographic and semiotic analysis of byzantine studies or discovered connections between the sacred and the profane in contemporary writings. Whereas the first study on the Byzantine church music research theme, entitled The Spirit of the Old Communion Chants and written by Adrian Sîrbu (PhD student at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, under the guidance of Professor Maria Alexandru), is a true monograph of the genre, as the scientific references belong to byzantine contemporaneousness, the following study The Amomos in the Byzantine chant: a diachronic approach with emphasis on musical settings of the 19 th and 20 th centuries, written by Dimos Papatzalakis (PhD student with at same university and with the same thesis supervisor) is developed as a ample historical and analytical research of a particular type of byzantine communion chant. The following papers pay homage to the greatest figures in the Romanian psalmic world. Codruț-Dumitru Scurtu (with a PhD degree at the National University of Music Bucharest) brings new data emphasizing the importance of the psalm creation work of the metropolitan Iosif Naniescu, in the wake of the coryphaei Macarie Ieromonahul, Anton Pann, Dimitrie Suceveanu. Professor PhD Elena Chircev ( Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca and Associate Prof. PhD Irina Zamfira Dănilă ( George Enescu National University of the Arts, Iași) who are well-established byzantinologists pay homage to two emblematic figures of Romanian psalmic music creation and research: Sebastian Barbu- Bucur and Constantin Catrina.

4 The studies grouped under the title Contemporary creation, musicology and musical interpretation stimulate the interest of the scientific community for the knowledge of the new musical hermeneutics directions and techniques. The section opens on a fundamental study on this thematic area Aspects of Musical Semantics from the perspective of Structuralism, Semiotics and Narratology of Assistant Prof. PhD Mihaela-Georgiana Balan ( George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași), and continues with papers suggesting specific applications, tackling either the actual composition process Interpretative and Compositional Connotations from a Musicological Perspective (Professor PhD Nelida Nedelcuț and Lecturer PhD Lucian Ghișa of Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca), or the linguistic implications of semantic interpretation Decoding the Musical Message via the Structural Analogy between Verbal and Musical Language (Lecturer PhD. Rosina Caterina Filimon George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași). The analysis of modern creation is represented by the study The Subject A Key Element of the Fugue Form during the 20th Century, thoroughly elaborated by Lecturer PhD Gabriela Vlahopol ( George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași), and topical issues related to music performance are dwelt on in the paper Performing Practice Comparative Analysis signed by Professor PhD Petruța-Maria Coroiu and her PhD student, Alexandra Belibou ( Transilvania University of Brașov). The themes of the volume are extended by truly valuable papers for the Romanian and even worldwide music specialists. Whereas the study entitled Romanian National Anthems, Historical, Stylistic and Aesthetic Considerations (Professor PhD Carmen Chelaru George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași) has a genuine cultural value and is in line with the current trend encouraging the reconsideration of the information and judgments of history, the papers Critical Reception of late 19th Century Iași-based Music. Alexandru Flechtenmacher (Dalia Rusu-Persic PhD student at George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, under the guidance of Professor PhD Laura Otilia Vasiliu) and Ioan Pavalache Polyptic Coordinates of a Musicianʼs Life (a study conducted by Lecturer PhD Consuela Radu-Țaga of the same university) are true contributions to the enrichment of knowledge on the musical culture of Iași City. The musical book is still at the core of our preoccupations in the current volume. The encyclopedic monograph Patru secole de lied [Four Centuries of Lied] by Grigore Constantinescu, the book of studies Prin labirintul muzicii

5 contemporane [Through the Labyrinth of Contemporary Music], elaborated with rigor and science by Luminița Duțică and O istorie filocalică a muzicii [A Philocalic History of Music] by Petruța-Maria Coroiu, on unprecedented connections between orthodox religious texts and classical music masterpieces, are commented and promoted by insightful reviews. Whereas in the world of musicology, the science of music is hoping for support from its system disciplines, from linguistics to perception psychology, from historiography to political sociology, from computer science to mass media, thus exhibiting a worrying centrifugal tendency, the analysis of the connections between byzantine music studies and academic sound art studies may contribute to the spiritualization of the musical research act and to a more nuanced insight into the artistic expression specific to creators from South- Eastern Europe. Prof. Laura Vasiliu, PhD Editor-in-chief

6 Content STUDIES A. Byzantine church music research The Spirit of the Old Communion Chants ADRIAN SÎRBU Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece The Amomos in the Byzantine Chant: a Diachronical Approach with Emphasis on Musical Settings of the 19 th and 20 th centuries DIMOS PAPATZALAKIS Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece Aspects of the Paternity of Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu s Liturgical Chant ( ) CODRUȚ-DUMITRU SCURTU National University of Music Bucharest, Romania Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur PhD Researcher of the Byzantine Musical Tradition across the Romanian Territory ELENA CHIRCEV Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca, Romania Constantin Catrina a Life in the Service of the Romanian Music IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania B. Contemporary creation, musicology and musical interpretation Aspects of Musical Semantics from the perspective of Structuralism, Semiotics and Narratology MIHAELA-GEORGIANA BALAN George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Interpretative and Compositional Connotations from a Musicological Perspective NELIDA NEDELCUȚ, LUCIAN GHIȘA Gheorghe Dima Academy of Music, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

7 Decoding the Musical Message via the Structural Analogy between Verbal and Musical Language ROSINA CATERINA FILIMON George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania The Subject A Key Element of the Fugue Form during the 20th Century GABRIELA VLAHOPOL George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Performing Practice Comparative Analysis PETRUȚA-MARIA COROIU, ALEXANDRA BELIBOU Transilvania University, Brașov, Romania Critical Reception of late 19th Century Iași-based Music. Alexandru Flechtenmacher DALIA RUSU-PERSIC George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Romanian National Anthems. Historical, Stylistic and Aesthetic Considerations CARMEN CHELARU George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Ioan Pavalache Polyptic Coordinates of a Musicianʼs Life CONSUELA RADU-ȚAGA George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania BOOK REVIEWS Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu A Philocalic History of Music LUMINIȚA DUȚICĂ George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Four Centuries of Lied with Grigore Constantinescu LOREDANA IAȚEȘEN George Enescu National University of Arts, Iași, Romania Luminița Duțică An Exceptional Collection of Musical Studies PETRUȚA MARIA COROIU Transilvania University, Brașov, Romania




11 DOI number: /ajm Studies The Spirit of the Old Communion Chants ADRIAN SÎRBU Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GRECIA Abstract: Byzantine music is the chanted prayer of the Orthodox Church left to us as a spiritual legacy by the holy masters of hymnography and hymnology ever since the early centuries. This music serves a precise purpose, i.e. to enhance the mood of prayer and to lift man closer to God. The Holy Liturgy, the mystical centre and the reference point of a man s entire existence, represents man s private meeting and communion with Christ, and the moment of this meeting is steeped in an atmosphere of meditation and inwardness created by a series of ample, slow, and vocalization-rich chants, called koinonika. It is a moment of ultimate inner appeasement and preparation. Early composers managed to capture this meditation effect in their koinonika, both through their compositional techniques and, especially, through an inner state of grace. However, in the 19 th century, two phenomena became apparent: on the one hand, some of the new composers no longer succeeded in attaining the same ethos as the old masters, and, on the other hand (particularly from Ioan Popescu- Pasărea on), the music tastes of the time caused these ample chants to be replaced with simpler melodies, which, often, were even harmonized. This study has a threefold aim: first, it reasserts the fundamental role played by the koinonikon in the Holy Liturgy, by arguments that underline the ancientness of this practice as well as its survival in other Orthodox areas (such as Mount Athos and Greece). Second, the paper signals the publication, next year, of the first Romanian collection of koinonika signed by Byzantine and post-byzantine composers (13 th -19 th centuries). Third, our study aims to show that these ancient chants have a special ethos, representing melodic as well as aesthetic archetypes and, par excellence, the true Classicism of Byzantine melos. Keywords: Byzantine, music, koinonikon, communion chants. 1. Introduction The communion chant or koinonikon (from Gr. κοινωνικόν = that which is common ) is usually a psalm verse chanted while the clergymen and the faithful receive the communion during the Holy Liturgy. It aims to create an atmosphere propitious to the soulful introspection of those who will commune with the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. In the Early Church, this moment was marked by the singing of a psalm (Troelsgård, 2002, p. 744), either in its entirety (such as Psalm 50/51 at Matins) or divided into verses, each sentence being followed by a koinonikon, i.e. the main verse (Foundoulis, 2009, p. 87) (such as the weekly or the feast 11

12 Artes. Journal of Musicology antiphons, the prokeimena, Ἀναστήτω ὁ Θεός [May God Resurrect] on Holy Saturday, etc. 1 ) sung as a chorus. The content of the koinonika was meant to induce the faithful to receive the Holy Eucharist, so the oldest known texts are Γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε ὅτι χρηστὸς ὁ Κύριος [O taste and see that the Lord is good!] 2 (Ps. 33:9) or Ποτήριον σωτηρίου λήψομαι καὶ τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου ἐπικαλέσομαι [I will lift up the cup of salvation and call on the name of the Lord] 3 (Ps. 115:4). They were sung during all the liturgies, regardless of the feast. Gradually, the texts grew more and more diverse, with themes that were directly linked to the type of feast at hand 4. Besides the koinonika selected from the psalms, hymnography also records three verses from scriptural texts and two hymns (see the table below) 5. Through this diversification of texts (after the 19 th century), the koinonika received the role of highlighting the theme of each feast. Thus, there may be Sunday, weekly, or feast koinonika, or chants for other feasts in the religious year (see Barbu-Bucur, 1992), covering the entire interval allotted to communion (not only of the priests but of the faithful as well 6 ). 1 This historical evolution is used by the liturgist Ioannis Foundoulis as an argument to provide a solution to the church choirs who find it impossible to chant the koinonikon. The replacement variant supposes singing the original psalm, from which the text of the koinonikon has been extracted. When the extended chant cannot be sung, Foundoulis suggests returning to the tradition of singing the psalms in their entirety, stressing that once more, people will learn the psalms and will feed on the biblical spiritual food that they provide (Foundoulis, 2009, p. 88). 2 Here and henceforth the English versions of the quoted psalm verses were taken from King James Version of the Bible after the use of the Orthodox Church (Asser, 2005). 3 Foundoulis mentions other koinonika which are no longer in use today: Προσέλθετε πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ φωτίσθητε, καὶ τὰ πρόσωπα ὑμῶν οὐ μὴ καταισχυνθῇ [O come unto him, and be lightened; and your faces shall not be ashamed] (Ps. 34:5), Ητοίμασας ἐνώπιόν μου τράπεζαν[thou hast prepared a table before me] (Ps. 23:5) and Οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ πάντων εἰς σὲ ἐλπίζουσι, καὶ σὺ δίδως τὴν τροφὴν αὐτῶν ἐν εὐκαιρίᾳ. Ανοίγεις σὺ τὰς χεῖράς σου καὶ ἐμπιπλᾷς πᾶν ζῷον εὐδοκίας [The eyes of all look unto Thee in hope, and Thou givest them their meat in due season] (Ps. 145:15) (Foundoulis, 2009, p. 88). 4 Thus, for Sundays there is the verse Αἰνεῖτε τὸν Κύριον ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν [Praise ye the Lord from the heavens] (Ps. 148:1), while for the beginning of the church year (1 st of September), there is the verse Εὐλογήσεις τὸν στέφανον τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ τῆς χρηστότητός σου [Thou shalt bless the crown of the year of Thy goodness] (Ps. 64:12) etc. 5 Christian Troelsgård mentions the existence in the 7 th century (in the Constantinople standard) of the troparion Πληρωθήτωτὸ στόμα ἡμῶν [Let our mouths be filled] with the final part, Alleluia, playing the role of a koinonikon. Gradually, the psalm was probably reduced to a single verse (original chorus followed by Alleluia), while the troparion Πληρωθήτωτὸ στόμα ἡμῶν was separated from it, becoming a chant programmed after the moment of the koinonikon (Troelsgård, 2002, p. 744). 6 The great liturgist Ioannis Foundoulis points out to the erroneous practices in which the koinonikon is no longer chanted as a continuation of and during the moments when the believers receive the communion, emphasizing that this habit overlooks the purpose of the Sacrament and ignores a cardinal aspect of the entire rite. Continuing the koinonikon is the only 12

13 Studies As early as the 9 th century, a complete koinonika repertoire for the great feasts in the church year is already available. Until the early 15 th century, the standard tradition records the presence of 22 texts which underlay the evolution and sedimentation of this genus (Gheorghiță, 2009, pp ) 7. The table below lists the koinonikon texts that are still used in current liturgical practice, structured by the moment when they are sung in the liturgy (Sunday, weekly and feast koinonika) as well as by their source texts (verses from psalms or hymns and other scriptural sources). Koinonikon texts in current liturgical practice Text in Romanian Text in English Text in Greek Moment of celebration Sunday Koinonikon 1 Lăudaţi pe Domnul din ceruri. Aliluia. Ps. 148:1 Praise ye the Lord from the heavens. Alliluia Αινείτε τον Κύριον εκ των ουρανών. Aλληλούια. Sundays and Forefeasts, Mid-Pentecost, Lazarus Sunday, Holy Saturday Weekly Koinonika 2 Cel ce face pe îngerii Săi duhuri şi pe slugile Sale pară de foc. Aliluia. Ps. 103:5 3 Întru pomenire veşnică va fi dreptul. Aliluia. Ps. 111:6 4 Paharul mântuirii voi lua şi numele Domnului voi chema. Aliluia. Ps. 115:4 5 În tot pământul a ieşit vestirea lor şi la marginile lumii cuvintele lor. Aliluia. Ps. 18:4 6 Mântuire ai făcut în mijlocul pământului. Aliluia. Ps. 73:13 Who maketh His angels spirits, and His ministers a flaming fire. The righteous shall be in everlasting remembrance. Alliluia. I will take the cup of salvation, and call upon the name of the Lord. Alliluia. Their sound is gone out into all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world. Alliluia. He hath worked salvation in the midst of the earth. Alliluia. Ὁ ποιῶν τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ πνεύματα καὶ τοὺς λειτουργοὺς αὐτοῦ πυρὸς φλόγα. Ἀλληλούια. Εἰς μνημόσυνον αἰώνιον ἔσται δίκαιος. Ἀλληλούια. Ποτήριον σωτηρίου λήψομαι και τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου ἐπικαλέσομαι. Ἀλληλούια. Εἰς πᾶσαν τὴν γῆν ἐξῆλθεν ὁ φθόγγος αὐτῶν καὶ εἰς τὰ πέρατα τῆς οἰκουμένης τὰ ῥήματα αὐτῶν. Ἀλληλούια. Σωτηρίαν εἰργάσω ἐν μέσῳ τῆς γῆς, Χριστέ ὁ Θεός. Ἀλληλούια. Mondays and Feast of the Holy Angels Tuesdays, the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, Hierarchs, Righteous, Indiction (1 September) Wednesdays and on the feasts of the Holy Virgin, Akathistos, Saturday Thursdays and on Apostles Feasts Fridays correct solution that also supports tradition, concludes the researcher (Foundoulis, 2009, pp ). 7 Another list of koinonika may be found in Dimitri E. Conomos (1985a, pp ). 13

14 Artes. Journal of Musicology 7 Fericiţi sunt cei pe care i-ai ales şi i- ai primit Doamne, şi pomenirea lor în neam și în neam. Aliluia. Ps. 64:4 Blessed is he whom Thou hast chosen, and taken unto Thee; he shall dwell in Thy courts. Alliluia. Feast Koinonika (I) with texts from the psalms 8 8 Binecuvânta-vei cununa anului bunătății Tale, Doamne. Aliluia. Ps. 64:12 Thou shalt bless the crown of the year of Thy goodness. Alliluia. 9 Însemnatu-s-a peste noi lumina feței Tale, Doamne. Aliluia. Ps. 4:6 10 Mântuire trimis-a Domnul poporului Său, în pace. Aliluia. Ps. 110:9 11 A ales Domnul Sionul, l-a dorit ca locuință Lui. Aliluia. Ps. 131:13 12 Din gura pruncilor și a celor ce sug, săvârșit-ai laudă. Aliluia. Ps. 8:3 13 Bine este cuvântat cel ce vine întru numele Domnului. Aliluia.Ps. 117:26 14 Sculatu-S-a ca dintr-un somn Domnul, și a înviat mântuindu-ne pre noi. Aliluia. Ps. 77:65 15 Laudă Ierusalime pe Domnul, laudă pe Dumnezeul tău Sioane. Aliluia. Ps. 147:1 16 Suitu-s-a Dumnezeu întru strigare, Domnul în glas de trâmbiță. Aliluia. Ps. 46:5 The light of Thy countenance is signed upon us, O Lord. Alliluia. He sent redemption to His people. Alliluia. For the Lord hath chosen Zion, He hath chosen it for His habitation. Alliluia. Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings hast Thou perfected praise. Alliluia. Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. Alliluia. Then the Lord awaked as one out of sleep, and saved us. Alliluia. Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem; praise thy God, O Zion. Alliluia. God is gone up with jubilation, the Lord with the sound of the trumpet. Alliluia. Μακάριοι οὓς ἐξελέξω καὶ προσελάβου, Κύριε, καὶ τὸ μνημόσυνον αὐτῶν εἰς γενεὰν καὶ γενεὰν. Ἀλληλούια. Εὐλόγησον τὸν στέφανον τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ τῆς χρηστότητός σου, Κύριε. Ἀλληλούια. Ἐσημειώθη ἐφ ἡμᾶς τὸ φῶς τοῦ προσώπου σου, Κύριε. Ἀλληλούια. Λύτρωσιν ἀπέστειλε Κύριος τῷ λαῷ αὐτοῦ. Ἀλληλούια. Ἐξελέξατο Κύριος τὴν Σιών, ᾑρετίσατο αὐτὴν εἰς κατοικίαν ἑαυτῷ. Ἀλληλούια. Ἐκ στόματος νηπίων καὶ θηλαζόντων κατηρτίσω αἶνον. Ἀλληλούια. Εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι Κυρίου. Ἀλληλούια. Ἐξηγέρθη ὡς ὁ ὑπνῶν Κύριος και ανέστη σῴζων ἡμάς. Ἀλληλούια. Ἐπαίνει, Ἱερουσαλήμ, τὸν Κύριον, αἴνει τὸν Θεὸν σου, Σιών. Ἀλληλούια. Ἀνέβη ὁ Θεός ἐν αλαλαγμῷ, Κύριος ἐν φωνῇ σάλπιγγος. Ἀλληλούια. Saturdays and when remembering the dead Indiction (1 September) The Elevation of the Holy Cross (14 September), Sunday of the Holy Cross (Third Sunday of Lent) The Nativity of Our Lord and Saviour The Annunciation Lazarus Saturday Palm Sunday Holy Saturday Thomas Sunday Holy Ascension 8 The list of communion chants presented by Gheorghiță (2009, pp ) also includes Sfințita lăcașul Său cel preaînalt [Lord, I have loved the beauty of Thy house, and the place where Thy glory dwelleth] (Ps. 25:8), which is chanted upon the anniversary of the Great Church of Constantinople (23 December). 14

15 Studies 17 Duhul Tău Cel Bun, să mă povățuiască la pământul dreptății. Ps. 142:10 Duhul Tău Cel Bun nu-l lua de la noi, rugămune, Iubitorule de oameni. Aliluia. 18 Bucurați-vă drepților în Domnul. Aliluia. Ps. 32:1 19 Întru lumina slavei feţei Tale, Doamne, vom umbla în veci. Aliluia. Ps. 88: Aduce-se-vor Împăratului fecioare în urma ei, aduce-se-vor în templul Împăratului. Aliluia. Ps 44: Gustați și vedeți că bun este Domnul. Aliluia. Ps. 33:9 22 Pomenirea drepților cu laude și pomenirea lor în neam și în neam. Aliluia. Ps. 101:13 Cause me to know, O Lord, the way wherein I should walk. Thy good Spirit shall lead me into the land of uprightness. Alliluia. Rejoice in the Lord, O ye righteous. Alliluia. They shall walk, O Lord, in the light of Thy countenance, and in Thy name shall they rejoice all the day. Alliluia. The virgins that follow her shall be brought unto the king; those that are near to her shall be brought unto thee. Alliluia. O taste and see that the Lord is good. Alliluia. But Thou, O Lord, endurest for ever, and Thy remembrance from generation to generation. Alliluia. Τὸ Πνεῦμά σου τὸ ἀγαθὸν, μὴ ἀντανέλῃς ἀφ ἡμῶν δεόμεθα, φιλάνθρωπε. Ἀλληλούια. Τὸ Πνεῦμά σου τὸ ἅγιον, μὴ ἀντανέλῃς ἀφ ἡμῶν δεόμεθα, φιλάνθρωπε. Ἀλληλούια. Ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, δίκαιοι, ἐν Κυρίῳ, τοῖς εὐθέσι πρέπει αἴνεσις. Ἀλληλούια. Ἐν τῷ φωτί τῆς δόξης τοῦ προσώπου σου, Κύριε, πορευσόμεθα εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. Ἀλληλούια. Απενεχθήσοωται τω βασιλεί παρθένοι οπίσω αυτής, αχθήσονται είς ναόν Βασιλέως. Aλληλούια. Γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε, ὅτι χρηστός ὁ Κύριος. Ἀλληλούια. Μνήμη δικαίων μετ εγκωμίων έσται και το μνημόσυνον αυτών είς γενεάν και γενεάν. Aλληλούια. Holy Pentecost Sunday Martyrs, prophets, Sunday of All Saints The Transfiguration The Holy Mother s Entrance into the Temple (21 November) Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts Remembrance of the Dead, Beheading of St. John the Baptist Feast Koinonika (II) from other scriptural texts or hymns 23 Arătatu-s-a darul lui Dumnezeu cel mântuitor tuturor oamenilor. Aliluia. Titus2:11 For the grace of God has appeared for the salvation of all men. Alliluia. 24 Cel ce mănâncă Trupul Meu și bea Sângele Meu, întru Mine rămâne și Eu întru dânsul, spusa Domnul. Aliluia. John 6:56 25 Trupul lui Hristos primiți și din izvorul cel fără de moarte gustați. Aliluia.(hymn) He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him. Alliluia. Partake the body of Christ and taste the source of immortality. Alliluia. Ἐπεφάνη ἡ χάρις τοῦ Θεοῦ ἡ σωτήριος πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις. Ἀλληλούια. Ὁ τρώγων μου τὴν σάρκα καὶ πίνων μου τὸ αἷμα ἐν ἐμοὶ μένει κἀγὼ ἐν αὐτῷ, εἷπεν ὁ Κύριος. Ἀλληλούια. Σῶμα Χριστοῦ μεταλάβετε, πηγῆς ἀθανάτου γεύσασθε. The Theophany of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ Mid-Pentecost Resurrection of Christ 15

16 Artes. Journal of Musicology 26 Cinei Tale celei de Taină, astăzi Fiule a lui Dumnezeu părtaș mă primește, că nu voi spune vrăjmașilor Tăi taina Ta, nici sărutare îți voi da ca Iuda. Ci ca tâlharul mă mărturisesc Ție, pomenește-mă Doamne întru Împărăția Ta.(hymn) O Son of God, let me take part in Thy Last Supper, I will not tell Thy enemies Thy Secret, and I will not kiss Thee as Judas did. And as the thief did, I too confess all of my sins to Thee, remember me, God, in Thy kingdom. Τοῦ δείπνου σου τοῦ μυστικοῦ σήμερον, Υἱὲ Θεοῦ, κοινωνόν με παράλαβε οὐ μὴ γὰρ τοῖς εχθροῖς σου τὸ μυστήριον εἴπω οὐ φίλημά σοι δώσω, καθάπερ ὁ Ἰούδας ἀλλ ὡς ὁ λῃστὴς ὁμολογῶ σοι Μνήσθητί μου, Κύριε, ἐν τῇ βασιλείᾳ σου. Holy Thursday The prokeimenon Μνήμη δικαίων [Remembrance of the dead] is also a verse in Proverbs 10:7 (Gheorghiță, 2009, p. 21). 2. Chourmouzios Chartophylax exegesis work. The phenomenon of exegeseis As we may read from the study in the Greek edition, Chourmouzios Chartophylax exegeseis work (archived in the series Metochion of the Holy Sepulchre from the Greek National Library) saved from oblivion an impressive repertoire of the old masters works. The term exegeseis/exegesis (from Gr. εξήγηση), explanation or interpretation, designates the more analytical notation system (using mainly quantitative signs 9 ) that aimed to provide a more detailed record of the melody. The first accounts of exegeseis date from The notation available at that time, i.e. late middle Byzantine notation, was a complex system in which psaltic signs could not be interpreted in isolation (as they are today), but only in context. Thus, the same notation fragment could be sung in different manners (melos) depending on several factors (voice, pitch, genre, form and style of singing, degree of celebratory mood, place, mode of interpretation choir or solo, etc.) 11. As a result, in 1670 (in ms. 1250, the Iviron Monastery), Balasios the Priest produced a more elaborate transcription of Ioannis Kladas Trisagion in phthora nenano for the Funeral Service (see fig. 1), which is considered the first attempt at exegeseis. 9 i.e. of black neumes, at the expense of the great hypostases (red neumes). 10 In the early 16 th century, the work of Akakios Halkeópoulos left us several written accounts of musical exegeseis. 11 Taking all these factors into account, professor Giannou referred to the old notation as a context sensitive notation. See Maria Alexandru, Paleography Course III. 16

17 Studies Late middle Byzantine notation composition by Ioannis Kladas (14 th - 15 th century) The first account of exegesis Balasios the Priest, 1670, exegetic middle Byzantine notation. A more developed stage of exegesis Petros the Peloponnesian (late 18 th century) Exegesis in Chrysanthic notation Chourmouzios Chartophylax (early 19 th century) Fig. 1 Trisagion for the Funeral Service, illustrated in several ways, from original semiography to the last stage of exegesis (Psachos, 1978, p. 68) Fig. 2 The koinonikon Γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε [O Taste and See], plagal of the Second, by St. John of Damascus (late middle Byzantine notation), in ms. BAR 27820, f. 256r. 17

18 Artes. Journal of Musicology The complexity of exegeseis as a process that took into account all the aforementioned factors reveals the monumental nature of Chourmouzios Chartophylax s works. The old notation (see Fig. 2), much more codified, was impossible to decipher in the absence of a direct connection to oral tradition. Chourmouzios Chartophylax exegeses reveal the hidden beauty of the melodies underlying the theseis 12 of late middle Byzantine notation. As a matter of fact, these archetypal melodic formulas ground the entire compositional paradigm of psaltic art. Thus, music kept its formulaic nature, because semiography (no matter how analytical it might have become) remained a mnemotechnical graphic system whose decoding was inconceivable without the oral tradition. 12 Thesis (from Gr. θέσης) is the term used in Psaltic Art to refer to the melodic formulas of each tone, which encompass the archetypal melodic units that underlie the structure of a psaltic melody. In middle Byzantine notation theseis are written synoptically (in a synthetic, summarizing manner) but in actual practice their interpretation is a complex, dynamic phenomenon that takes into account various factors (voice, pitch, genre, form and style of singing, degree of celebratory mood, genre, place, mode of interpretation choir or solo, etc.). Manuel Chrysaphes (whose activity peaks from 1440 to 1463) emphasizes the complexity of interpreting the theseis based on compositional genres: Thesis means the union of signs which forms the melody. As in grammar the union of the twenty-four letters forms words in syllables, in the same way the signs of the sounds are united scientifically and form the melody. This then is called thesis. But, O my friend, do not think that the manner of the whole musical art and its practice is so simple and uniform that the composer of a kalophonic sticheron with appropriate theseis who does not adhere to the manner of the old sticheron can think that he has done that which he has written quite good and free from every condemnation since, if what he has composed does not include the method of the old sticheron, it is not correct. Do not think that the performance is simple, but rather that is complex and of many forms. Know that the stichera and the oikoi differ greatly from each other according to their use and in other matters about which the art is concerned. For one kind of manner and practice pertains to the sticheron, another to the katanyktikon, another to the kratema, another to the megalynarion, another to the oikoi, another to the cherubikon and another to the alleluarion (Conomos, 1985, pp. 42, 43). Below, an example of thesis (kylisma) exegesis, according to the manuscripts of Xeropotamou 357 and Docheiariou 389 (Stathis, 1998, p. 65): 18

19 Studies Fig. 3 The koinonikon Γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε [O Taste and See], plagal of the Second, by St. John of Damascus transcribed by Chourmouzios Chartophylax in autographed Chrysanthic ΜΠΤ 705, f. 221v. 3. On the spirit of the old chants There are very few writings on the compositional style of the old masters. In general, the works on this subject adopted a historical, biographic, or codicographic perspective, and offered few details on the style of each composer. In fact, a general stylistic analysis outlining the compositional traits of individual styles would require sound knowledge about each master s entire oeuvre, regardless of whether it encompasses exegetical or middle Byzantine notation works. Macarie the Hieromonk is, without any doubt, one of the most illustrious figures in Byzantine music, an excellent master of all the psaltic repertoires (from the Anastasimatar [Anastasimatarion] to Irmologhion Calofonicon [Eirmologion Kalophonikon] or Papadichie [Papadike]), a clasic by definition, a restless promoter of classical authors and genuine psaltic style. Macarie also witnessed the entire process of reform taking place in the notation system during the early 19 th century and he supported the Romanianization of chants while preserving the spirit of the old, original, ones. In the Preface to Irmologhion Catavasier [Eirmologion-Katabasies], the great Wallachian composer mentioned several valuable ideas that summarize 19

20 Artes. Journal of Musicology his views on the way in which compositional style had evolved in time. Below, the fragment in its entirety 13 : As to the binding of these holy chants, they were very deep in meaning, difficult and burdensome, and all of the succeeding creators, preserving the godliness of their forerunners, would leave behind their heavy and burdensome makings as well. But then came Chrysaphes the New Protopsaltis and Balasios the Priest, who left their Teachings, pleasant and less burdensome, to the Holy Church. And after them, his beatitude Petros the Sweet Bereketis made his makings even less taxing, even more adequate, sweeter and wonderful. He too, most reverend and holy, did not alter the meaning of the ways of the holy fathers. [ ] And after his beatitude Petros the Sweet, Ioannis and Daniel, the protopsaltes of the Great Church of Christ, showed us the way to a leaner writing, creating new, exceedingly beautiful Teachings. It is only after them that we could distinguish the new chants from the old. But in all things, they too, in all their holiness, guarded the old as their most precious gift. Then Petros the Lampadarios Peloponnesios, more gifted in the ways of writing 14, a very clever and knowledgeable man in all Church matters and all things Persian 15 as well, multiplied the new chants more than any other maistor; the differences between the old and new became great indeed. And, following the ways of his writing, all his successors increased even more the easiness of their creations, and added even more outside elements in them 16. However, with all the easiness effected by this way of writing, there was no founding, the scheme and its entirety could not be enclosed, and all that sweetness within was inappropriate. So, looking at this with a philosopher s eyes, Chrysanthos of Madytos, Gregory the Protopsaltis and Chourmouzios Chartophylax of the Great Church of Christ 17, [ ] devised this new system (the New Method o.n.), enclosing it in immutable canons, alleviating it in all its ways, and philosophically including it among the scientific disciplines. And they reformed all of the books according to this system, those of the first holy fathers and those of the old and new masters too, without damaging in the slightest neither the melos of the new nor of the old 18. To this day, God s gift has therefore watched over and guarded the holy chants of our Church and will forever keep them unaltered in the days to come (Macarie Ieromonahul, 1823, pp. 7-9). Macarie s thoughts allow us to draw the following conclusions: The ancient chants were deep in meaning, difficult and burdensome. As a result, they were not difficult as far as their melos was concerned but 13 Our emphasis. 14 Because he devised a more exegetical, analytical notation. 15 Arabo-Persian musical culture. 16 The analytical notation promoted by Petros the Peloponnesian was, for some, an open door for the insertion of melodies that did not belong to the genuine style. 17 Ecumenical Patriarchy of Constantinople. 18 Meaning that their exegeseis did not alter the melos of older chants. 20

21 Studies rather difficult to understand in their deeper meaning and accessible only to the initiated few, not only musically, but also spiritually. Chrysaphes the Protopsaltis and Balasios the Priest open a new compositional era, proposing a style that was more accessible (to their contemporaries) but preserving the spirit of the old works. As it is well known now, Petros Bereketis excels in large compositions, enriching the existing repertoire, with his exceptional talent, with works more adequate, sweeter and wonderful, without straying, however, from the meaning of the ways of the holy fathers. Ioannis and Daniel guarded the old chants as their most precious gifts, but their compositions start to be distinguishable from the old ones. Here Macarie is likely to refer to the fact that the two introduced new theseis (melodic formulae) but without changing classical compositional structures and rules in the slightest. Being clever and gifted, Petros the Peloponnesian enriched the psalter repertoire to a great extent, using a more analytical, more exegetical notation system (aiming to provide a more detailed account of the melos). This semiography allowed many composers to insert in the chants outside elements that disagreed with the old psaltic style. The three teachers, Chrysanthos, Chourmouzios and Gregory, laid the theoretical foundations of the new notation system (which is rooted in Petros the Peloponnesian s notation), defending through their exegeses and theoretical writings the classicism of Church music, the established theseis and a unitary style. Chourmouzios and Gregory s exegetical work constitutes a living proof of the unity of style gathering within the same crucible, unitary in its diversity, an entire host of masters, from John of Damascus to Nikephoros Ithikos, Ioannis Koukouzelis andpetros the Peloponnesian. Macarie adopts a very critical stance against the unwelcome infiltrations taking place in his time at the compositional and interpretive level. Beyond the great teacher s manifest for a much desired Romanianization of the chants from the Preface of the Irmologhion, his words should be a warning (just as valid today) against the risk of introducing in the Church practice chants that no longer adhere to the deep meaning and the profound experience of the spirit and meaning of the Holy Fathers, diverting the mind and soul of the faithful from the word to the melody and from the spirit to the voice. Macarie the Hieromonk is not the first to have underlined the importance of preserving traditional compositional features in order to remain within the scope of authenticity. In his treatise, while discussing the composers who 21

22 Artes. Journal of Musicology preceded him 19, Manuel Chrysaphes shows how they had carefully followed the traditional line of their predecessors. Thus even in the kalophonic stichera the composers of these do not depart from their original melodies but follow them accurately, step by step, and retain them. Therefore, they take over some melodies unchanged from tradition and from the music thus preserved [ ] and they all follow the path unaltered throughout the entire composition. The second composer always follows his predecessor and his successor follows him and, to put it simply, everyone retains the technique or the art. [ ] We if we do not wish to distort the truth and precision of our science must act in this way, and no one would with justice reproach us for this action but rather would praise us (Conomos, 1985b, pp. 45, 47). There is, of course, an entire dynamic of psaltic tradition, innovating elements that manage to take hold when the genius of a composer such as St. Ioannis Koukouzelis is inspired enough to be original without changing the canons. As G.K. Angelinaras (2009, pp. 69, 70) also shows, the great composers were very aware that any attempt at renewing traditional elements could only be grounded in the values inherited from the past, which endured and imposed themselves in time, thus acquiring universal prestige. *** In recent years, the interest in researching, unearthing, and revaluing the chants of the great pre-18 th -century composers has considerably grown. Psalter music groups such as the Greek Byzantine Choir (conductor Lykourgos Angelopoulos) or the Maistors of Psaltic Art (conductor Gregorios Stathis) lauched, in the last decades of the century past, a new approach to the psaltic repertoire, supported by manuscript research, score publishing, album recordings, radio and TV shows, etc. Recently, access to the koinonika of the old teachers transcribed by Chourmouzios Chartophylax see the series of autograph manuscripts from the Metochion of the Holy Sepulchre ( ΜΠΤ ) in the Greek National Library have opened new lines of understanding, not only theoretical, but also practical in the church choir loft, of the classic formulaic structures present in these ancient compositions. For four years, together with the students majoring in Byzantine Music at the George Enescu National University of the Arts we have been able to sing the communion chants of the old masters (13 th -18t h century) during the Divine Liturgy owing to Chourmouzios exegeses, a practice which resulted in an incurable addiction to the balanced and unitary style of the old makings. Their clear and logical musical form, their settled, 19 Manuel refers here to Ioannis Koukouzelis, Aneotes, Nikiforos Ithikos, Ioannis Glykis and Ioannis Kladas. 22

23 Studies tranquil style, the way in which the melody passes from a thesis to the next with no passages that stray from the formulaic structure all these are features which homogenize stylistically, as a diachronic invariable, the entire legacy left by these great teachers. Angelinaras seizes the old masters depth of style and its diachronic, ecumenical and archetypal nature: Analysing Manuel Chrysaphes Σῶμα Χριστοῦ μεταλάβετε [Receive Ye the Body of Christ] communion chant and comparing it with newer works for the same feast we see that Chrysaphes piece is much richer and so diachronic that we feel it addresses all the Christian believers, from all times and places, and it envelops and represents all of them in a truly universal melody, while newer compositions are usually the result of a momentary, contextual, and often time-framed stroke of genius. I do not belittle all new creations, though. Each age has its good parts as well (Angelinaras, 2009, p. 72). It is precisely this classical style that Macarie tried to defend through his exegetical and editorial work, being fully aware of the threats to the process of chant Romanianization posed by the possibilities of analytical writing brought about by the New System and the Chrysanthic reform 20. If not as early as Daniel and Ioannis, then undoubtedly with those who followed Petros Lampadarios, this style was increasingly endangered. The formulaic nature of the old chants is not always preserved by the new compositions. Notation allows the insertion of melody lines that are difficult to identify with any classical thesis structure, and this, in fact, represents a deviation from the old and classical compositional concept. Indeed, preserving these archetypal melodic formulae intact in these chants has a soothing, calming effect for the mind and soul, because the melody produces no surprises, does not use unknown, unpredictable elements that could divert attention from the text to the music. When classical theseis are at work, the mind recognizes throughout only unitary melodic structures, rests on them, and even anticipates and expects them based on the traditional succession of theseis. Thus, the melodies remain a tranquil and fertile ground for the internalization of prayer. The Holy Fathers worked wisely on this compositional element which protects the mind in and through prayer and does 20 The 1814 Chrysanthic reform brings about a change of paradigm. Semiography is no longer using the large signs which represented, potentially, theseis whose execution (the melos) could vary considerably according to the context. Chrysanthic notation dismantles these large signs and imposes a reference exegesis by an analytical notation which does not focus on expression signs but, rather, uses vowel and time signs to produce for the first time in history a detailed account both of the way in which the melody progresses and of rhythmic subdivisions. The new notation has the advantage of reducing to a common denominator through Chourmouzios and Gregory s exegeses the various ways of interpreting the theseis, but, on the flip side, there is only one melodic version that prevails, and other variants (from oral tradition) no longer match the Chrysanthic score which is now seen as a reference. 23

24 Artes. Journal of Musicology not hypnotize it with surprising melodies producing states of mind that are far from a reconciled, inward spirit. The superiority of archetypal melodic formulae when compared with various innovations is directly and clearly emphasized by Angelinaras as well: These archetypes hide an incomparable wealth of sensations and ethea, with their structures of a Dorian simplicity, with their greatness and strength that are able to express even the transcendental. [ ] Archetypal forms thin down the senses, give shape to what is blurred, educate unruly feelings, avoid exaggeration and do not bother with useless details. The archetype is the cell generating new creative processes that enrich and perpetuate the tradition. On the contrary, melodic processing shows a lack of creative drive, expressive meagreness, spiritual stagnation, and cultural regress. The attempt to study archetypes is not the result of retrograde attitudes. Returning to origins shows that modernity cannot isolate itself by limiting itself just to the present, but should instead turn to the past to learn how to prepare for the future. We do not study the old chants so as to imitate them blindly, but so as to find the best way to show our inspiration. [ ] This return does not mean giving up creative actions, but turning to the joy of creating and the thirst of renewal (Angelinaras, 2009, p. 72). Fig. 4 Example of a melody written in a hyper analytical manner, where the timehonoured melodic theseis cannot be identified (Τρία κοινωνικά των κυριακών Ανθίμου Αρχιδιακόνου +1879, in p. 2) 4. The role of the Koinonikon in the liturgical context The liturgy is, par excellence, the central moment in the liturgical life of a community. All the services in a day converge towards this most uplifting moment, the union with Christ through the Eucharist, while the Sunday Liturgy, that of the Resurrection, is the culmination of the entire weekly cycle. 24

25 Studies The Liturgy, the highest spiritual embodiment of the meeting between the human and the divine, is a collection of various forms of prayer, from thanksgiving to supplication and praise, all of them marked by the mystical element of the bread and wine turning into the Saviour s Body and Blood and the believers communing with Him through the Eucharist. Thus, the liturgy becomes a communion, a koinonia, and this is why most of the choir s responses (which form a fixed repertoire, outside the cycle of the Octoechos) should also be chanted by all the faithful taking part in the service 21. However, there are three jubilation moments, three pieces of musical virtuosity, of melodic climax through which the inward experiences of the believers are transformed into instants of exaltation: the Trisagionhymn (the Sanctus), the Cherubic hymn and the Koinonikon (See Conomos, 1974 and Karagkounis, 2003). They are chants devoted par excellence to the psaltis, the specialist, because they require a great amount of vocal virtuosity. Just like the iconographers, the architects and the sculptors who devoted all of their best and their greatest artistic expressions to the Holy Church, the psaltes should spare no effort in expressing all of their best talents and gifts when singing the extended chants. The well-known protopsaltis Panagiotis Neochoritis stated in an interview that it is in extended chants that the ethos of the modes is best experienced. Here, the mind descends to the heart, the soul calms down and rests, settles in this state marked by the ethos of sounds and begins resonating with the psaltes and the isokrates. It is the moment that prepares the great encounter of the Eucharist. Everything is suspended, the mind recollects and, even more, the prayer manages to transcend the words as the choir echoes the sounds of a kratima that seems to follow an ever ascending spiral. A mood of appeasement and exaltation is thus created, a mood that the old teachers knew how to use only for the spiritual purpose of prayer. Wanting to find out what the specialists think of the importance of chanting the koinonikon, we asked father Filotheu Bălan from Petru Vodă Monastery why it is important for the communion chant not to be removed from the Divine Liturgy. His answer was revealing: Because it has to do with the education of the spirit. Being supported by these extended formulae and this musical conception, prayer is much easier to internalize. The syntomosdromos is enticing you to join in the singing, but in the case of the koinonikon you either sing in the choir or you utter the prayer Κύριε Ιησού Χριστέ, ελέησόν με [Lord Jesus Christ, have mercy on me] with great attention. 21 Liturgical chants are meant to keep a balance between a state of spiritual alertness (ενγρήγορση, as Athanasios Vourlis calls it in Vourlis, 1994, p. 95) and a mystical state of introversion, without encouraging the showy side of the ritual or cheesy tunes. The great proportion of litanies in the ecphonetic, recitative style (to which one may add the Great Responses and many other responses) is an element that impresses on the liturgy this dynamic, alert and at the same time mystical mood. 25

26 Artes. Journal of Musicology In the same vein, the Byzantium scholar Georgios Konstantinou is of the opinion that replacing the koinonikon with shorter chants, troparia, etc. is risky: These replacement chants have no support. It is the moment of the koinonikon, no other chant is suited there. Other chants are used only because the psaltes do not know how to sing communion chants. We saw how the Athonite fathers perceive the liturgical and spiritual role of the koinonikon. They prepare for the Holy Eucharist. Picture all the people taking part in the service starting to pay their respects to the icons, to get ready for the communion. Even the people who do not wish to commune follow the same impressive ritual. We cannot experience this in a secular environment. It plays an important liturgical role! A special preparation mood is created. This is the purpose of the koinonikon. And this also explains the role of the kratema 22. Consequently, the communion chant should not and cannot be replaced by other chants with the sole purpose of animating or not boring the people. We cannot reform the liturgy because of the psaltes lack of training. Often, the cantors education is deprived of investments (not only financial, but also as far as the image and the institution of the psaltis are concerned). An incorrect, modest performance of the choir should make the priests react and invest all available means in order to correct and embellish the chanting. Often, 22 Additionally, here are some other important answers in which M. Konstantinou stresses the importance of the koinonikon (private discussion): Question: What do you think about the solution proposed by M. Foundoulis that the psalm engendering the koinonikon should be sung instead when the choir cannot interpret a communion chant? Answer: I do agree with it, but it must remain an exception and not become a rule. The psaltis must necessarily sing the cherubikon, and in the exact same fashion he is also compelled to chant the koinonikon. Q: Should the koinonikon continue while the believers receive the communion? A: Either it continues, or the Σῶμα Χριστοῦ μεταλάβετε should be sung instead if the first koinonikon has ended. Some monasteries are in the habit of chanting the text of the koinonikon as a song that they afterwards repeat adding a second voice according to harmonic principles. These chants diminish the spirit of the koinonikon, even if, for instance, the katabasia would be also sung in extenso. Q: In many parishes prayers are read now before the communion. Does this happen at Mount Athos as well? A: Yes, it is customary to do that in Greece as well. But many also read thanksgiving prayers (after the Eucharist) when the koinonikon should be chanted, and this is wrong. It is just as unnatural for the priest to preach when the koinonikon should normally be chanted. Q: In the Monasteries of Mount Athos is the koinonikon sung by a soloist or by the entire choir? A: It depends on the monastery. If there are only a few monks living there... Even at Vatopaidi Monastery, where there are enough hieromonks and psaltes, the choir often empties because the fathers leave it long enough before the moment to go and venerate the icons, according to a well-established order. The entire moment gets very dynamic, the believers start moving around the church venerating the icons, as an integral part of a long vigil. Everything has its role and importance. 26

27 Studies the choir is the first label of a parish, the first impression offered to parishioners and passers-by, because, from all the arts embellishing a church, it has the most direct impact on the human soul. A beautiful painting or iconostasis cannot compensate for a negligent, out-of-tune, or simplistic chant. 5. The need for a collection of old koinonika in Romanian In the Romanian principalities, as far as the psaltic art is concerned, the early 19 th century is marked by both the Chrysanthic reform (Constantinople, 1814), which was immediately implemented here with the help of the clergymen and the musicians of that time, and the first printed editions of psaltic music scores (see also Bălan, Lista cronologică). Looking back at the Romanian printed editions which also include communion chants, chronologically, the first works of this kind belong to Nectarie Frimu (1846), who edits koinonika by Petros Lampadarios, Daniel the Protopsaltis, Petros Byzantios, Georgios the Cretan, Constantinos the Protopsaltis, Gregorios the Protopsaltis and Chourmouzios Chartophylax. Not before long Anton Pann publishes his Heruvico-chinonicar [Collection of Cherubika and Koinonika]. The first volume (Pann, 1847a) encompasses three series of communion chants: the first comprises his own compositions, the second is made up of short versions of Dionysios Fotino s pieces, and the third includes short versions of Petros Byzantios works. The second volume (Pann, 1847b) comprises Romanian adaptations of communion chants by Petros Lampadarios, Daniel the Protopsaltis, Dionysios Fotino, Iakobos the Protopsaltis, Georgios the Cretan, Petros the Byzantine and Chourmouzios Chartophylax. In 1856, Seraphim the Hieromonk publishes a Liturghier [Liturgy Chants] comprising communion chants for the entire year and Lent from the Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great and from the Liturgy of Saint Gregory the Great (Serafim, 1856). In 1873, Oprea Demetrescu edits a Liturghier comprising several weekly koinonika (with the exception of Saturday), Γεύσασθε καὶ ἴδετε [O Taste and see] and a Sunday koinonikon. Ioan Zmeu edits the work Utrenier şi Liturghier [Matins and Liturgy services] (the first edition dates from 1892), which includes Petros Lampadarios weekly koinonika adapted into Romanian by Nectarie Frimu, Daniel the Protopsaltis Sunday koinonika (First and Plagal of the First, Plagal of the Second, Plagal of the Fourth, and varis) and feast koinonika by Daniel the Protopsaltis, Petros Lampadarios and Gregory Lampadarios adapted by Ghelasie the Bessarabian. Communion chants are also present in the printings of Ștefanache Popescu. 27

28 Artes. Journal of Musicology This impressive editorial activity shows that the editors were trying to meet the need of publishing koinonika that had been previously recorded in the pages of musical manuscripts. Thus, the first printed editions promote works by 18 th and 19 th -century composers as well as some new Romanian creations that carry on the spirit of the psaltic tradition. Early18 th -century Romanian psaltic manuscripts in the Chrysanthic notation reveal a preference, at that time, for composers such as Petros Lampadarios, Daniel the Protopsaltis, Gregorios the Protopsaltis, Chourmouzios, Constantinos the Protopsaltis, Petros the Byzantine or Dionysios Fotino. These composers (out of whom Daniel was given a prominent place in the Neamţ manuscripts) represent, therefore, the classical standard of Byzantine composition, as there are no older compositions with which they could be compared. As a result, in the absence of the exegeses of older koinonika from the 13 th -17 th centuries 23 (produced by Chourmouzios and preserved in the manuscripts archived in the Greek National Library), the notion of classical style refers only to the works of more recent composers. Macarie the Hieromonk emphasizes the differences that distinguished Ioannis and Daniel the Protopsaltes works from the classical repertoire. He becomes even more explicit in this respect when he mentions Petros Lampadarios, whom he calls a very clever and knowledgeable man but of whom he says that he strayed a little from the ways of the old and that he sowed outside matters in his lessons. Thus, Macarie left us an objective analysis of the evolution of compositional style in church music, showing an evident preference for the classical element represented by Koukouzelis, Chrysaphes, Balasios, Petros Bereketis, etc. Even if Macarie s interpretations focused mainly on the works of more recent composers (Petros Lampadarios, Daniel and Ioannis, Petros the Byzantine, Chourmouzios and Gregory), in agreement with the developments taking place in the Greek world (Moisil, 2016, p. 14), he also tried to promote classical, reference works (Petros Bereketis, Balasios the Priest, Germanos Neon Patron, Iakobos the Protopsaltis, Georgios the Cretan, Filothei sin Agăi Jipei 24, Mihalache the Moldowallachian, Șărban the Protopsaltis, Radu the Protopsaltis, Arsenios the Vatopedian, Damian the Vatopedian and others). A proof in this respect are his collections of chants (most of them still unpublished), such as Stihirarul [Sticherarion], Papadichia [Papadike], Irmologhion Calofonicon [Eirmologion Kalophonikon], Pricesniarul 25 [Collection of koinonika] or Anthologia [Anthology]. Thus Macarie is the last Romanian composer and interpreter to 23 Some of the koinonika transcribed by Chourmouzios Chartophylax are attributed, by tradition, to John of Damascus (7 th -8 th century). 24 On Macarie s exegeses of 18 th -century Romanian composers see also Filotheu Bălan (2013, pp ). 25 On the contents of the unpublished collections, see N. M. Popescu (1908, pp ). 28

29 Studies have shownan interest in promoting chants composed before Ioannis and Daniel, and alongside Visarion the Confessor he is the last promoter of the chants written in the newly embellished sticheraric style. After Ioan Popescu-Pasărea s generation, Romanian editors have gradually given up this compositional genre, a phenomenon which reflects a general tendency among Romanian church choirs; there emerge replacement chants, most of them using the syntomos dromos or a moderate (argosyntomo) one, psalms, cherubika, verse chants, praises and, sometimes, the psaltic chants are even harmonized for two or three voices (Fig. 5). Fig. 1 In 1925, Ioan Popescu-Pasărea edits Liturghierul de strană [Liturgical book for the choir] (Bucharest, 1925) in which koinonika are replaced by polyeleos or other harmonized chants. The new harmonizations are identified with church modes, and the psaltic notation receives directions taken from Western music (mezzoforte, crescendo, piano etc.) As early as the reign of Al. I. Cuza, choral performances are strongly encouraged so that the mixed choirs from many urban parishes have gradually developed a repertoire made up of various choral works (named concertos ), devoted especially to the moment of the koinonikon. We are witnessing a major shift, which is also reflected by musical editions. Koinonika or cherubika are no longer presented as complete portions of the Octoechos, but in an incomplete fashion, according to the editor s preferences. Extended chants are gradually replaced; the cherubikon is the last redoubt, but it is already half-conquered by new compositions which also encourage the removal of some tones of the church Octoechos, such as the chromatic ones, the Fourth, or the Plagal of the Third 26. The new cherubika, much shorter in length, which destroy the classical forms of the theseis, have been taking hold, as the church choir practice prefers repeating the same line several times (e.g. Πᾶσαν τὴν βιοτικὴν... [All worldly care]) to fill the time 26 As a matter of fact, tones such as the Fourth, or the Papadic Plagal of the Third are rarely heard in church choirs nowadays. 29

30 Artes. Journal of Musicology needed for the priest s ritual 27. Naturally, the clerics turn against extended chants and the aforementioned modes, performed, in all likelihood, clumsily by psaltes who, in turn, cannot profit from an oral tradition that has been damaged by anti-ecclesiastical reforms. This chain of weaknesses has led to the establishment of a repertoire simple enough to be chanted by all the believers. In rural areas, the new psaltic repertoire simplified and harmonized by Ioan Popescu-Pasărea (and strongly encouraged by authorities through very large print-runs) encourages the creation of children s choirs that have been gradually replacing professional psaltes. Deprived of the fine execution of attractions and micro-intervals, the modes become major and minor scales 28 and thus a standardized type of chanting is born as an open door to harmonic singing. Musical tastes have been going through a process of intense Westernisation which has advanced hand in hand with the dilution of choir models and the anti-ecclesiastical political and social reforms launched by Al. I. Cuza and continued during communism. In recent years, the ever increasing interest of the younger generations of Romanian psaltes has led to a renewal of the Psaltic Art, not only at the interpretive, but also at the editorial level, through new editions or translations. The effort to adapt into Romanian the old masters koinonika transcribed and interpreted by Chourmouzios Chartophylax is part of the same trend. The book to be launched this spring in Iași with the blessing of His Eminence, the Most Reverend Father Theophanes, the Metropolitan of Moldova and Bukovina is the first publication through which the masterpieces of the old teachers transcribed by Chourmouzios Chartophylax are reborn in the Romanian language Conclusions The koinonikon is one of the compositional instantiations of the Byzantine melos which should not be given up in liturgical practice, despite the tastes of the time. Most of the liturgical repertoire is characterised by a specific dynamic which is meant to showcase the chanted texts and to engage the audience in a state of mind and soul alertness, but some pieces, like the koinonikon or the cherubikon, are meant to suspend the listener s mind in a state of jubilation high above the words of the liturgy. The latter require a higher level of musical knowledge and vocal virtuosity and, above all, the collective capacity to turn to meditation and introversion which is challenging indeed. 27 Paradoxically, since the old cherubika covered the entire duration of this ritual. 28 Indeed, psaltic music grammars from the early 19 th century describe diatonic tones as major or minor scales. 29 This text was translated from Romanian into English by Sorina Postolea. 30

31 Studies Liturgical practice allowed us to observe that older communion chants are sometimes more successful than those of newer authors in capturing this appeasement, meditation mood, precisely because they remain more faithful to their formulaic nature. It is this feature that confers to these melodies the quality of sound archetypes, which, no matter how original, do not alienate the classic melodic formulae. Almost all the ample compositions in Romanian printings are signed by late 18 th or 19 th -century authors, so these composers ended up being considered classics, even if their works were never compared to those by earlier composers (on the other hand, it goes without saying that this period is a truly classic one in light of the unfortunate innovations that emerged in it especially in the late 19 th century). A comparison with koinonika from the th centuries (Chourmouzios Chartophylax exegeses kept in autograph manuscripts at the National Library of Greece) reveals a series of differences at the compositional level between various ages, and some trends which, starting from the 19 th century, no longer follow the old patterns to the letter. These stylistic phenomena have not been completely analysed yet through comparative studies which could contribute to a clearer definition of the term classical, in the case of koinonika, at least. In conclusion, there is an acute need to revive psaltic art in Romania, in at least two directions: liturgical practice, which should preserve and guard musicalliturgical typikon, and printings, which should promote the classic repertoire above all. References a. Manuscripts BAR (Library of Romanian Academy) ΜΠΤ 705 (National Library of Greece, Metochion of Saint Sepulchre Collection) b. Books Alexandru, M.. Paleography Course III course materials (unpublished). Thessaloniki: Aristotle University. Angelinaras, G. K. (2009). Έκφρασης της Ψαλτικής Τέχνης [Musical expression in Psaltic Art]. Atena: Athos. Anthimos Arhideacon. Τρία κοινωνικά των κυριακών [Three Sunday Communion Chants]. Retrieved from Asser, M. (2005, Ed.). Psalter of the Prophet and King David, According to the Septuagint, England: Shrewsbury. Retrieved from 31

32 Artes. Journal of Musicology Bălan, F. Lista cronologică a cărţilor de muzică psaltică în limba română, tipărite în România între 1820 şi 2014 [The chronologic list of the psaltic books edited in Romania between 1820 and 2014]. Retrieved from Bălan, F. (2013). Câteva exegeze în notație hrisantică ale Ieromonahului Macarie din Psaltichia Ieromonahului Filothei [Some exegeseis of Makarie the Hieromonk în chrysanthic notation from Filothei s Psaltichia]. In Simpozionul Internațional de Muzicologie Bizantină. 300 de ani de românire ( ) [International Symposium of Byzantine Musicology], București: Editura Universității Naționale de Muzică. Barbu-Bucur, S. (1992). Filothei sin Agăi Jipei. Psaltichie Rumânească [The Romanian Psalm Book]. IV Stihirar Penticostar. In Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music], VII D. București: Editura Episcopiei Buzăului. Conomos, D. E. (1974). Byzantine Trisagia and Cherubika of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. A study in Late Byzantine Liturgical Chant. Thessaloniki. Conomos, D. E. (1985a). The Late Byzantine and Slavonic Communion Cycle: Liturgy and Music. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection. Conomos, D. E. (1985b, Ed.). The treatise of Manuel Chrysaphes, the Lampadarios: on the Theory of the Art of Chanting and on Certain Erroneus Views That Some Hold About it, coll. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, seria Corpus Scriptorum de Re Musica. Viena: VÖAW. Foundoulis, I. (2009). Dialoguri liturgice [Liturgical dialogues] III, translated into Romanian by Sabin Preda. București: Editura Bizantină. Gheorghiță, N. (2009). Chinonicul duminical în perioada postbizantină ( ) [The Sunday Koinonikon during the Post-Byzantine Age ( )]. București: Sophia. Karagkounis, K. (2003). Η παράδοση και εξήγηση του μέλους των χερουβικών της βυζαντινής και μεταβυζαντινής μελοποιἶας [Tradition and exegesis of the cherubika melos in the Byzantine and Metabyzantine composition]. Athens: Centre of Byzantine Musicology. Macarie Ieromonahul (1823). Irmologhion sau Catavasieriu musicesc [Eirmologion or Musical Katabasies]. Wien. Moisil, C. (2016). Geniu românesc vs. tradiție bizantină [Romanian genius vs. Byzantine tradition]. București: Editura Muzicală. Nectarie Frimu (1846). Carte de cântări bisericești, traduse din originalurile grecești în limba Moldovinească și dată la lumină acum întâiaș dată în zilele ocârmuirii prealuminatului și preaînălțatului nostru Domn, Mihail Grigoriu Sturza Voievod [Book of ecclesiastical songs...], I - II, Neamț. Pann, A. (1847a). Heruvico-chinonicar care cuprinde în sine trei rînduri heruvice şi chinonice duminicale pe toate glasurile, afară de ale săptămânii, lângă care s-au 32

33 Studies adăugat şi axioane 22 [Collection of Cherubika and Koinonika which includes three series of Cherubika and Koinonika in all tones, with the exception of the weekly ones, to which 22 axions were also added], I. Bucureşti. Pann, A. (1847b). Heruvico-chinonicar anual care cuprinde în sine deosebite heruvice şi chinonice pentru toate sărbătorile anului, lângă care s-au adăugat şi antiaxioanele lor [Collection of Cherubika and Koinonika which includes Cherubika and Koinonika for all the feasts in the year, to which their anti-axions were also added], II. Bucureşti. Popescu, N. M. (1908). Viața și activitatea dascălului de cântări Macarie Ieromonahul [The Life and work of the music teacher Macarie the Hieromonk]. București: Instit. de Arte Grafice Carol Göbl. Popescu-Pasărea, I. (1925). Liturghierul de strană [Liturgical book for the choir]. București. Psachos, K. (1978). Η παρασημαντική της βυζαντινής μουσικής [Semiography of Byzantine music]. Athens: Dionysos. Serafim Ieromonahul (1856). Rînduiala Sfintei şi Dumnezeieştii Liturghii care cuprinde în sine: Binecuvintează şi celelalte antifoane, heruvicele, axioanele şi chinonicele de peste tot anul şi ale Postului Mare de la Liturghia Sfântului Vasile şi de la Liturghia mai-nainte sfinţită a Sfântului Grigorie Dialogul [The Service of the Divine and Holy Liturgy which includes: Bless the Lord and the other antiphons, cherubika, axions and koinonika for the entire year and for Lent from the Liturgy of Saint Basil the Great and the Liturgy of Saint Gregory the Great], II. Buzău. Stathis, G. (1998). H εξήγηση της παλαιάς βυζαντινής σημειογραφίας [The Exegesis of Old Byzantine Semiography]. Αthens: Institute of Byzantine Musicology. Troelsgård, C. (2001). Koinōnikon. In Stanley Sadie & John Tyrrell (Ed.), New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, XIII. London: Oxford University Press (2 nd edition). Vourlis, A. (1994). Δογματοηθικαί όψεις της ορθοδόξου ψαλμωδίας [Dogmatic-ethical visions on Orthodox psalmodia]. Athens: Koultoura. 33

34 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology The Amomos in the Byzantine chant: a diachronical approach with emphasis on musical settings of the 19 th and 20 th centuries DIMOS PAPATZALAKIS Aristotle University of Thessaloniki GREECE Abstract: The book of the Psalms constitutes the main source from where the Offices of the Orthodox church draw their stable parts. It has been diachronically one of the most used liturgical books of the cathedral and the monastic rite. In this paper we focus on the Psalm 118, which is well known under the designation Amomos. In the first part of our study we look for the origin of the book of the Psalms generally. Afterwards we present the Offices in which the Amomos is included, starting from the Byzantine era and the use of the Amomos in the cathedral and the monastic services. Then, we negotiate the question of its use in the post-byzantine era. In the next section we quote the most important settings of the Byzantine, post-byzantine and new- Byzantine composers in Constantinople, Smyrna and Thessaloniki, as well as some evidence of their lives and their musical works. In the next section we introduce some polyprismatic analyses for the verses of the first stanza of the Amomos, which are set to music in 19th and 20th centuries. After some comparative musicological analyses of the microform of the compositions or interpretations, we comment on the music structure of the settings of Amomos in their liturgical context. Our study concludes with some main observations, as well as a list of the basic sources used to write this paper. Keywords: amomos, chant, funeral, interpretation, analysis. 1. Introduction The Psalm 118 is known under the title Amomos and it is included in the book of Psalms, which belongs to the so called Κanon of The Old Testament. Its name Amomos comes from the introduction of the psalm (πρόψαλμα) Ἄμωμοι ἐν ὁδῷ ἀλληλούια according to the Septuagint, the translation of the Hebrew text into the Greek language. The word s origin indicates the pure, faultless person, the one who is not spiritually or morally corrupted. The whole meaning of the psalm can be summarized in the praise of the perfection of the Divine Law by the poet and the need that this Law shall be observed by the people (Trembelas, 1970, p. 399) (Theodorou, 1990, p. 37). 34

35 35 Studies There is no incontestable theory as far as the origin of the book of Psalms is concerned. The problem of its exact dating is related to the fact that the Jewish people preserved the psalms through the oral tradition until the moment they realized the need to preserve it in writing (Kaimakis, 2010, p. 17). This is, certainly, not strange to the Greek tradition, since it is commonly accepted that Homer s epics as a whole survived through the narratives of the epic poets who recited them with the accompaniment of the lyre. The book of Psalms is dated just in the second century BC in the form that we know today: that is of a body of fifty psalms divided in five books. The division is probably according to another book of the Old Testament, namely the Pentateuch (Tora in Hebrew). Earlier segments of the Psalms though, which precede its final form, are found in the Hymn of Marriam, included in the book of Exodus (15:21) written in about 1200 BC, or, as a more complete sample, in the Hymn of Deborah, in the book of Judges (5), which is written in a bit later, in 1150 BC (Touliatos, 1984, p. 14). Another problem lies in the authorship of the psalms. Nowadays, the book that contains the psalms is predominantly called David s Psalter. However, this is in no case absolutely accurate, since only seventy-three, or eighty-four-according to the Septuagint translation- out of the hundred fifty psalms are certainly composed by King David, while there are others which are clearly not his works (Kaimakis, 2010, 18). This conclusion is drawn either by the content (they refer to facts subsequent to his time, e.g. the captivity by the Babylonians) or by the fact that a different writer is mentioned in the title of the psalm (e.g. Ps. 48, the sons of Kore, or Ps. 49, by Asaph). Conventionally, however, it s more common to attribute to David the whole book of the Psalms (Touliatos, 1984, p. 15). It is worthwhile to mention that the psalms were composed as an expression of the need of the Israelite people to worship God. Rather than the product of any sophisticated elaboration, they represent a genuine expression of religiousness of Israel (Kaimakis, 2010, p. 17). The Amomos is the main topic in this article. A starting point for this research was initially a phrase in the ending part of the introduction in the doctoral dissertation by Diane H. Touliatos-Banker, The Byzantine Amomos Chant of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (Thessaloniki: The Patriarchal Institute of Patristic Studies, 1984); the author mentions the following: It is hoped that this investigation will open the pathway for examination of this frequently chanted psalm of the Eastern rite and perhaps lead to even further explorations of the many much similar chants of the Byzantine services, which are still waiting to exam (Touliatos, 1984, p. 18). In the relevant bibliography and the musicological research, we couldn t trace any contemporary, specialized work about the Amomos. However, the poetic material, that is the actual text of the psalm, as well as the numerous

36 Artes. Journal of Musicology manuscripts of the Byzantine and post-byzantine compositions along with the modern printed books that contain compositions of the Amomos, determined us to attempt a close research of the sources. The special issue of this paper is about the use of the Amomos chant in the modern liturgical ordo, as defined by the publication of the Typikon of the offices of the Greek Orthodox Church, and as expressed musically in various settings by composers from Constantinople and Thessaloniki, during the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Emphasis will be laid on the interpretational approaches by leading chanters in the 20 th century, but this will be only a preliminary part of a greater research which is going to be published in the future. 2. The Psalter and the Byzantine rite The whole book of the Psalms is about man s basic concerns connected with his relation to God. The content of Amomos is clearly didactic, as it praises the perfection of the Divine Law and the need to be loyally observed by man (Touliatos, 1984, p. 17). The exact dating of the Psalm 118 represents an open question (Trembelas, 1970, p. 401) (Kaimakis, 2010, p. 19). There are three predominant theories about the period of its composure as summarized by Touliatos (1984, pp ). According to them, we have the following possible dates: 1. The psalm is written during the Babylonian capture, between BC. 2. According to another theory, supported by E. Leslie, the text belongs to the post capture era, between the 4 th and 3 rd century BC. 3. M. Buttenweiser asserts that the Psalm was definitely composed after 312 and between the years BC, taking into consideration philological criteria as to the style and the vocabulary of the psalm, since as he states, it represents the decay of the Jewish language and literature that took place in this period. The modern liturgical practice that relates to the night-and-day services in the Orthodox Church is based on the liturgical book called Horologion. We do not know when its content was collected to take the layout that we find nowadays. However, it is known that this book was exclusively used in the monastic rite at least until the final decline of the Byzantine cathedral rite in the beginning of the 13th century in Constantinople (conquest by the Westerns in 1204 during the fourth Crusade), or the 15th century in Thessaloniki (conquest of the city by the Ottomans in 1430), and contained the standardized parts of the daily and the festal services. It was named after its content, as it includes, among the rest, the services of The Hours that is of the specific times during the day, when monks gather and pray together to the Lord (Balageorgos, 2012, p. 14). It is not certain when and by whom it was introduced in the worship, but 36

37 37 Studies it is true that by the ninth century it is testified as one of the basic liturgical books in the Byzantine monastic rite (Touliatos, 1984, p. 29). The oldest preserved manuscript of the Horologion is the codex Sinai 863, dated in the ninth century. The first printed edition of the Horologion was issued in Venice, in 1509, and it is the one which is most similar to the modern edition of this liturgical book (Balageorgos, 2012, p. 15). At this point we need to shortly clarify the term Byzantine cathedral or secular and monastic rite, so that we can better understand the widespread of the Amomos and its use in the services by all the ranks of the faithful. Therefore, we succinctly mention that it is about two different liturgical traditions with common roots to a great extent, but following a different course through time. As far as the Byzantine cathedral rite is concerned, its origins are found in the rite of the cathedral of the Resurrection (the Holy Sepulcher) in Jerusalem. We find credible evidence in the so-called The Pilgrimage of Egeria, who recorded as an eye witness the basic layout of the services, as they were performed there, by the end of the 4th century. Those notes are of utmost importance, since they are the only source that enables us to compare this Typikon [order] with the rite of the more recent (6th century) Byzantine cathedral rite in Constantinople (Taft, 1996, p. 17). The monastic rite, on the other hand, is based on the way according to which services took place in the St Saba s monastery, which is close to Jerusalem and constituted an important monastic center from the 5th century onwards (Sabaitic Typikon). When by the 10th century the period of Iconoclasm had already been left in the past for the Byzantine Empire and the renowned monastery of Studion (the monastery of the Forerunner) was fully restored, its rite, based to a great extent on that of the monastery of St Sabas, was the one functioning as a model for the recently established monasteries of Mount Athos (Touliatos, 1984, p. 51). 2.1 The Cathedral matins (Asmatic orthros) Starting from the oldest testimonies concerning the use of the Amomos in the liturgical practices, we should talk about the matins in the cathedral rite and mainly about the matins of Holy Saturday, which is essentially the Burial of the Lord. This service is considered tο be the model for the subsequent use of the psalm in the matins, but also for the origin and development of the burial service which we will examine in particular below (Christodoulou, 2005, pp , ). It is necessary to mention some main traits concerning the use of the Psalter in the Asmatic office ( Sung Office ). According to this type of office, there were two choirs of chanters, singing antiphonically the chants prescribed for the feasts. The psalmodic repertory comprised hundred and forty psalms, divided into sixty-eight antiphons (Balageorgos, 2001, p. 78). During the chanting, each verse was followed by a refrain, that is a short phrase which was

38 Artes. Journal of Musicology used as a conclusion, such as alleluia, Lord, have mercy, Lord, help me, Glory to You, O Lor etc. The responses varied in size; they could include one to six psalms. Amomos, obviously because of its size, was chanted separately as a distinct response in the Saturday and Sunday cathedral matins (Touliatos, 1984, p. 54). The cathedral matins was divided into three parts. The first, which was related to the part of the service that started long before the sunrise, was performed in the narthex. In this part, Amomos was chanted. The service started with the chanting of Hypakoe. Following that, the great litany was recited and the first prayer of the matins was read. Then, there was the first antiphon (on Sundays the Psalms 3, 62, 133) and after that the small litany was recited. After reading the prayer there was the chant of the Amomos, divided into three parts, staseis or stanzas (Ι:1-72, ΙΙ:73-131, ΙΙΙ: ), with litanies and prayers coming in between at the end of each stanza. After the third stanza of the Amomos, the whole body of priests moved in the main part of the church (naos) for the second part of the service 1 (Lingas, 1996, pp. 68, 77-78; Touliatos, 1984, p. 58). 2.2 The Epitaphios service The more recent tradition of the chanting of the lamentations (makaristaria, or megalynaria) 2 in the service of the Lord s Burial, or the Dormition of the Theotokos, and in some of the services of the most known saints in the Orthodox Church (John the Forerunner, St Demetrios the Myrrhstreamer etc.) needs to be placed in the context of the cathedral matins and in the ritual regarding the Lord s Burial. The codex 533 of the National Library of Greece (NLG), dating back to the middle of the 13 th century, includes hymns of lamentations for the feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos, attributed to the Bishop of Bulgaria Iakovos and is regarded as the oldest source concerning the composition of such kind of troparia, which flourished during the reign of the Palaiologan dynasty, known as Palaiologan Renaissance (Detorakis, 2004, pp ). The verses of the Amomos are placed before the troparia of the lamentations, which are divided in three stanzas. This is a tradition appearing 1 The typical arrangement concerning the chanting of Amomos is presented in detail in the manuscript codices NLG 2061 and 2062, written between the years and respectively, which describe provisions of the cathedral rite, concerning the performance of services in the cathedral of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki, as it was testified by St Symeon, Bishop of the above-mentioned city (Lingas, 1996, pp ). 2 In the Iviron codex 1120, an autograph by Manuil Doukas Chrysaphis, the Lampadarios of the imperial court, f. 425, we find the rubric: «Ἡ καλοφωνία τοῦ Ἀμώμου πρόλογος τοῦ Κορώνη ἦχος β Μακαρίζομέν σε, τοτο». This rubric gave the opportunity to Gregorios Stathis to name the specific hymns Makaristaria (2003, p. 148). However, the term is already found in the codex NLG 837, where similar hymns are under the title of makaristaria, while in the NLG 533 we find the term makaronia for the same sort of hymns (Detorakis, 1997, p. 211). 38

39 39 Studies in the codices from the 15 th century onwards, but it resounds a much older tradition which links the Epitaphios to the matins of the Holy Saturday, which was often performed as a vigil, starting the night of the Holy Friday till the next morning. The structure of this matins is considered to be the source of the burial service, which will be examined in detail below (Touliatos, 1984, pp , 108). 2.3 The Midnight service The Great Horologion, as already mentioned above, is the liturgical book which contains the stable parts of the daily services (Balageorgos, 2012, p. 14). It was clearly the book of the monastic rite. Normally the printed Horologia used in the modern liturgical practice, start the cycle of the services of the day and night with the so-called Mesonyktikon [The Midnight service]. This is a rather short service taking place in the middle of the night. In the cathedral rite, according to St Symeon of Thessaloniki, this service was the equivalent of the first part of matins, that was performed in the Narthex. In the monasteries the Midnight service is performed in this part of the temple even today. Concerning the use of the Psalter in the monastic rite, we need to mention that it is different: the way the psalms are divided into groups differs from the division that takes place in the cathedral or asmatic [sung] rite. Now the Psalter is divided into twenty subsections called Kathismata. The Psalm 118 is the only one which constitutes a Kathisma by its own, namely the seventeenth. The manuscript Horologion Sinai 864 (ff. 45v-56r), dating to the 9 th century, includes the daily Midnight service, with the total sum of the verses of the Amomos divided in two stanzas (Ι:1-93, ΙΙ:94-176). The name itself of the Midnight service derives from the verse 62 of the Amomos: μεσονύκτιον ἐξεγειρόμην τοῦ ἐξομολογεῖσθαί σοι ἐπὶ τὰ κρίματα τῆς δικαιοσύνης σου (Touliatos, 1984, p. 101). 2.4 The Monastic matins The monastic matins is one of the oldest services in the Orthodox Church. Its background starts with the vigils of the monks in Sinai and Egypt in the beginning of the 5 th century (Touliatos, 1984, p. 103). A. Lingas states that St Basil the Great mentions the chanting of the Psalm 118 as a component of the Sunday vigil performed in Cappadocia already by the 4 th century (Lingas, 1996, p. 77). There will be no detailed description of this service, as this is out of the scope of this paper. We will only outline the place of the Amomos in the monastic matins. The Amomos was chanted only in the Saturday matins, at the second stichologia of the Kathismata, and on Sunday, as third stichologia. On the day of a saint s celebration, the third stichologia contained Psalms 134 and 135, which were preserved in the ecclesiastical tradition by the name of Polyeleos (Haldaiakis, 2003, pp ). However, Touliatos mentions that in some

40 Artes. Journal of Musicology parts of the Byzantine Empire it was common to chant the Amomos even on Sundays including celebrations, along with the Polyeleos (Touliatos, 1984, p. 104). As the third stichologia of the kathismata on the Sunday matins, the Amomos was chanted in three stanzas, according to the already mentioned division in the asmatic matins. In the Saturday matins however, when it was not a period of lent, when The Lord is God and has revealed himself to us was chanted, then the Amomos was once again divided in three stanzas, according to the advices of the Typikon. During periods of lent, though, when Alleluia was chanted instead of The Lord is God, then usually the Amomos was chanted in two stanzas, in accordance with the division of the stanzas as mentioned above. In the modern, parochial liturgical practice however, where constitutes a compilation of the cathedral and monastic matins, the Amomos is omitted, since not even the stichologia of the kathismata of the matins is chanted or read, while only the troparia of the Psalter s kathismata, which were inserted (in older times) between every stichologia, remained in use. 2.5 The Great Schema Another service of the monastic rite in which we find the chanting of the Amomos is that of the Great Schema. Without entering into details, for which the reader can study the special work of M. Wawryk (1968) Initiatio monastica in Liturgia Byzantina: Officiorum schematis monastici magni et parvi necnon rasophoratus exordia et evolutio of the series Orientalia Christiana Analecta of the Pontifical Oriental Institute, we will only mention briefly the order of the service of the Great Schema, as it is included in the codices Grottaferrata Γ. β. V (ff.46v-102v), VII (138r-164r), and Vaticanus graecus 1836 (ff. 1v-64r) and as it is presented in the Appendix of the above study. There the chanting of Amomos is testified during the tonsure of the monk who is about to take the Great Schema in the following way: «Καὶ λαμβάνει αὐτὸν [the one who is going to receive the tonsure] ὁ ἡγούμενος ἢ ἀνάδοχος καὶ κουρεύει καὶ εὐθέως ἄρχονται ψάλλειν τὸν ἄμωμον κατὰ στίχους καὶ ψάλλουσιν τα τροπάρια ταῦτα (ἦχ. δ ) Κύριε, Κύριε, ἐπίβλεψον, (ἦχ. πλ. β ) Τῇ ἀφαιρέσει τῶν τριχῶν Καὶ ὅτε ἀποκαρῇ, εἰσέρχονται οἱ ἀδελφοὶ ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ καὶ αὐτὸς ἵσταται ἔξω μόνος, καὶ γίνεται εἴσοδος τῆς θείας λειτουργίας [this is the Little entrance ]» (Appendix, 31). Presenting the service at its main points, we could say that it is divided in the following parts. The whole service is performed inside the Divine Liturgy. In the first part, which takes place before the reading of the Epistle, the monk who is about to take the Great Schema is presented in front of the abbot. After the questions and answers between the monk and the abbot to ascertain the monk s voluntary offer to the monastic life and his perfection according to its principles, a brief catechism takes place. Then, in the second part, there is the three-cut tonsure and rassophoria of the monk. During the tonsure of the monk, 40

41 Studies the Amomos is being chanted by the brothers of the monastery since, as we are informed by St Symeon of Thessaloniki, the three-cut tonsure symbolizes the sacrifice of a part of the monk s body to the Lord, the way Christ himself sacrificed his whole body for the salvation of the humanity. After this, we go back to the liturgy (Touliatos, 1984, p. 101). Also, in the The order of taking the holy pallion [the outer cassock], that is in the service which is taking place while wearing the pallion, which is the robe of the Schemamonk, according to the above-mentioned codices, we observe the following typical order: «Μετὰ τὸ πληρῶσαι ἐν τῷ σακκομαχίῳ τὸν ὡρισμένον καιρὸν καὶ μαρτυρηθῆναι παρὰ πάσης τῆς ἀδελφότητος, ὅτι δόκιμός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ ὑπακοῇ καὶ ἐν τῇ πίστει καὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ὁ βίος χαρακτηρίζεται τῆς τῶν μοναχῶν προκοπῆς, φέρουσιν τὸν ἀδελφὸν οἱ μοναχοὶ πρὸς τὸν καθηγούμενον καὶ ποιοῦσι μετάνοιαν, καὶ μαρτυροῦντες τὴν αὐτοῦ ἀρετὴν ἐκλιπαροῦσιν αὐτὸν ἀξιῶσαι τὸν ἀδελφὸν τοῦ ἱεροῦ καὶ ἁγίου παλλίου τὸ πᾶν δὲ ἐν τῇ κρίσει τῇ τοῦ πνευματικοῦ πατρὸς καὶ καθηγουμένου ἀνορθούμενοι καὶ εἴ μεν δόξει αὐτῷ καλὸν γενέσθαι τὸ αἴτημα τοῦ τε ἀδελφοῦ καὶ τῶν πατέρων καὶ ἀδελφῶν, γίνεται ἡ τάξις καὶ ἡ ἀκολουθία οὕτως ( ) Καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου λαμβάνουσιν αὐτόν τινες ἀπὸ τῶν ἀδελφῶν ἕως τοῦ νάρθηκος καὶ κουρεύουσιν αὐτόν, ψάλλοντες τὸν ἄμωμον. Εἶτα φέρουσιν αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τὸ βῆμα καὶ βάλλουσι μετ αὐτοῦ μετάνοιαν σταυροειδῶς, ἔπειτα καὶ τῷ καθηγουμένῳ ἴστασιν αὐτὸν ἐν τῷ δεξιῷ χορῷ πλησίον τοῦ βήματος μετὰ καὶ τοῦ εὐαγγελίου. Καὶ γίνεται ὁ ἀσπασμός, καὶ μετὰ τὸν ἀσπασμὸν ἀπέρχεται εἰς τὴν ἰδίαν στάσιν, καὶ οὕτω τελείται ἐπ αὐτῷ ἡ ἀκολουθία» (Appendix, 52, p. 60). 2.6 The Funeral service in general The funeral service is the one in which the chanting of the Amomos survived till today. Besides it is true that in the musical manuscripts there is no setting of the Amomos to music for the Midnight service or the service of the Great Schema. Only in the funeral service for laymen, and for monks, and in the service of the Epitaphios of the Theotokos, as well as in the one of the matins we detect musical settings of the Amomos (Touliatos, 1984, p. 113). The history of the funeral service is connected to the matins of the Holy Saturday, as it is already mentioned, that is to the service of the Lord s funeral. There is no unambiguous evidence as to its structure before the eighth century. Its origins should be traced to the prayers for the dead in the period of the Old and later of the New Testament. Besides it is a fact that there was some relevant ritual for the burial of the dead brothers by the community to which they belonged. In the apocryphal literature, also, there are accounts about the celebrating of the Holy Eucharist on the graves of the dead on the day in memory of their death (Skaltsis, 2006, p. 542). 41

42 Artes. Journal of Musicology Regarding the sources about the funeral services of the Christians before the 5 th century the so-called Euchologion of Serapio of Thmuis is quite interesting, as well as the texts of the Apostolic Constitutions, where the first accounts about setting the psalms to music by the faithful during the dead s funeral are preserved (Skaltsis, 2006, p. 542; Touliatos, 1984, p. 109). Essential information is also transmitted by St Gregorios of Nyssa in his encomium to his and St Basil the Great s sister, St Makrina. While he describes what was performed for the burial, Gregorios mentions a chanting of virgins mingled with the lamentation of the crowd that swarmed where the saint s relics were. He also provides information about issues concerning the burial order. He mentions choirs of monks and virgins that took turns in the chanting during the Vigil (Pannychis) in honor of the dead woman (PG 46, 992 C-D). However, the first text that contains a general diagram giving clearer evidence for a sort of funeral service and the way it was connected to the Eucharist is the «Περὶ τῆς ἐκκλησιαστικῆς ἱεραρχίας» (PG 3, ), which is falsely attributed to St Dionysios Areopagitis, since it is a text of the 6 th century (Garitsis, 2002, p. 11). The text, though, that sums up the whole preexisting tradition concerning the church s care for the dead and its faith that people progress towards eternal life, is «Περὶ τῶν ἐν πίστει κεκοιμημένων», a work of the 7 th or 8 th century, written by St John the Damascene (PG 95, pp ). The idiomela of the funeral service chanted even today are his work. Concerning the manuscript evidence of the liturgical books about the performance of the funeral service, we find our first source in the codex Barberinus graecus 336, the earliest preserved Euchologion of the Byzantine cathedral rite, dating back to the middle-end of the 8 th century or the beginning of the 9 th century (Christodoulou, 2005, p. 434). There we spot whole prayers «εἰς ψυχήν κρινομένην» (f. 418r-v), or a prayer «ἐπὶ τελευτήσαντας» (418v), «εὐχὴ ἐπιτάφιος καθολική» (507r), other «εὐχὴ ἐπιτάφιος καθολική» (507v), «εὐχὴ ἐπιτάφιος εἰς ἐπίσκοπον» (507v-508r), «εἰς κοιμηθέντα μοναχόν» (508r). The fact that there is a division in the burial prayers into catholic, for bishops, for monks leads us to the assumption that already from this period there are separate kind of funeral services for laymen, monks and priests, as it is clearly testified in more recent manuscripts. The first integral funeral service is found in the codex Γ. β. Χ of the Grottaferatta monastery, an Euchologion dated back to the 1oth century. It is an Italian-Byzantine manuscript that resounds the liturgical tradition of the monastery of St John the Forerunner, known as monastery Stoudios. It includes elements of the monastic rite (e.g. the canon) blended with that of the cathedral or asmatic ( Sung ) rite (e.g. kontakion). The service is under the title «Ἀκολουθία εἰς κοιμηθέντας» ( Service for those who departed ). In this manuscript the Amomos is testified for the first time and it is chanted for laymen and monks who passed away (Alexopoulos, 2009, p. 408). 42

43 43 Studies In the 11 th century, the funeral service is completely dissociated from the Holy Eucharist. This is also the time when the Amomos is firmly consolidated as one of its integral parts, in this period the funeral service takes its final form which is like the contemporary one, in its full composition, as it is usually celebrated in the monasteries, namely those of the Mount Athos. In the various versions of the funeral service there are two ways of chanting the Amomos, in two or three stanzas. The earliest division is into three stanzas, while in the funeral services for the monks there is the division in two stanzas. Rev. Alexopoulos also, in his article about the funeral services for priests notes that in the division in two stanzas there is a variety of refrains, while in the division in three stanzas, Alleluia remains invariably as refrains for the first and the third stanzas, while Have mercy upon me, o Lord forms the refrain of the second stanza (Alexopoulos, 2009, p. 412). In the 12 th century there are no special alterations in the way the funeral service was celebrated. The development of the service is important during the following centuries, reaching a peak in the 14 th and 15 th when many musical compositions of the verses of the Amomos emerge in the manuscripts till the 16 th century. Regarding the performance of the Amomos, the observation by Touliatos claiming that, although it was chanted in full, all the verses of the psalm have never been set to music, is very important (Touliatos, 1984, p. 118). The author cites lists with the numerous manuscripts of the 14 th and 15 th century, in which she has underlined the verses that had been set to music and in any case, they vary The funeral service for laymen In the Great Euchologion published by the printing house of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in Constantinople in 1809 there is the following formal arrangement concerning the funeral service for laymen : When they come to the Temple, the relic is deposited in the narthex, and they begin: «Ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν βοηθείᾳ τοῦ Ὑψίστου» (the whole Psalm 90). Τhen, with louder voice: «Ἄμωμοι ἐν ὁδῷ Ἀλληλούια. Εὐλογητὸς εἶ, Κύριε, Ἐπεπόθησεν ἡ ψυχή μου, Ἐνύσταξεν ἡ ψυχή μου..., Κλίνον τὴν καρδίαν μου, Ἀθυμία κατέσχε με, Μέτοχος ἐγώ εἰμι, Δόξα Καὶ νῦν. Ἀλληλούια.» The Deacon: «Ἔτι καὶ ἔτι» [Have mercy upon us, o God ] (The small litany) «Τοῦ Κυρίου δεηθῶμεν» [Let us pray unto the Lord]. The Priest: «Ὅτι σὺ εἶ ἡ ἀνάστασις» [For Thou art the resurrection ] After this, we start chanting the second stanza, plagal of the first mode. At the end of each verse, we say: Have mercy upon me, O Lord.

44 Artes. Journal of Musicology «Αἱ χεῖρες σου ἐποίησάν με, Ὅτι ἐγεννήθην ὡς ἀσκὸς, Σός εἰμι ἐγώ, Ἀπὸ τῶν κριμάτων σου, Ἔκλινα τὴν καρδίαν μου, Καιρὸς τοῦ ποιῆσαι, Δόξα Καὶ νῦν Ἐλέησόν με Κύριε.» Then, we read the small litany as mentioned: and so, we start chanting the third stanza, in the plagal of the fourth mode. «Καὶ ἐλέησόν με Ἁλληλούια. Ἐπίβλεψον ἐπ ἐμέ, Νεώτερος ἐγώ εἰμι, Τῆς φωνῆς μου, Ἄρχοντες κατεδίωξάν με, Ζήσεται ἡ ψυχή μου, Ἐπλανήθην ὡς πρόβατον» And straightway: «Εὐλογητὸς εἶ Κύριε» [Blessed art Thou, O Lord, teach me Thy statutes] (the eulogetaria follow). We will not cite the whole diagram of the service. We will only mention that, after the eulogetaria, it includes the hymns «Ἀνάπαυσον Σωτὴρ ἡμῶν ζωοδότα» [O Savior and Life-giver, to those You transferred from this fleeting life, grant rest ] etc., a canon at the plagal of the second mode, kontakion and oikos after the sixth ode, then the idiomela of St John the Damascene in the eight modes, the beatitudes along with troparia in the plagal of the second mode, the readings of the Epistle and the Gospel, as foreseen for the burial, and the hymns of the parting farewell in the second mode, «Δεῦτε τελευταῖον ἀσπασμόν», Δόξα «Ὁρῶντες με ἄφωνον», Καὶ νῦν «Πρεσβείαις τῆς τεκούσης σε» and the end of the service by the priest. This is in general the order of the funeral service for the dead that belonged to the laymen, as it was performed during the nineteenth century. In the contemporary Euchologia several parts of this service are omitted, as no canon, kontakion and oikos is expected, while the idiomela are less than those listed in this edition of the Euchologion, as it is also the case with the hymns of the parting farewell. The beatitudes became optional. The order described by the above Great Euchologion is in general the one observed since the sixteenth century onwards. This is the time when the funeral service for laymen takes the form we described, and the music manuscripts testify constantly the aforementioned verses of the Amomos. Previously, in the 14 th and 15 th centuries there is a bigger diversity in setting the verses of the Amomos to music, since the manuscripts hand over various traditions concerning the music, such as «παλαιόν» [old], «ἀρχαῖον» [ancient], «πολίτικον» [Constantinopolitan], «Θεσσαλονικαῖον» [Thessalonian], while the last two are the most prevalent characterizations. The post-byzantine era does not seem to have preserved the previous existing diversity, since we assume that the need to preserve the tradition of the music of the Amomos was entrusted to the Great Church. Therefore, its focus was to preserve the Constantinopolitan way of chanting, at the expense of the rest which in any case rather reflected local traditions. Regarding the music manuscripts, the Amomos as a part of the Psalter, appears in the book of the Akolouthiai, the one later called Papadike and not in 44

45 Studies the Sticherarion or Heirmologion. The first manuscript in which we find the Amomos chant is NLG 2458, a collection of chants attributed to St John Koukouzelis written in 1336 A.D. Usually in the Akolouthiai manuscripts Amomos is placed among the chants for matins, after the polyeleos. Though it is placed there it is not chanted only in the matins, as it was already mentioned, but in many more services among others at funeral. Important musicians of the end of the 13 th -14 th century are: Nikiforos Ethikos, Theodoros Manougras, Xenos Koronis (Precentor of the Great Church), Georgios Panaretos, Fardivoukis (head priest of the church of St Apostles in Constantinople), Ioannis Kladas, Christophoros Patrikios. The 15 th century is the time when setting the Psalm 118 to music reaches its peak (Touliatos, 1984, 93). The numerous copies of Amomos in the music codices prove its widespread in this period. Some of the composers who engaged themselves with setting the Amomos to music during this period are: Konstantinos Moschianos, Manuil Chrysaphis, the Byzantine Empire s last lampadarios c to c according to Antonopoulos (2013, p. 20), (Stathis, 1975, μθ -ν ) The funeral service for monks The funeral service for monks is included in the Euchologia already by the 12 th century (Euchologion 963, Dmitrievsky, II, pp ). It follows after the funeral service for laymen. In the printed Euchologion of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, in the edition of 1803, p. 279, we read 3 (Table 1): And after this the brethren lift the body and they bring it to the church; and if the reposed be a priest, his body is placed in the middle of the Nave, but if a layman, in the Narthex. And when the time comes for the exit hymn to be sung for the reposed, the lamplighter leaves and strikes the gong on the iron bells, making three stanzas, and thus all the brethren gather together. And the skeuophylax passes out candles to them, and they light them, and after the Deacon exclaims, "Bless Master", the priest gives the blessing. «Καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο ἄραντες οἱ ἀδελφοὶ τὸ λείψανον, ἀποκομίζουσιν εἰς τὴν Ἐκκλησίαν καὶ εἰ μὲν ἱερεύς ἐστιν ὁ ἐκδημήσας ἀδελφὸς τίθεται τὸ τοῦτου λείψανον ἐν τῷ μέσῳ τοῦ Ναοῦ, εἰ δὲ ἰδιώτης, ἐν τῷ Νάρθηκι. Ὅταν δὲ ἔλθῃ ὁ καιρὸς τοῦ ἆσαι τὸν ἐξόδιον ὕμνον ἐπὶ τὸν κείμενον, ἀπέρχεται ὁ κανδηλάπτης καὶ κρούει τὰς βαρέας ἐπὶ τὸν σιδηροῦν, ποιῶν στάσεις τρεῖς, καὶ οὕτω συνάγονται πάντες οἱ ἀδελφοί. Καὶ διανέμει τούτοις κηρία ὁ Σκευοφύλαξ, καὶ ἅψαντες, καὶ τοῦ Διακόνου τὸ Εὐλόγησον Δέσποτα, ἐκφωνήσαντος, εὐλογεῖ ὁ ἱερεύς. 3 For the translation of the following quotations we would like to thank Dr. Spyridon Antonopoulos. 45

46 Artes. Journal of Musicology And we begin with, He that dwelleth in the help of the Most High. Alleluia... (then follow the familiar troparia of the Saturday matins); and straightway: Blessed art Thou O Lord, teach me Thy statutes. Blessed are the blameless [who walk] in the way. Blessed art Thou, O Lord. And the first stanza of the Amomos (Psalm 118) is recited, up to I am Thine. We do this here for two stanzas (of the Amomos), and at the end of every verse of the first stanza we say the refrain Blessed art Thou O Lord. And when they arrive at the last verse, that is the, I shall not forget Thy statutes unto the ages, they chant this three times. And thus (follows), the Petition by the Deacon, the secret prayer by the priest, and the exclamation (by the priest). And following the exclamation, we begin the second stasis, thus: I have searched out Thy statutes. I am Thine, save me. And at the end of each verse, the I am Thine, save me. And when we begin the, Look down upon me, we chant the same Psalm in the third mode; and at the end of each verse we say: In Thy Kingdom O Lord, remember Thy servant. And the last stanza, that is the: My soul shall live, three. And right away [we begin] the eulogetaria... Καὶ ἀρχόμεθα τὸ, Ὁ κατοικῶν ἐν βοηθείᾳ τοῦ ὑψίστου. Ἀλληλούια [ακολουθούν τα γνωστά τροπάρια του όρθρου του Σαββάτου] Καὶ εὐθύς Εὐλογητὸς εἶ Κύριε, δίδαξόν με τὰ δικαιώματά σου. Ἄμωμοι ἐν ὁδῷ Εὐλογητὸς εἶ Κύριε. Καὶ στιχολογεῖται ἡ πρώτη στάσις τοῦ Ἀμώμου, ἕως τοῦ Σὸς εἰμί. Εἰς δύο στάσεις ποιοῦμεν τοῦτον ἐνταῦθα, ἐν ἑκάστῳ δὲ τέλει στίχου τῆς πρώτης στάσεως ἐπιλέγομεν τὸ Εὐλογητὸς εἶ Κύριε. Ὅταν δὲ ἔλθωσιν εἰς τὸν τελευταῖον στίχον, ἤγουν τὸ, Εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα οὐ μὴ ἐπιλάθωμαι τῶν δικαιωμάτων σου, ψάλλουσιν αὐτὸν ἐκ γ. Καὶ οὕτως ἡ Αἴτησις παρὰ τοῦ Διακόνου, ἡ εὐχὴ μυστικῶς παρὰ τοῦ ἱερέως, καὶ ἡ ἐκφώνησι. Καὶ μετὰ τὴν ἐκφώνησιν, ἀρχόμεθα τῆς δευτέρας στάσεως, οὕτω. Τὰ δικαιώματά σου ἐξεζήτησα. Σός εἰμι ἐγώ, σῷσόν με. Σός εἰμι ἐγώ, σῷσόν με. Καὶ ἐν ἕκάστῳ τέλει στίχου. Σός εἰμὶ ἐγώ, σῷσόν με. Ὅταν δὲ ἀρχόμεθα τὸ Ἐπίβλεψον ἐπ ἑμέ, ψάλλομεν τὸν Ψαλμὸν τοῦτον εἰς ἦχον γ εἰς δὲ τὸ τέλος ἑκάστου στίχου ἐπιλέγομεν Ἐν τῇ Βασιλείᾳ σου Κύριε, μνήσθητι τοῦ δούλου σου. Καὶ τὸν τελευταῖον στίχον, ἤγουν τό Ζήσεται ἡ ψυχή μου, ἐκ τρίτου. Καὶ εὐθὺς τὰ εὐλογητάρια». Table 2 A fragment from the Euchologion of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, printed in 1803, concerning the order of the funeral service for monks We can see there is a different order of the funeral service for monks. The chanting of the Amomos is in two stanzas. This practice is already testified by the 12 th century in the Euchologia (Alexopoulos, 2007, p. 412). The service is grounded on the monastic matins. The music manuscripts testify for the first time the funeral service for monks, as it was the case with the previous for laymen, in NLG The same combination is traced in NLG Here the Amomos is also divided in three stanzas, while only the first verse of each stanza appears to be set in music. However, the most common type in the funeral services for monks during the fourteenth and fifteenth century is the one divided in two stanzas. This is how it appears in most music manuscripts of the time. In NLG 2401 there is also an Amomos divided in three stanzas, all three of them in the plagal of the first mode, having as a refrain the alleluia (Touliatos, 1984, p. 177). NLG 2622 is the earliest manuscript including the Amomos divided in two 46

47 Studies stanzas. Important composers who set verses of the Amomos to music regarding the funeral service for monks during this period (14th-15th century) are the following: Theodoros Mystakon, Amarianos, Xenos Koronis, St John Koukouzelis, Panaretos (Georgios or Manouil), St. Mark of Ephesus. Contrary to the funeral service for laymen, setting this service to music seems not to take place any more from the 16 th century onwards, when there is a common way of setting the verses of the Amomos to music for all kinds of funeral services (Touliatos, 1984, p. 177) The funeral service for priests The funeral service for priests is by far different from the previous two, since, according to the way it is found in the printed Euchologion that was mentioned earlier, it includes, apart from the common chanting of the Amomos, six antiphons, the beatitudes, a canon, full kontakion after the sixth ode of the canon, exaposteilaria, Lauds, while the idiomela of St John the Damascene are chanted instead of the aposticha of the Lauds. Among the chanted parts five pericopes from the Epistles and the Gospels are intercalated together with their corresponding prayers for the eternal rest of the souls of those who departed. The funeral service for the priests actually constitutes a mixture of the Byzantine cathedral and the monastic matins. Both the structure of the three antiphons and the kontakion, and that of the canon, support our claim (Alexopoulos, 2005, p. 417). It appears as an independent service in the 15 th century manuscripts. According to Bruni (1972, pp ) it is essentially a variation of the funeral service for monks. However, in its core it preserves the structure of the service that was formed in the previous centuries. 3. The historical evolution of the Amomos chant in the post-byzantine era The 16 th century seems to be a period of preservation regarding the evolution of melopoeia in general, and more specifically the chant of the Amomos (Chatzigiakoumis, 1980, p. 26). The breakthrough, though, takes place somewhat later, in the 17 th century. This is also, probably due to the fact that the handwritten liturgical tradition is already settled to a great extent to a common order for all kinds of funeral services (Christodoulou, 2005, p. 154). The first post-byzantine composition of the Amomos chant appears in the music codices by the middle of the 17 th century and it is signed by the precentor (protopsaltis) of the Great Church Panagiotis Chrysaphis the Younger (fl ). Chrysaphis clears the chanting from the numerous ornaments of the kalophonic period 4 and presents a new composition according 4 The specific title that Panagiotis Chrysaphis uses for his composition of the Amomos chant is the following: «Ἄμωμος ψαλλόμενος εἰς κοιμηθέντας, σμικρυνθεὶς ἐκ τοῦ παλαιοῦ παρὰ 47

48 Artes. Journal of Musicology to the new style of his era, namely new embellishment (νέος καλλωπισμός). 5 This composition will be extremely widespread and will prevail in the handwritten tradition for over a century, while it resonates the way that the Amomos was chanted in the Great Church, or in more general terms in Constantinople. This is testified by many rubrics found in manuscripts contemporary to Chrysaphis the Younger, or belonging to later scribes 6. In a manuscript in the Monastery of the Transfiguration of Christ (Metamorphosis) in Meteora, Greece, written in about another composition of the Amomos appears along with the one by Panagiotis Chrysaphis. It is by the priest Michael from Chios (Met. 416, 66r). 7 Michael (turn of the 18 th century-the 3 rd quarter) (Anastassiou, 2005, p. 365) was a student of Ioakim Salabassis or Alabassis, Bishop of Vizii (middle of the 17 th century-15/08/1730) (Papatzalakis, 2011, p. 79), as he himself testifies in the peak of his handwritten code of the Monastery Gregoriou, Mount Athos, number 4, a Papadike written around 1744 on f. 781r the author provides particularly important information: «Εἴληφε τέλος, ἤ παροῦσα ἀσματομελιῤῥυτόφθογγος βίβλος ἐγράφη δὲ καὶ παρ ἑμοῦ τοῦ εὐτελοῦς Μιχαὴλ ἱερέως ἐκ τῆς νήσου Χίου οὖ μέντοι κατὰ τὸ κείμενον τῶν παλαιῶν, καὶ νέων ἐκτονισθείσα, ἀλλ ἐν καινῶ τινὶ καλλωπισμῷ καὶ μελιῤῥυτοφθόγγοις νεοφανέσι θέσεσι, καθάπερ τὰ νῦν ᾀσματολογεῖται τοῖς μελῳδοῦσιν ἐν Κωνσταντίνου πόλει. Τοῦτο τοίνυν, ὅσον τὸ κατ ἑμὲ ἐφικτὸν παρ ἑμαυτοῦ γέγονε κατὰ τὴν ἣν παρέλαβον εἰσήγησιν, παρὰ τοῦ ἑμοῦ διδασκάλου, κυρίου Ἰωακεῖμ ἱερομονάχου, Λινδίου ἐκτεθηκῶς καὶ τονίσας». This composition by Michael probably was not widespread among his contemporaries and later on, since there are very few copies in the music codices 8. Speculating we might say that it was overshadowed by the κυρίου Χρυσάφου [τοῦ νέου]». Cf. e.g.: Xer. 276, 151v. Doch. 321, 276v. Doch. 380, 190r. Sinai 1299, 482r. Pantok. 901, 205r. Leimonos (Lesvos) 238, 219r. 5 Cf. e.g.: Xer. 291, 152v. Xer. 307, 544r. Xer. 313, 480v. Xer. 320, 202r. Xer. 373, 272v. Doch. 310, 211r. Pantok. 927, 202v. Iv. 1082, 422v. Elias the Prophet (Hydra) 597, 510r. Met. 60, 122r. St Stephanos (Meteora) 60, 131r. Leimonos (Lesvos) 230, 353r. 6 E.g.: Xer. 323, 481r. Sinai 1305, 282v.: «Ἄμωμος, καθὼς ἐν Κωνσταντινουπόλει ψάλλεται». 7 Stathis describes this chanting of the Amomos as σύντομον, προδρομικὸν τοῦ μέλους τοῦ Πέτρου Βυζαντίου [short, a precursor of the composition of Petros Byzantios] (Stathis, 2006, p. 180). The same kind of the Amomos was traced in a manuscript in the National Library of Greece (NLG 2575, 283r). 8 It appears in Koutloumoussiou 454, 341r, whose writer is once again Michael, as well as in Iviron 1082, probably by the same writer (Stathis, 1993, pp ; 2015, pp ). The characterization shorter by which Michael entitles his own composition of the Amomos in f. 341r of Iviron 1082 is particularly important for our research. Other codices that contain the Amomos of Michael are: Doch. 341, f. 428 (a manuscript of Nikolaos the Dochiaritan, dated in 48

49 49 Studies particularly popular composition of Panagiotis Chrysaphis the Younger. However, besides that, something very important is perceivable in the codex Gregoriou 4 as a whole, that Michael was a transcriber as well. His transcriptions (exegeseis) refer to old compositions, a distinct example being that of his transcription is on the old Anoixantaria, in the folios 32v-75v. He appears to continue the tradition of the great musicians of the end of the previous century, as it was passed onto him by his teacher Ioakim, who in his turn was a student of the most important transcriber of the period of the new embellishment, priest and Nomofylax [law keeper] Balasios (Papatzalakis, 2011, pp ). In the codex 1082 of the Iviron Monastery, which is a Mathematarion- Kalophonic Heirmologion from the first half of the 18 th century (probably written around 1725 by Michael from Chios the priest) there is another composition of the Amomos, by the teacher of the priest Michael, Ioakim Bishop of Vizii (f. 425r), entitled: «Ἕτερος [Ἄμωμος] σύντομος κὺρ Ἰωακεὶμ [Βιζύης]. In the same folio there is the indication: Ἄμωμος σύντομος σύνθεσις Μιχαὴλ ἱερέως Χίου ἦχος β διὰ τῶν ἐρυθρῶν φωνῶν». Stathis while cataloguing this specific manuscript informs us that the red characters mark the variants suggested by Michael concerning the Amomos of Ioakim (Stathis, 2015, p. 217). The above-mentioned composers, as it is obvious by their connection and by studying their compositions, reflect the chanting tradition of the Constantinopolitan version of the Amomos during the 17 th and 18 th centuries. However, another important center that now emerges is that of Smyrna. Distinct personalities of music work there, always in interaction and in communication with the center of the Great Church, Constantinople, yet forming an individual music tradition, with its own special features. In the codex Panteleimonos 910, written by the end of the 18 th, f. 147v, we find another composition of the Amomos, by Theodosios the hieodeacon from Chios, protopsaltis of the church of Smyrna (Stathis, 1976, p. 199). In another codex, written at about , of the St Paul Monastery 39, on mount Athos, f. 180, there is another composition for it (Stathis, 1993, p. 64). The life and work of Theodosios are dated in around the middle of the 18 th century (Chatzigiakoumis, 1975, p. 296) 9. There is no information about his life apart from some allusions scattered in manuscripts of his pupil Demetrios 1822), Doch. 356, f. 499v (manuscript of hieromonk Anthimos in the beginning of the ninteenth century) (Stathis, 1975, pp. 434, 465). 9 The hand manuscripts of Hagios Pavlos 128 (Mathematarion), written between and Hagios Pavlos 146 (Oikimatarion written by Ionnes Kladas), dated in 1758, as well as the ms Dochiariou 338 by Demetrios Lotos, where there is reference that Petros from Peloponnese studied under Theodosios during his early youth, before studying under the Protopsaltis of the Great Church Ioannis Trapezountios, offer the timeline of Theodosios peak, which should be defined between the years

50 Artes. Journal of Musicology Lotos. From one of these, namely Dochiariou 338, we learn that the person who was later Lampadarios of the Great Church, Petros from Peloponnese, was a pupil of Theodosios (Andrikos, 2015, p. 77) 10. Demetrios Lotos, who was a student of Theodosios, delivers to us another composition of the Amomos «κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἐκκλησίας τῆς Σμύρνης» [According to the chanting tradition of the church of Smyrna] 11. We do not have enough evidence to be able to define accurately Lotos date of birth. Through his correspondence with his friend Adamantios Korais we can estimate his date of birth between the years , while his death must be dated a little after 1810 (Andrikos, 2015, p. 74). He was the protopsaltis of the cathedral of St Fotini in Smyrna during (Anastassiou, 2005, p. 378). In 1788 he was dismissed by the Bishop of Smyrna Gregorios, who also took action in order to remove from him the office (honorific title) of the Protopsaltis (Andrikos, 2015, p. 75). He was a great musician, since his production of compositions covers all kinds of melopoeia. He was also a famous copyist, as he delivers in total fourteen musical manuscripts, during , which is the period of his flourishing 12. Another important aspect of his work that should not be omitted was that of his transcriptions of older compositions, such as the chanting parts of the liturgy of St Basil the Great and of the Alleluia of the Holy Week in the plagal of the fourth mode. Furthermore, we learn again through his correspondence that he had founded a kind of music school in Smyrna, probably following the pattern of the Patriarchate Music Schools, where he taught the psaltic art (Korais, 1878, 2 nd epistle). A composition of the Amomos is transmitted to us, as mentioned above, in one of his manuscripts, included in the collection of Melpo Merlier 7 (NLG 3469), f. 400v. He himself describes there the Amomos he has composed by the name synoptic. We, therefore, see that Lotos follows a tradition of making Amomos more concise, which had already started during the years of his teacher Theodosios the hierodeacon, as we find this characterization for the first time in his own compositions. Another feature that should be underlined is about the dating of the composition of the Amomos by Lotos, which is 10 Doch. 338, f. 224r: Πέτρου Μπαρδάκι [sic] ἐκ Μορέως [sic], μαθητοῦ τοῦ κὺρ Θεοδοσίου, τὰ νῦν δὲ χρηματισθέντος [sic] δομέστικος τῆς Μεγ. Ἐκκλησίας ἦχος πλ. α, Σιγησάτω» (Stathis, 1975, p. 413). 11 NLG 3469, handwritten Anthology of Demetrios Lotos written in In f. 400v there is the following indication: «Ἄμωμος συνοπτικός, ψαλλόμενος εἰς κοιμηθέντας, κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἐκκλησίας Σμύρνης, σύνθεσις ἡμετέρα, στάσις α, ἦχος β». 12 We have a first presentation of the work of Lotos ας as a copyist by Pinelopi Gr. Stathi in her article Korai s friend Demetrios Lotos and his musical manuscripts, Ο Ερανιστής Ι ( ), 59, pp Thirteen of his handwritten works are listed. Chatzigiakoumis traced another one in the Gennadios Library in Athens with the number 25 (Chadjigiakoumis, 1975, p. 206). 50

51 51 Studies definitely after 1767, since in earlier manuscripts he includes either the composition of his teacher Theodosios or that of Panagiotis Chrysaphis the Younger. In a codex of the Xeropotamou monastery 330, which is a Papadike written in by himself, there is his own composition, on f. 433v, reflecting again the two features presented above: synoptic and κατὰ τὴν τὰξιν τῆς ἐκκλησίας Σμύρνης [according to the order of the church of Smyrna]. Petros Byzantios, Protopsaltis of the Great Church, composes the Amomos according to the short papadic genre of melopoeia. His music is the one prevalent even today, with small variations, like that of Ioannis Protopsaltis, or that of Panagiotis Kiltzanidis and other contemporary chanters who worked on the specific composition. From Petros Byzantios onwards there are essentially two different suggestions of interpreting the specific structure of the melody, without any new compositions. As it will become obvious in the next chapter of our study, these variations are caused by the different viewpoints adopted by distinguished composers of the 19 th and 20 th centuries as to the poetic text and the metrical structure of the Amomos. Petros Byzantios was born in Neochori of Bosporus. He was a domestikos in the Great Church since 1771, during the period that Daniel was a precentor (Chatzigiakoumis, 1980, p. 47). On 23 December 1789 he got the title of the Lampadarios of the Great Church, having Iakovos as protopsaltis (Stathis, 1971, p. 229), whom he succeeded in 1800, right after his death, on 23 April of the same year. He kept this post until 1805, when he was discharged by the Ecumenical Patriarch Kallinikos, due to his second marriage, which was forbidden to the cantors, as they are included in the inferior clergy of the church, according to saint Nicodimos interpretation of the Pedalion, a book that contains the canons of the church (Plemmenos, 2003, pp ; Economou, 2001, p. 132). He died in Yassy of Moldavia in 1808 (Papadopoulos, 1890, p. 325). The composition of the Amomos by Petros Byzantios was widespread and largely accepted due to the music printing which gradually replaced the use of manuscript codices, from 1820 and on, a date when the Anastasimatarion was published in Bucharest, Romania, by Petros Efessios. Besides, the publication of the Brief Heirmologion by Petros Byzantios in Constantinople in 1825, interpreted in the New Method by Hourmouzios the Archivarian, contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Amomos by Petros Efessios (Chatzitheodorou, 1998, p. 64). Konstantinos Byzantios, who was the Archon Protopsaltis of the Great Church from 24 December 1822 to 1855 (Economou, 2001, p. 133), transmits an interpretation of the Amomos by Petros Byzantios in his Anastasimatarion, published in Constantinople in 1865, transcribed by Stefanos the Lampadarios of the Great Church ( ) (Stefanos Lampadarios, 1865, pp ).

52 Artes. Journal of Musicology Ioannis Lampadarios ( ) and later on the precentor of the Great Church ( July 1866) presents in his Synopsis of the Kalophonic Heirmoi, published in Constantinople in 1842, another interpretation of the Amomos by Petros Byzantios, which was very close to the original composition (Ioannis, 1842, pp ). 4. The Amomos chant in musical settings of the 20 th century In this part of our research we will focus on the interpretation and performance of the Amomos in the contemporary music practice, as it was formed in the second half of the 20 th century. This study will examine closely the prevalent music and chanting personalities in two powerful poles of preserving and forming the chanting tradition: Constantinople and Thessaloniki. The reason we focus on those two centers is the strong historical link between the two cities, which is valid till the present. It is an undeniable truth that the contemporary chanting in Thessaloniki was deeply affected by the musicians and cantors of Constantinople, who moved into the city because of the persecution they suffered during the 20 th century, due to the well-known political developments and events from the breaking down of the Ottoman Empire and the following wars, to the last wave of deportations after the Turkish invasion on Cyprus, in Constantinople The first modern interpretation of the Amomos, found in collation of sources which presented in our study (source in Fig. 3), after the two 19 th century compositions, by Petros Byzantios and Ioannis Protopsaltis, is that by Thrasivoulos Stanitsas, Archon Lampadarios (1 March ) and Protopsaltis (1961 Sunday of the Adoration of the Holy Cross) (Tsiounis, 2000, pp ). Thrasivoulos Stanitsas was born in Psomathia of Constantinople in He was initiated into music firstly by his uncle Dimitrios Therapianos and then by the famous chanters of Constantinople: Michael Chatziathanasiou, Dimitrios Voutsinas, Giagkos Vasiliadis, Ioannis Palasis (Farasoglou, 1996, p. 79). He chanted in various churches of Constantinople: in St Menas, in the Ascension of Christ, in St Constantine and in St Nicholas, as lampadarios of his teacher Ioannis Palasis. He was called to take over the left analogion of the Patriarchal Church despite the canon order that appointed the domestikos of the patriarchal choirs to fill the posts of the precentor and lampadarios, when they were vacant. However, due to the shrinking of the Greek community (Romioi) in Constantinople and the lack of competent successors, many times during mainly the 20 th century external chanters were called to fill the posts in the patriarchal choirs, helped by the existing servants of the choirs of the Great 52

53 Studies Church to conform to the special way of performing the chants, which is characterized by its simplicity and magnificence (Farasoglou, 1988, pp ). Stanitsas chanted as Lampadarios in the Patriarchal Church during the period when Konstantinos Pringos was a precentor ( ) and later on, when Pringos was replaced by Nikolaos Daniilidis as a warden of the precentor s post. On 1 March 1961 he took over the first analogion of the Great Church. However, he remained in that post only for a short time, since he was dismissed by the Turkish political authorities in 1964, due to the widely known political issues of the time between Turkey and Greece that were mentioned above. After a short period during which Archon Stanitsas wandered around in various cities of Greece and abroad (Beirut) he settled in Athens in 1966 and continued his chanting career as a precentor of the church St Demetrios in Ampelokipi, Athens, till He died in Athens on 18 August 1987 (Economou, 2001, p. 144). Another notable personality whose interpretation of the Amomos chant we present is that of the Lampadarios of the Great Church Eleftherios Georgiadis (see Fig. 4). According to the official documents he was born in Skoutari in the province of Chalkidona, belonging to the wider prefecture of Constantinople, in 22 nd December However, he himself, in a personal interview, testifies that he was born in Silivria in 1916 and his family moved to Skoutari when he was still very young (Pappas, 2017). 13 He started getting involved in the art of chanting next to his father Patroklos Georgiadis at the age of seven, at the church of Elias the Prophet in Skoutari. He chanted with his father till the age of fifteen. According to his own account, he was also taught by the archimandrite Galaktionas Zorbas. From 1936 to 31 st March 1969 he chanted in seven different churches in the Archdiocese of Constantinople Elias the Prophet in Skoutari, Holy Apostles in Ferikioi, St George in Makrichori, St George in Geldeirmen, St Constantine in Stavrodromi, St Nicholas in Galatas, the Holy Trinity Peran (Farassoglou, 1989, p. 317). Since 1 st April 1969 he started his service in the Patriarchal Church of St George in Phanar, at first as a warden, and on the 2 nd January 1972, he ordinated Archon Lampadarios of the Great Church. His ordination was done by the Metropolite of Listra Kallinikos, under the blessing of Patriarch Athinagoras. He remained at that post until 1978, when he left Constantinople and moved to Thessaloniki for family reasons. He heard Iakovos Nafpliotis, Efstathios Vingopoulos, Theodosios Georgiadis, Michael Chatziathanasiou and Konstantinos Pringos, which initiated him into the art of chanting, as it was performed in the patriarchal church and in the wider Archdiocese of Constantinople (Pappas, 2017). 13 Tape-recording of a scientific paper given by Miltiadis Pappas in a ceremony honouring Eleftherios Georgiadis in Kalamaria, Thessaloniki, on 15 October

54 Artes. Journal of Musicology He excelled in many fields of the church music: he was a gifted interpreter, a temperate theorist, excellent conductor, a prolific composer. He instructed numerous students in Constantinople, where during his whole chanting career he was the director of choirs of chanters consisting of a large number of members. He did the same in Thessaloniki, in the Church of St Therapon, where he chanted from 1978 until his death, in 25 March 2016 (Pappas, 2017). In the course of interpretations that we examine in the present study two more chanters of the Ecumenical Patriarchate follow: Archon Protopsaltis Leonidas Asteris ( ) and Archon Lampadarios Vasilios Emmanouilidis ( ). In this case a tape-recording with an interpretation of the Amomos is cited from the funeral service of the Ecumenical Patriarch Demetrios, which took place in the Patriarchal Church of St George in Constantinople, on 8 th October Leonidas Asteris was born in the community of Galatas, Constantinople, in As he recounts in an interview for the television 14, at the age of four he was singing in the Church of St John of Chion, next to the pecentor Nikolaos Anastasiadis. After a short period of about a year, he studied next to the precentors of his own parish, St Nicholas: Panagiotis Konstantinidis and Demetrios Magouris. At the age of ten, while he was a kanonarchis in the Church of St Nicholas, he was invited by the precentor Konstantinos Pringos to the Patriarchal Church, where he served as kanonarchis. Two years later he returned to St Nicholas, and later on he went back to Phanar, now as a kanonarchis of the Archon Protopsaltis Thrasivoulos Stanitsas. After his military service he assumed the duties of a precentor in the Church of St Theodor of Vlagka and later he continued his psaltic career in the diocese of Prigkiponnisa. After a short pause in his chanting curriculum, due to the rest of his professional engagements, he was appointed as a precentor in St Demetrios of Tataoula, where he remained for six years. Later, by order of the Ecumenical Patriarch Demetrios, he took over the first analogion of the Patriarchal Church, in He remained at that post until 2014, when he retired due to health issues. Vasilios Emmanouilidis was born in Skoutari of Chalkidona in He was a pupil of Archon Protopsaltis Thrasivoulos Stanitsas, while he chanted in various churches of Constantinople Elias the Prophet in Skoutari, saint Theodor in Vlagka, saint John of Chion in Galata, saint Efimia in Kadikioi, the Cathedral Church of the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple in Peran, the church of Holy Trinity in Peran (Farassogolou, 1989, p. 334). He was called externally to take over the left analogion in the Patriarchate in April 1979, after the retirement of Eleftherios Georgiadis (Economou, 2001, p. 147). 14 Metropolite of Dimitriada Ignatios, tv programme Αρχονταρίκι in the Public Greek Television,

55 55 Studies He remained at that post until 2003, when he stepped away moving to Athens and he lives there up to now. The group of chanters from Constantinople whose interpretations on the Amomos we study, is concluded by the archpresbyter of the Ecumenical Patriarchate Georgios Tsetsis (see Fig. 1-15, source Nr. 6). There has been a recording of a funeral service in 2005 on behalf of the Research and Editions Centre of the musicologist-literature teacher Manolis Chatzigiakoumis, in which father Tsetsis chants according to the oral tradition of Constantinople 15. Fr. Georgios Tsetsis was born in Pikridio (Chaskioi) of Constantinople in He graduated from the Theological School of Chalki and he holds a PhD from the Department of Theology in the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. He was a kanonarchis ( ) and a student ( ) under the precentors Konstantinos Pringos and Thrasivoulos Stanitsas in the patriarchal choirs. He is a permanent delegate of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in the World Council of Churches and since 1965 he lives in Geneva, serving in the Holy Church of St Paul there in the Patriarchal Centre of Chambésy (Research and publications centre, 2017) Thessaloniki Athanasios Karamanis is the first one of the chanters from Thessaloniki whose compositions of the Amomos we study (see Fig. 1-15, source Nr. 7). In a concise presentation of the most important periods of his life concerning his chanting curriculum we need to mention that he was born in Krinida of Serres on the 5 th January 1910, while he started getting involved in the art of chanting at the age of 13. His first teacher was the priest in the village where he came from, namely Emmanouil Piperias. Afterwards he was a student of the precentor Athanasios Mpourletsikas in the church of St Athanasios in Alistrati, Serres. Later he was studied with the precentor Christos Paraschidis or Mpekiaris in the church of St Athanasios in Kavala, who in his turn was a student of the precentor Nileus Karamados from Constantinople. His next teacher was the precentor of the church of the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple in Drama: Charalampos Anestiadis, who came from Constantinople. The latter was a student of Iakovos Nafpliotis. The young Karamanis benefited very much by the fact that he listened to the precentor Konstantinos Pringos, while the latter chanted in various churches of northern Greece in the cities of Kavala and Thessaloniki (Alexandridis, 2002, pp ). Karamanis started his chanting career serving the pulpit (analogion) as a lampadarios in the church of St Paraskevi, in Proti, Serres, in March We will not refer to his career and its various turning-points throughout Greece in 15 Commentary of the specific cd in the website of the Research and Publications Centre. Retrieved from ( ).

56 Artes. Journal of Musicology detail, since this subject has already been presented in a special study by the author Dimosthenis Alexandridis, published in Thessaloniki, in We will only mention three basic points, signalizing the relevant dates. In 1944 Karamanis took over the post of the pecenctor in the church of All Saints, Thessaloniki. The years and marked the two periods of his service as protopsaltis in the metropolitan church of St Gregorios Palamas in Thessaloniki. After that he retired getting a pension by the Ministry of Culture. It is also noteworthy to mention that in May 1981 he was awarded the office of the Archon Protopsaltis of the Holy Archdiocese of Constantinople, in acknowledgement of his multifarious activities and his great contribution to the art of chanting (Alexandridis, 2002, pp ). He died on 12 August 2012 in Thessaloniki. The other distinguished music personality of the chanters of Thessaloniki in the second half of the twentieth century, Harilaos Taliadoros, could not be omitted from the realm of chanters and teachers who were involved in shaping the musical life in Thessaloniki and who contributed to the composition of music the funeral service (see Fig. 1-15, source Nr. 8). He was born in Thessaloniki in At the age of 14 he met the precentor Christophoros Koutsouradis in the church of St Eleftherios, in Ntepo, Thessaloniki. The latter had moved to Thessaloniki from Constantinople, where he was born and brought up. Taliadoros started his chanting service in 1942, at the age of 16, as a lampadarios and later as a precentor in the church of St Therapon, in Kato Toumpa, Thessaloniki. In 1944 he was a precentor in the church of St Fanourios and John the Forerunner, while in 1945, at the age of 19, he met the Archon Protopsaltis Konstantinos Pringos 16, something that Pringos himself testifies in a recorded interview 17. From 1952 to the present day he is the precentor of the historical cathedral of Hagia Sophia in Thessaloniki (Alexandrou, 2014, p. 15). The series of comparisons among the diverse compositions of the Amomos comes to a conclusion with the presentation of the interpretation by the protopsaltis Asterios Devrelis (see Fig. 1-15, source Nr. 9). He was born in 1933 in Galatista, Chalkidiki. His first teacher in the art of chanting was his father Konstantinos, who was a priest. In 1945 he enrolled in the Pastoral School of the patriarchal monastery of St Anastasia in Vasilika, Thessaloniki. There he studied under the precentors Themistoklis Georgiadis a precentor from Constantinople and a student of Nileus Karamados and Konstantinos Mpekiaris, another chanter from Constantinople, who graduated from the 16 A personal testimony of Harilaos Taliadoros about his experience with the Archon Protopsaltis in a presentation of his works publication by the Apostoliki Diakonia of the Church of Greece in November 2007:

57 Studies Phanar Greek Orthodox College 18. He approached Konstantinos Pringos, whom he listened since After his graduation in 1952, he moved to Thessaloniki and worked with Athanasios Panagiotidis (kanonarchis of Iakovos Nafpliotis in the patriarchal choirs) in the production of radio programmes on behalf of the State Radio Station for about twenty years. At the same time, he taught the art of chanting at the School of Byzantine music of the Society Hagios Ioannis o Damaskinos, while he served as a precentor in the church of St Fanourios, Kato Toumpa, Thessaloniki, where he remained for more than 20 years. The detailed account of the most important points concerning the life and work of the above mentioned ecclesiastic musicians was necessary, in order to show the reasons why the specific music material that is examined in our study was selected. However, it should be noted that despite the writer s intention, it was impossible to detect more material, mainly regarding the recordings of the funeral services by precentors and lampadarioi of the Great Church, to enable a deeper analysis and a more complete research on the interpretation of the Amomos throughout the 20 th century The text of the Amomos Below we quote the verses used in the modern, abridged service of Amomos, as specified by the Typikon of the Great Church (Violakis, 1921, p ), according to the order of the funeral service. A translation of those verses follows (Table 2). The Greek text (Septuagint) Στάσις α,ἦχος πλ. β. Ἄμωμοι ἐν ὁδῷ, ἀλληλούϊα. Εὐλογητὸς εἶ, Κύριε, δίδαξόν με τὰ δικαιώματά σου. Ἀλληλούϊα Ἐπεπόθησεν ἡ ψυχή μου τοῦ ἐπιθυμῆσαι τὰ κρίματά σου ἐν παντὶ καιρῷ. Ἐνύσταξεν ἡ ψυχὴ μου ἀπὸ ἀκηδίας, βεβαίωσόν με ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου. Κλῖνον τὴν καρδίαν μου εἰς τὰ μαρτύριά σου, καὶ μὴ εἰς πλεονεξίαν. Ἀθυμία κατέσχε με ἀπὸ ἁμαρτωλῶν, τῶν ἐγκαταλιμπανόντων τὸν νόμον σου. Μέτοχος ἐγώ εἰμι πάντων τῶν The English translation First Stanza Blessed are the undefiled on their way. Alleluia. Blessed are you, O Lord, teach me your statutes. My soul is now burning with a strong desire for ever to obey your truths. My soul has grown weary because of being despondent; strengthen me with your holy words. Lead on my faithful heart to your testimonies, and ever not to greediness. Exceedingly distressed I am, because the sinful men forsake and disregard your law. I am a true companion of all who love and 18 The data stem from a paper given by Asterios Devrelis, at the Centre of History in Thessaloniki, on 10 September 1997: 19 Hopefully, there will be the possibility to further develop the topic in a study of a greater extent which will be published in time to come, with a comparative analysis of interpretations and other local or wider traditions of the Greek-speaking or foreign psaltic art. 57

58 Artes. Journal of Musicology φοβουμένων σε, καὶ τῶν φυλασσόντων τὰς ἐντολάς σου. Στάσις β, ἦχος πλ. α'. Αἱ χεῖρές σου ἐποίησάν με καὶ ἔπλασάν με, συνέτισόν με καὶ μαθήσομαι τὰς ἐντολάς σου. Ἐλέησόν με, Κύριε. Ὅτι ἐγενήθην ὡς ἀσκὸς ἐν πάχνῃ, τὰ δικαιώματά σου οὐκ ἐπελαθόμην. Σός εἰμι ἐγώ, σῶσόν με, ὅτι τὰ δικαιώματά σου ἐξεζήτησα. Ἀπὸ τῶν κριμάτων σου οὐκ ἐξέκλινα, ὅτι σὺ ἐνομοθέτησάς με. Ἔκλινα τὴν καρδίαν μου, τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὰ δικαιώματά σου εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα δι ἀντάμειψιν. Καιρὸς τοῦ ποιῆσαι τῷ Κυρίῳ, διεσκέδασαν τὸν νόμον σου. Στάσις γ, ἦχος πλ. δ'. Καὶ ἐλέησόν με. Ἀλληλούϊα Ἐπίβλεψον ἐπ' ἐμὲ καὶ ἐλέησόν με, κατὰ τὸ κρῖμα τῶν ἀγαπώντων τὸ ὄνομά σου. Νεώτερος ἐγώ εἰμι, καὶ ἐξουδενωμένος, τὰ δικαιώματά σου οὐκ ἐπελαθόμην. Τῆς φωνῆς μου ἄκουσον, Κύριε, κατὰ τὸ ἔλεός σου, κατὰ τὸ κρῖμα σου ζῆσόν με. Ἄρχοντες κατεδίωξάν με δωρεάν, καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν λόγων σου ἐδειλίασεν ἡ καρδία μου. Ζήσεται ἡ ψυχή μου καὶ αἰνέσει σε, καὶ τὰ κρίματά σου βοηθήσει μοι. Ἐπλανήθην ὡς πρόβατον ἀπολωλός, ζήτησον τὸν δοῦλόν σου, ὅτι τὰς ἐντολάς σου οὐκ ἐπελαθόμην. Ἀλληλούια. fear you and keep and honor your commandments. Second Stanza Your own hands created me and fashioned me; give me understanding that I may learn your commandments. Be merciful to me, O Lord. Though I have shriveled like a wineskin in the smoke, I have not forgotten your statutes. I am yours, save me, for your statutes have I always sought. From all your instructions, Lord, have I never strayed, for you have given me the law. I have inclined my heart always to follow your statutes as my true reward. My Lord, for you to act the time is upon us, for they have transgressed your law. Third Stasis And have mercy on me. Alleluia. Look graciously upon me and have mercy on me, as you do for those who love your name. Small and obscure though I am, and utterly despised, your statutes I have not forgotten. My pleading voice, hear O my Lord, in your great mercy, and in your justice, grant me life. Rulers unjustly persecuted me, but my heart has always stood in awe of your words. Let my soul live, and it shall praise you, and your ordinances shall assist me. I wandered as sheep who lost the trodden path; come and seek your servant, Lord, for your commandments I have not forgotten. Alleluia. Table 2 The verses of the Amomos according to the order of the funeral service 5.1. Musicological analyses In the Table No 3 we introduced a structural and metrical analysis of the first stanza of the Amomos (Table 3). Structural and Metrical analysis Nr. of Stanza Verse Kolon Text syl. 1 st - 1 Ἄμωμοι ἐν ὁδῷ, ἀλληλούϊα 11 2 Εὐλογητὸς εἶ, Κύριε, 8 A 3 δίδαξόν με τὰ δικαιώματά σου

59 4 Ἐπεπόθησεν ἡ ψυχή μου 9 B 5 τοῦ ἐπιθυμῆσαι τὰ κρίματά σου 11 6 ἐν παντὶ καιρῷ. 5 C 7 Ἐνύσταξεν ἡ ψυχὴ μου ἀπὸ ἀκηδίας, 14 8 βεβαίωσόν με ἐν τοῖς λόγοις σου Κλῖνον τὴν καρδίαν μου 7 D 10 εἰς τὰ μαρτύριά σου, 7 11 καὶ μὴ εἰς πλεονεξίαν. 8 E 12 Ἀθυμία κατέσχε με ἀπὸ ἁμαρτωλῶν, τῶν ἐγκαταλιμπανόντων τὸν νόμον σου Μέτοχος ἐγώ εἰμι 7 F 15 πάντων τῶν φοβουμένων σε, 8 16 καὶ τῶν φυλασσόντων τὰς ἐντολάς σου. 11 G 17 Δόξα Πατρὶ καὶ Ὑιῷ 7 18 καὶ Ἁγίῳ Πνεύματι. 7 H 19 Καὶ νῦν καὶ ἀεῖ 5 20 καὶ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων, Ἀμήν. 12 I 21 Νε ἀλληλούια. 6 Table 3 The first stanza of the Amomos: Structural and Metrical analysis Studies In the Tables No 4a-b we present a comparative modal analysis for the nine compositions of the first stanza of the Amomos. Table 4a The first stanza of the Anomos. Structural, metrical and comparative modal analyses 59

60 Artes. Journal of Musicology Table 4b The first stanza of the Amomos. Structural, metrical and comparative modal analyses The following sources, containing the different settings of the first stanza of the Amomos along with their transcriptions into staff notation, are given in the figures 1 to 15. The citation of the sources appears after taking into consideration some basic criteria. Firstly, the composition by Petros Byzantios (1) is presented, on which all the following compositions were founded and developed. The composition of Ioannis Protopsaltis (2) is next and this is the final part of the presentation of the two most important, in our opinion, and most well-known compositions of the Amomos in the 19 th century. Those were the model for the interpretations of the modern time composers. The compositions of the modern musicians in the 20 th century are next, divided in the following groups: the third is the composition of Thrasivoulos Stanitsas (3), while the fourth is the composition by Eleftherios Georgiadis (4). The interpretation of Leonidas Asteris (5) on the verses of the right choir follows. Then, there is the one by Vasilios Emmanouilidis on the verses of the left choir, according to a tape-recording in the funeral service of the Patriarch Dimitrios A, as it was chanted in the patriarchal church of St George in Phanar, Constantinople, in This last service is the decisive point in the presentation concerning the patriarchal tradition of interpreting the melody of Amomos. Sixth in this presentation is the Amomos performed by father Georgios Tsetsis (6), who resounds with the oral tradition of Constantinople in the second half of the 20 th century, since, as it was reported in the previous chapter, he was brought up and taught by famous musicians, either belonging or not to 60

61 Studies the Patriarchate. In this way he was a bearer of the way of performance in Constantinople, as it was formed throughout this period. Next, there is the presentation of three of the most important chanters and composers of another center that formed the art of chanting throughout history, Thessaloniki. First there is in line seven, the interpretation by Athanasios Karamanis (7), as he recorded it in a special edition of the funeral service published in Then, in line eight, there is the composition by Harilaos Taliadoros (8), which is cited from his own edition of occasional services, edited by his student Paschalis Manos (Giannopoulos, 2016, p. 335). The list is over in line nine with the composition of Asterios Devrelis (9) Collation of sources Fig. 1 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kola

62 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 2 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 3 62

63 Studies Fig. 3 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kola

64 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 4 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kola 5 (con.)-6 64

65 Studies Fig. 5 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 7 65

66 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 6 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 8 66

67 Studies Fig. 7 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kola

68 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 8 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 11 68

69 Studies Fig. 9 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 12 69

70 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 10 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 13 70

71 Studies Fig. 11 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kola

72 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 12 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 16 72

73 Studies Fig. 13 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kola

74 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 14 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 20 74

75 Studies Fig. 15 Collation of sources for the first stanza of the Amomos. Kolon 21 75

76 Artes. Journal of Musicology 5.3. Comments concerning the musical syntax and the modality of the first stanza of the Amomos After a careful study of the compositions-interpretations of the selected composers of the 19 th and 20 th century concerning the first stanza of the Amomos and after examining the table of the comparative analysis cited above, it is necessary to comment on what has been presented in a schematic form. At this point we will succinctly look into the microform of every kolon and into what will be of use for a further study of the performance of the Amomos. The verse referred in capital letters, the kolon in numbers and the specific point of observation in Latin numbering. In this way we try to provide a functional use of the collation given above in connection to our commentary. The first difficulty was to identify the mode of the first stanza. At this point we should underline that the liturgical texts, as it was already mentioned in a previous chapter of our study, place the first stanza of the Amomos in the plagal of the second mode, with very few differentiations in manuscripts that include the melody in the plagal of the first mode. However, the composers of the post-byzantine era we examined, do not seem to agree to that. They use the signature of the second authentic mode. In the compositions by Petros Byzantios and Ioannis Protopsaltis the modal signature presented is incomplete, in comparison with what is defined by Chrysanthos of Madyta in his Great Theoretikon to be a full main signature. In the modern editions of the Amomos examined here there are also differentiations as to the main signature. The majority of the composers places the melody in the plagal of the second mode, using in the signature of the finalis, including the alteration sign (fthora) of the soft chromatic genre, while Karamanis is the only one who follows the paths traced by the post-byzantine composers, since he sets the Amomos in the second authentic mode. However, it seems that all the abovementioned composers intended rendition of the piece in the soft chromatic genre. It is also worth mentioning the final melodic phrase used to complete the first stanza of the Amomos presents two forms. Most of the examined composers use a cadence on the finalis of the second authentic mode (Di-G) with the melodic movement of neanes (Vou-E to DI-G), while Georgiadis, Asteris and Tsetsis end up in the median of the second mode, on the tone Vou (E). Rev. Tsetsis is the only interpreter that uses a completely different introductory phrase in the Amomos (kolon 1) compared to the rest of the composers-interpreters. His interpretation resembles a recitative form. We observe the same thing in the kolon 7. We know that this technique was used by early chanters, as far as the short, syllabic parts are concerned, to offer a better movement in the melody, related to the music of the text that was about to be chanted. Thus, in old recordings we notice the beautiful flow of the syllabic parts and the undeviating observance of their rhythm, without any 76

77 Studies breaking into simple meters (binary or ternary), offering to the listener the feeling of a musical narration, despite the chanting in the strict sense of the term. Also, in the kolon 1 the composers of the 19 th century do not use a cadential phrase in the finalis of the second mode (Di-G), while modern interpretations by the composers of the 20 th century handle the end of this phrase with different ways: Stanitsas, Georgiadis, Tsetsis and Karamanis make cadence on the finalis, while the rest of the composers connects this kolon to the next without any cadence. In the second part (second komma) of kolon 7, on the word «ἀκηδία», Georgiadis leads the melody to the hypophonia (Haldaiakis, 2015, p. 72) of the second mode, that is one tone below the finalis, namely Ga-F), with an imperfect cadence. No one else from the composers investigated so far presented a similar movement in the specific kolon. In this part there is an important differentiation in the composition by Athanasios Karamanis, who leads the melody to the diphony of the second mode (Zo -b). In the second part of kolon 12 Stanitsas takes the melody from the tone Ni-C, sung as Pseudo-Pa, that is the finalis of the plagal of the second mode, to Di-G, finalis of the second authentic mode. He is the first to introduce this movement for the word «ἀπὸ ἁμαρτωλῶν» compared to the rest of the compositions. The way he uses the music making technique corresponds to what Chrysanthos of Madyta (1832, pp ) calls mimesis to the meaning (word painting). However, this movement has no followers by the rest of the composers that we examined. On the contrary, Georgiadis uses a quite different melodic movement ending in the diphony of the second mode (Zo -b). All the next composers in Constantinople and Thessaloniki follow the same melodic line. It is worth underlining that Taliadoros emphasizes particularly the preposition «ἀπὸ», using descending and ascending skip of thirds moving from the tone Ni-C (Pseudo-Pa as neheanes) to the finalis of the second authentic mode Di-G (neanes) on the word «ἁμαρτωλῶν». This movement seems very particular, since there is no similar phrase in any of the verses in the rest of Taliadoros Amomos. Devrelis introduces the first part of kolon 12 by making two continuous third skips from Ni-C to Di-G on the word «ἀθυμία». This movement is not attested in any composition of the Amomos so far consulted. The interpretation of the Amomos by Asteris and Emmanouilidis is similar in many respects to the one by Thrasivoulos Stanitsas. However, the two precentors (Asteris and Emmanouilidis) prefer to create bigger sense units. If one observes the table 4 with the comparative analysis, he will see that there are fewer cadences. In this way Asteris and Emmanouilidis create more directness in the rendition of the sense units, as well as an easier flow in the 77

78 Artes. Journal of Musicology syllabic texture of the melody, by being closer relatedon the very rhythm of the poetic text itself. In kolon 15 Stanitsas is once more a pioneer, leading the melody to an imperfect cadence on the tone Ga, which is the hypophonic tone to the finalis of the second authentic mode. All the subsequent composers-interpreters of the patriarchal chanting tradition, or the wider one in Constantinople, follow this melodic movement. However, this is not the case for the teachers of Thessaloniki, except for Asterios Devrelis, who uses the same movement in his own music setting. In the kola it seems that Karamanis places «Δόξα» in a recitation style. This interpretation of the Burial service by the composer himself is earwitnessed 20. Something similar is not found in any other source examined so far. 6. Conclusions In the compositions of the 20 th century there is an increase in emphasizing different words of the poetic text, whereas in the older compositions the melodic flow of the phrase is the prevailing element. This distracts the smooth flow of the music phrase, in an attempt to impose a new perception of a more proper impression of the poetic text and a more faithful depiction of its concepts, which is in the end at the expense of the music. Following the analysis of the above presented compositions we can extract some very important conclusions. At first, it is clearly obvious that all the compositions-interpretations, and versions of the Amomos preserve to a great extent the model of melopoeia by Petros Byzantios, with small variations only. In an attempt to generalize, one could claim that this persistence on the older music forms is a usual practice and testifies a sort of conservatism, which is characteristic to the ecclesiastical chant. If we study the development of the specific melody, we notice the use of melodic phrases which spring from the internal rhythm of the poetic text. In the newer compositions, starting with Ioannis Protopsaltis, we observe a breaking down of the melodic phrase, leading to almost separate emphases of each single word. As far as the microform and the modal behavior are concerned, they are quite stable for at least the last two hundred years. This happens even though this melody has some features that could motivate every composer to present a completely new composition: for instance, the fact that the hymn is syllabic. Also, it is a hymn that is often chanted, since the funeral service is one of the most common and therefore multiple settings for this service could be legitim. Additionally, it is a hymn used in many different contexts, since the order of the funeral service remains the same whether it is carried out in a cathedral, or in a village church and for the people of all social classes. Therefore, one could suppose that a 20 Recording from my personal archive. 78

79 Studies variety of settings could suit to the different performance contexts of the Amomos. If we reflect the possibility provided by the use of the New Method, that is the analytic notation, for the exact impression of the various movements and utterances of the voice, then the fact that the melody of the Amomos remains unchanged for the last at least two hundred years -as Petros Byzantios himself obviously reflected in his composition the preexisting oral tradition that was preserved until his time-, this seems to be a strong tendency in many categories of Byzantine melopoeia (Chrysanthos, 1832, ). References Alexandridis, D. (2002). Αθανάσιος Ν. Καραμάνης, άρχων πρωτοψάλτης της αγιωτάτης αρχιεπισκοπής Κωνσταντινουπόλεως [Athanasios Karamanis, archon protopsaltis of the holy archdiocese of Constantinople]. Thessaloniki: Melissa. Alexandrou, M. (2010). Εξηγήσεις και μεταγραφές της Βυζαντινής μουσικής: Σύντομη εισαγωγή στον προβληματισμό τους [Transcribes and transcriptions of the Byzantine music: A brief introduction to their reflection]. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press. Alexandrou, M. (2016). Εισαγωγή στη Βυζαντινή μουσική [An introduction to the Byzantine music]. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press. Alexopoulos, St. (2009). «Ἀκολουθία νεκρώσιμος εἰς μοναχοὺς καὶ ἱερεῖς» [The funeral service of monks and priests]. The mystery of the death in the orthodox church worship. Proceedings of the 9 th Panhellenic liturgical symposium (pp ). Athens: Church of Greece. Anastassiou, G. (2005). Τὰ κρατήματα στην ψαλτικὴ τέχνη [The kratemata in the psaltic art]. Athens: Institute of Byzantine Musicology. Andrikos, N. (2015). Η εκκλησιαστική μουσική της Σμύρνης ( ) [The ecclesiastical music of Smyrna ( )]. Athens: Topos. Antonopoulos, S. (2013). The life and works of Manuel Chrysaphis the lampadarios, and the figure of composer in late Byzantium, vol. 1. (Doctoral thesis, City University London, United Kingdom). Balageorgos, D. (2001). Ἡ ψαλτικὴ παράδοση τῶν ἀκολουθιῶν τοῦ Βυζαντινοῦ κοσμικοῦ τυπικοῦ [The psaltic tradition of the akolouthiai according to the Byzantine secular typikon]. Athens: Institute of Byzantine Musicology. Balageorgos, D. (2012). «Παρακλητικὴ καὶ Ὡρολόγιον» [Paraklitiki and Horologion] in ΙΔ Πανελλήνιο λειτουργικὸ συμπόσιο στελεχῶν Ἱερῶν Μητροπόλεων [14 th Panhellenic litourgical symposium of the executives of the Holy Metropoles], Retrieved July 12, 2017, from Bruni, V. (1972). I funerali di un sacerdote nel rito bizantino secondo gli eucologi manoscritti di lingua graeca [The funeral of a priest in the Byzantine rite according to 79

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83 DOI number: /ajm Studies Aspects of the Paternity of Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu s Liturgical Chant ( ) CODRUȚ-DUMITRU SCURTU National University of Music Bucharest ROMÂNIA Abstract: The Romanian Orthodox Church in the 19 th century and the first half of the 20 th century had a valuable generation of hierarchs protopsalts, composers, translators and promoters of the psaltic music of the Byzantine tradition. From this exceptional generation, Iosif Naniescu is the most valuable composer and interpreter of the 19 th century psaltic music. By his rich musical work, Metropolitan Iosif stands out as a reference point for the composition and translation of Greek psaltic chanting. Thanks to the original compositions and translations from the old music notation system, Iosif Naniescu may be included among the promoters of the Christian music notation system in our country alongside Macarie the Monk (with whom he would collaborate), Anton Pann (with whom he bound a close friendship between ), and Dimitrie Suceveanu (whom he promoted as a protopsalter of Moldavia). The quality of his performance is highlighted by the countless written testimonies over time. Iosif Naniescu shows a special talent and zeal in his widespread work of over 100 musical manuscripts (stored in our country and in the Holy Mountain of Athos); he is also acknowledged for the Psalms of Time, which he copied in anthologies besides his own chants. Therefore, the present article comes to assert the origins of his chants and pays tribute to classical music of Byzantine tradition. Keywords: Metropolitan, Protopsalt, Paternity, Lyturgical Chant, Iosif Naniescu. 1. Introduction The Romanian Orthodox Church in the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century had a valuable generation of hierarchs protopsalts, composers, translators and promoters of psaltic music of Byzantine tradition. Among the bishops who were entrusted the pastoral care of the Argeș Diocese we mention Ghenadie Țeposu-Argeșiu ( ), Gherasim Timuș ( ), Iosif Naniescu ( ) (Scurtu, 2011, pp ), and Evghenie Humulescu- Piteşteanul ( ) (Scurtu, 2007, pp ). From this exceptional generation, Iosif Naniescu is the most esteemed composer and interpreter of the 19 th century psaltic music. By his rich musical work, Metropolitan Iosif stands out as a reference point for the composition and translation of Greek psaltic chanting. Thanks to the original compositions and translations from the old music notation system, Iosif Naniescu may be included among the promoters of the Christian music notation system in our country alongside Macarie the 83

84 Artes. Journal of Musicology Monk (with whom he would collaborate), Anton Pann (with whom he enjoyed a close friendship between ), and Dimitrie Suceveanu (whom he promoted as a protopsalter of Moldavia). 2. The musical work The quality of a good performer is highlighted by the countless written testimonies over time. Iosif Naniescu shows a special talent and zeal in his widespread work of over 100 musical manuscripts (stored in our country and in the Holy Mountain of Athos); he is also acknowledged for the Psalms of Time, which he copied in anthologies besides his own chants Manuscripts from Romania The musical compositions signed by Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu can be found in over 76 manuscripts in Romania, in 28 libraries, such as: The Library of the Romanian Academy B.A.R. 17 manuscripts Rom. ms. 3931, Rom. ms. 1743, Rom. ms. 4399, Rom. ms. 4402, Rom. ms. 4426, Rom. ms. 4427, Rom. ms. 4434, Rom. ms. 4013, Rom. ms. 5108, Rom. ms. 4382, Rom. ms. 4605, Rom. ms. 2343, Rom. ms. 3809, Rom. ms. 4249, Rom. ms. 4344, Rom. ms and greek. ms. 835; The Library of the Holy Synod 1 B.S.S. 9 manuscripts ms rom. I-18, ms rom. I-17, ms rom. - gr I-54, ms rom. I-76, ms. Rom. II-7, ms-rom II-34, ms-rom III-29, ms. rom 97205/2011 and ms. rom /2011 (Patrașcu, 2010, pp , 62-66, 71-74, 75-82, 87-88, , și ; Barbu-Bucur & Catrina, 2013, pp ); the Library of the Union of Composers and Musicologists 2 B.U.C.M. 4 manuscripts Rom. ms. 4635, Rom. ms. 4658, ms and ms (Secară, 2006, pp.50, 61-68, și 93-97); the Library of the Stavropoleos Monastery 3 Bucharest B.M.St. 4 manuscripts ms. no 85M, ms. no 92M, ms. no 4941 and ms. no 9628; Mihai Eminescu Central University Library from Iasi 4 B.C.U.M.E. 4 manuscripts ms., No. III- 79, ms., No. I-56, ms., no. II-34 and Rom. ms. II-71 (Isăroiu, 2008, pp ; see also Buzera, Al. A., Three manuscripts..., 1999, pp , see Bucescu, 2002, p. 111); Râmnicu-Vâlcea Archdiocese Library B.A.Rm.Vl. 1 Byzantinologist Alexie Al. Buzera mentions it in his catalogue as the host manuscript of the musical work of Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu and Rom. ms. B.S.S. II-67 (Buzera, 1999, p. 174). 2 Byzantinologist Alexie Buzera mentions it in this library as a host manuscript of the musical work of Iosif Naniescu, and ms. 4684, ms. 4687, ms. II-71 and ms. II-34 (Buzera, 1999, pp. 126, 181, 129). 3 Byzantinologist Al. Alexie Buzera presents a non-quota manuscript, including, among other things, songs by Iosif Naniescu, belonging to the Library of the Stavropoleos Monastery in Bucharest (Buzera, 1999, p. 132). 4 In the book of this library, Constantin C. Angelescu recalled the existence of a manuscript with the musical work of Iosif Naniescu in one of his studies having the quotation II-34 (Angelescu, 1982, p. 68, footnote 85). 84

85 Studies 3 manuscripts: grek. - Rom., no., 6649, file no. 493, and ms. Rom., 7515/197 (Gavrilă, 2010, pp ); The Library of the Archdiocese of Argeş B.A.A. 3 manuscripts - rom. no. 981, rom. no. 982, and rom. no. 983; Nicolae Iorga Library from Ploiesti B.N.I.P. 3 manuscripts: rom. no., D. II., 2599, ms. rom. no. D. I. 1737, and romanian no., D. II., 2645; Buzău Archdiocese Museum Mz.A.B. 3 manuscripts: ms. no. 2797, ms. no and ms. no (Moise, 2004, pp ); The Library of the Metropolitan Church of Moldavia and Bucovina B.M.M.B. 4 manuscripts: Rom. ms., no , Rom. ms. no , Rom. ms. no. 11, and Rom. ms. no. 44; Oltenia Museum from Craiova Mz.O. 2 manuscripts: Rom. ms. no. 84 and Rom. ms. no. 86 (Buzera, 1999, p. 190); The Library of Parish Rediu Tătar-Iasi B.P.R.T. 2 manuscripts: Rom. ms. no. 1, Notebook 1 and Rom. ms. no. 1, Notebook 2 (Nastasă, 2010, pp ); The Library of the Talpalari-Iași Church B.B.T.I. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 72 (Bucescu, 2009, pp ); The Library of the Ciolanu-Buzău Monastery B.M.C.B. 2 manuscripts: Rom. ms. no II C.1 and Rom. ms. no (Moise, 2004, pp ); the Romanian National Library B.Nț.R. 2 manuscripts: Rom. ms. no and Rom. ms. no (Bucescu, 2009, pp. 518, 527); Rev. Ion Oprea s Private Library, Vălenii de Munte Prahova B.P.I.O. 1 ms: ms. without quotation (Barbu-Bucur&Catrina, 2013, pp ); the Library of Văratec Monastery B.M.V. 1 ms: ms. no. 207/B7 (Bucescu & Catrina & Barnea & Dănilă, 2010, pp ); the Library of Neamț Monastery B.M.N. 1ms: Rom. ms. no. 15 (Bucescu & Catrina & Barnea & Dănilă, 2010, vol. II, pp ); the Library of Sinaia Monastery in Prahova B.M.S.P. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 37 (Harbuzaru, 2012, pp ); the Library of Cheia Monastery in Prahova B.M.C.P. 1 ms: without quotation; National Archives in Vâlcea Country the National Archives of Vâlcea Country 1ms: Rom. ms. no. 80 (See also Neacșu, 2006, pp ); the Library of The Theology Seminary in Buzău B.S.T.B. 1 ms: ms. without quotation (Moise, 2004, p. 129); the Private Library of Prior Partenie Apetrei from Neamț B.P.A.P. 1 ms: ms. no. 1 (Nastasă, 2010, pp ); the Library of Tarcău-Neamț Hermitage B.S.T.N. 1ms: ms. no. 1 (Nastasă, 2010, pp ); the Central University Library in Bucharest B.C.U. 1 ms: (Buzera, 1999, p. 185); Titus Moisescu Private Library in Bucharest B.P.T.M. 1ms: Rom. ms. no. 4 (Ionescu, 2003, pp ); Private Library of Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur in Bucharest B.P.S.B. 1 ms: ms. without 5 Manuscript no. 340 from the content Archimandrite I. Grădinaru B.M.M.B. with the musical work of Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu is presented in the volume of I. Gaşpar (1982, pp ). 6 Manuscript no. 105 is presented in the paper of Vasile Vasile ( , pp ). Another host manuscript of the musical work of Joseph Naniescu is presented briefly with quotation no. 11 in the volume of A. Buzera (1999, Musical Culture..., p. 183); see also Bucescu, F. (2009, pp ). 85

86 Artes. Journal of Musicology quotation and Private Alexie Buzera Library in Craiova B.P.A.B. 1ms: ms. no. 4 (Buzera, 1999, p. 200) Manuscripts from the Holy Mountain of Athos More than 23 musical manuscripts are housed in the Holy Mountain of Athos, among other songs and compositions by Iosif Naniescu, spread in 10 libraries, such as: The Prodromu-Athos Hermitage Library B.S.P. 10 manuscripts: Rom. ms. no. 6/93, Rom. ms. no. 10/4, Rom. ms. no. 24/54, Rom. ms. no. 77/17, Rom. ms. no. 94/99, Rom. ms. no. 97/74, Rom. ms. no. 112/67, Rom. ms. no. 123/102, Rom. ms. no. 129/29 and Rom. ms. no. 137/43 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, pp. 36, 41, 65, 165, 196, 199, 218, 234, 241, 256.); the Private Library Gheorghe (Gamaliil) Boboc Hieroschehermit B.P.G.B. 3 manuscripts: ms. 35/III, ms. without quotation inv, ms. without quotation (Vasile, 2007, pp , 268); the Saint John the Theologian Romanian Hermitage in Cucuvinu Provata B.S.I.C. 2 manuscripts: without quotation (Vasile, 2007, p. 160); the Lacu-Athos Hermitage Library B.S.L. 2 manuscripts: Rom. ms. no. 2 and Rom. ms. no. 21 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, pp ); the Stavronikita Monastery Library B.M.S. 1 ms: ms. no. 23 (Vasile, 2008, pp ); The Great Lavra Library in Athos B.M.L. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 4 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, p. 275.); The Hermitage Library of the Assumption of the Holy Virgin Mary B.A.M.D. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 2 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, p. 322); The Library of The Hermitage of Saint George at Colciu-Vatoped B.S.G.C. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 5 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, p. 344); The Library of the Hermitage of Saint John the Baptist B.S.I.B.V. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 4 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, p. 371) and The Library of Saint Ipaty Hermitage at Vatoped B.S.I.V. 1 ms: Rom. ms. no. 17 (Barbu-Bucur, 2000, p. 409). 3. The paternity of metropolitan Iosif Naniescu s liturgical chant ( ) As one of the most important personalities of the Romanian Orthodox Church, Iosif Naniescu left a rich musical work, containing original works, translations from the Greek language, revisions (of some chants written by Hieromonk Macarie and Anton Pann, o.n.), and chants written after his death, with the mention as it was performed by Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu. According to manuscript notes, on March 24, 1836, Buzău, the Hierodeacon Iosif wrote Aghioasele Mode VIII (Great Answers, o.n.) which, even after 180 years, are sung by the whole Romanian Orthodoxy with the same beauty and freshness. Regarding the roots of these songs, we may try some observations. It is very interesting that Iosif Naniescu indirectly mentions that the manuscripts of 86

87 Studies these answers would not belong to him, but are adapted in the Buzău Seminary School, in 1836, after the Greek ones. Here we can notice two aspects. One would be that these answers had circulated in a Greek version since ancient times and Iosif translated them into his mother tongue, encouraged by the Romanian trend of translating church chanting. The second aspect would be that these answers were written by Iosif Naniescu at a time when, ecclesiastically speaking, the Romanian Countries were under Greek domination, and Iosif had to present them as translated, not composed, which meant as a precaution gesture of the future metropolitan. Not detecting the original Greek version might also be because of their original circulation in oral form exclusively. The Mediaeval method of memorizing a whole repertoire of songs, which encouraged the learning of melodic formulas (theses) with great ease, is known to us (Gheorghiță, 2012, p. 392). Gherasim Safrin, the Romanian Bishop, printed a Collection of Church Songs in Bucharest, at the Printing House of Church Books in 1809, and published these responses on pages; he also offered the information that Iosif Naniescu, a Metropolitan, has changed them between This is remarkable, because Iosif translated faithfully the Greek chants, often using the word just to guarantee this. Knowing the scrupulosity and fidelity of his Greek translations, Iosif Naniescu allowed himself to change them after some time when his beliefs and musical inspiration were likely to have reached maturity. Thus, we may notice and analyze his vision of translation (or, why not, his composition?) from the age of his only 18 years old (1836) as compared to that of his 58 years old (1876), after 40 years of compositional experience. In 1999, the Byzantine chorus Psalmodia of the National Music University of Bucharest recorded these overly beautiful Responses on an audio tape under the conductor Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, in the Electrecord studio in Bucharest, along with other beautiful chants selected from the Liturgy of Saint John Chrysostom. We find these songs in several manuscripts in Romania and also at the Holy Mountain of Athos. They are some of Iosif Naniescu s most popular chants. In Romania we find them in: B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 12 (verse 24, repeated, Mode VIII ni We Praise Thee ); B.AR. Rom. ms f. 1; B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 14; B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 54v; B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 101 (p. 196); B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 48; B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 30 (only We Praise Thee n. n.); B.S.S. Rom. ms. II-34 f.74v; B.S.S. Rom. ms. no. D p. 35; B.M.St. ms. no. 92, p. 116; B.M.St. ms. no f. 10; B.A.A. ms. no. M. 982 p. 208; B.A.A. ms. no. M. 983 f. 115v; B.N.I.P. Rom. ms. D. I 1737 pp. 245, 255, 259, 264, 266, 381; B.N.I.P. ms. D. II f. 93v; B.P.R.T. ms. no. 1 Notebook 1; f. 20v-21v; B.M.V. ms. 207/B7; f. 97v-31; 87

88 Artes. Journal of Musicology B.M.N. Rom. ms. no. 15; f v; B.M.S.P. Rom. ms. no. 37; f. 226v; B.C.U.M.E. Rom. ms. no. III-79; f. 15v; B.M.M.B. ms. 105 f. 98; B.S.T.N. ms. no. 1; f ; B.B.T.I., ms. no. 72, f. 230 and B.P.S.B., ms. without quotation pp We identify these Great Responses in Mode 8 at the Holy Mountain of Athos in: B.S.P. Rom. ms. 77/17 f. 179; B.S.P. Rom. ms. 94/99 f. 1; B.S.P. Rom. ms. 97/74 f ; B.S.P. Rom. ms. 112/67 f. 31; B.S.P. Rom. ms. 123/102 f. 54; B.P.G.B. ms. no. 35/III f. 59v.-60; B.P.G.B. ms. no. 2 pp ; B.S.I.C. ms. without quotation f v; B.S.L. Rom. ms. no. 2 f. 205v; B.S.L. Rom. ms. no. 21 f. 138v; B.M.L. Rom. ms. no. 4 f. 103; B.A.M.D. Rom. ms. no. 2 f. 179; and B.S.G.C. Rom. ms. no. 5 f. (see also Barbu-Bucur, 2000, pp. 167, 197, 203, 218, 234, 91, 284, 311, 276, 324, 344; see also Vasile, 2007, pp. 160, 265). An anthology engraved by one of Metropolitan Iosif's disciples (Ghiţă Ionescu-Rom. ms., BAR No. 4249) holds only 80% of the Metropolitan s chants. The manuscript contains, besides other original songs, Christ is risen on Mode 5 (the 2 nd form of the Mode), at page 188, along with the mention: At Easter Mode V pa, by Archimandrite Iosif Naniescu.... We find this song published in Neagu Ionescu's new edition of Neagu Ionescu's Musical Bouquet printed in Bucharest at the Printing House of Church Books, in 1900 (page 226), but also in the old edition printed in Buzău in 1881 (pp ), this time without the author s note. We mention that this song was first translated or composed by Archimandrite Iosif Naniescu (Fig. 1).. Fig. 1 Hristos au înviat (Iosif Naniescu) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 188 An original Iosif autographed manuscript kept in the B.A.R. (Rom. ms. 3931) illustrates new chants signed by Iosif and dated October 28, On the page 343 of the Manuscript we find the following songs, At the Ordination, Mode VII ga, To the Holy Martyrs (two forms, o.n.), Glory to Thee, O Lord, Jesus Christ, Mode VII ke, O Isaiah, dance for joy, Second Mode di (large, o.n.), and Mode VII ga, Worthy is..., with reference to page 334: written in 28 October 1839 in Buzău, by Iosif Nani(a) (signed, o.n.). We also find these songs signed similarly at page 345 in the same manuscript. It is very interesting for the history of the Romanian psaltic music that, although the holy mystery of ordination into priesthood has existed for 88

89 Studies centuries in the Orthodox Church, the name of the author or translator of the melody of the troparia of ordination is still unknown. They are still in use in present liturgical practice. Today s musical publications (Moldoveanu, 2002, pp ; Uncu, 1947, pp ; Popescu-Pasărea, 1991, pp ) record them as such; their existence seems to be enough, without any mention of the author. They are mentioned as traditional chants which complicates contemporary musical research. Archbishop Gherasim Safirin, who published the troparion in his Sobornicariu... (Bucharest, 1914, p. 102) makes an argument related to the troparia on Mode VII, Holy Martyrs and Glory to Thee : Hearsay from the Greeks of Athens. Next to the troparion, Mode V, O Isaiah, dance for joy, he offers another important statement: A remake of the composition of Rev. Nectarios from the Holy Mount. Hence, it is to Nectarios the Romanian, the Protopsalt of the Holy Mount, Iosif Naniescu s contemporary, that the troparion Mode V heirmoic, O Isaiah, dance for joy, translated into his national language, is assigned. For a good period of time, the troparia Mode VII were also in use in an oral version in Greek, as it was the trend of that age. Looking back into music history, we also find these troparia published by Ioan Zmeu in his Music Book of Katabasia (Buzău, 1907) on page 102, and attributed to the interpretation of the former Bishop of Argeș, Gherasim Timuș: The troparia we sing at the services of the holy matrimony and the ordination into priesthood just as His Eminence, Bishop of Argeş, D.D. GherasimTimus, sings them. The same troparia are also published by Neagu Ionescu, the church music teacher from the Buzău Seminary School, in the two editions of the Musical Bouquet, one published in Bucharest, in 1900 (pp ), and the other in Buzău, in 1881 (pp ), translated and signed by him. Interestingly, the chants sung by Gherasim Timus (and published by Ioan Zmeu in 1907) are similar to Neagu Ionescu s, with slight differences of conversion of some melodic formulas. The same troparia are published by Dometie Ionescu in his Anthology (Bucharest, 1898), at pages 72-73, perhaps not accidentally after Iosif Naniescu s Great Responses (pp ) without any specification of the author. The troparia published by Ştefanache Popescu (Bucharest, 1860), in his book Church Music Anthology, pp , are similar. In The Order of the Holy and Divine Liturgy by Anton Pann (Bucharest, 1847, pp ), we encounter these troparia with the following note:... at the ordination of deacons or priests, we sing these troparia. Among some other novel chants signed by Metropolitan Iosif, the autograph manuscript B.A.R. Rom. ms. 3931, shows these ordination troparia at pages 343 and 345, signed by Iosif in October 28, 1839, that is, 75 years before Bishop Gherasim Safirin, 68 years before Ioan Zmeu, 59 years before Dometie Ionescu, 42 years before Neagu Ionescu, 21 years before Professor Ştefanache, and 8 years before Anton Pann. 89

90 Artes. Journal of Musicology We find the second version of the troparia, Mode VII, Holy Martyrs, and Glory to Thee, O Lord (BAR, p f. 343), published (without mentioning the author, o.n.) at pages 17 and 18, in First Volume of the Anthology, published by Nectarios the Protopsalt Association (Bucharest, 2007), by the work of the church chanters of the St. Gregory Palama Church in Bucharest, Gabriel Duca and Valentin Gheorghe. We mention that these chants published at pages under the title another series of chants, Mode 7 are versions of Iosif Naniescu (Fig. 2-7). Fig. 2 Sfinților Mucenici (Iosif Nania 1839) B.A.R. ms f. 343, 344 Mode VII ga Fig. 3 Sfinților Mucenici (other variant by Nania, 1839) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 343 Fig. 4 Slavă Ție Hristoase Dumnezeule... (Iosif Naniescu, 1839) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 343 Fig. 5 Isaie dănțuiește (Iosif Naniescu, 1839) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 344, Mode V tetrafon ke 90

91 Studies Fig. 6 Doamne miluiește (Iosif Naniescu 1839) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 344 Mode II di Fig. 7 Vrednic este (Iosif Naniescu, 1839) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 344 Mode VIII ni In 1861 Iosif Naniescu wrote the Great Responses of St. Basil s Liturgy, the original chants identified in B.A.R. Rom. ms f. 183, with the following note:... At St. Basil the Great s Holy and Divine Liturgy, this second Mode of the chant was first sung and composed by St. John of Damascus, and later they were shortened by John the Sweet. Then, they were further shortened by John the Protopsalt as they are sung today in The Holy Church of God, and then they were translated in our Romanian language by Archimandrite Iosif Naniescu in the Găiseni Monastery, as we know them now. In the year 1861, Mode II, di, It is meet and right, f. 183v; Holy, Holy, Holy, f. 185 We Praise Thee. These beautiful responses can also be found in B.M.M.B (ms. no. 340 f ) and B.C.U.M.E. Rom. (ms. rom.-gr. II-71 f. 166). At the Holy Mount Athos we identify these answers in B.S.P. Rom. ms.24/54 f. 228v. These chants have been preserved over time by writing or orally, according to Archimandrite Iosif s original formula, up to the protopsalt professor I. Popescu-Pasărea, who, in 1925, printed them with slight changes (shortening the formulas) on page 65 in The Liturgy Book for the Chorus, without specifying the author of the original form. We mention Archimandrite Iosif Naniescu as author of these precious responses. We render here the two forms of the chant in order to lay stress on their paternity (Fig. 8-9). Fig. 8 Cu vrednicie și cu dreptate Mode II di (Iosif Naniescu, 1861) B.A.R. ms. rom f

92 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 9 Cu vrednicie și cu dreptate Mode II di (I. Popescu-Pasărea) Liturghier de strană, București, 1925, p. 65 The three Stases of the Lamentations, which we find at page 7 in the B.A.R., Rom. ms. 4013, are truly original. The manuscript belonged to Metropolitan Joseph Naniescu s archive and was donated to the Romanian Academy after his death, which justify es the frequent pencil reinforcing that statement. The writing is similar to that of the autograph manuscript 3931, which also encourages the hypothesis that it was probably written by Iosif himself. An interesting thing is that, besides hieromonk Macarie's variant of the Lamentations, published in Buzău in 1836, there is also a short written version of the Stases of the Lamentations almost identical to those chanted nowadays (Fig ). Fig. 10 Prohodul Domnului... (Iosif Naniescu) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 7 Mode V pa, I st stasis (other variant, o.n) Fig. 11 Prohodul Domnului... (Iosif Naniescu) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 7 Mode V pa, II nd stasis (other variant, o.n.) Fig. 12 Prohodul Domnului... (Iosif Naniescu) B.A.R. ms. rom f. 7 Mode V pa, III rd stasis 92

93 Studies Endowed with an exceptional voice, with an ambitus to the sound mi of the third octave, Metropolitan Iosif was nicknamed the Nightingale of Argeş when he was a pastor there (Poslușnicu, 1928, pp ). His interpretation is highlighted by Archbishop Evghenie Humulescu-Piteşteanul, who noted on the 5 th page of the Synodicon of the Holy Diocese of Argeș (ms. recently discovered in the Archbishopric Library of Arges, o.n.) while mentioning the great servants of the Romanian Orthodox Church, with whom he had the joy to serve: Among them, there was shining Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu, venerable and zealous about the customs of the patriarchs, a gentle figure, unsurpassed master of psaltic music, and a famous chanter endowed with a warm and sweet voice 4. Conclusions Iosif Naniescu sang in church all his life, just as he himself signed on manuscripts. By his compositional and translating style, he proved to be a true reference for other composers, and was often asked to correct and interpret musical prints. However, the Metropolitan saw only a part of his musical work printed in the collections of Anton Pann (1847), Professor Ştefanache Popescu (1860), George Ionescu (1878) a disciple, teacher Neagu Ionescu (1881) and Ioan Zmeu (1892). This is one of monk Iosif s gestures of humility, who did not make use of his position to see his complete works published; he cared more for salvation than for glory, as Ghelasie Basarabeanu, the Archdeacon of the Arges Bishopric See noticed. This must have been one reason for which Iosif was not mentioned in some of the prints as the author of certain translations or compositions. Another reason may have been the notoriety of his compositions and translations that no longer needed attribution. Therefore, the present article comes to reinforce the paternity of his chants; it also represents a tribute to classical music of Byzantine tradition. Iosif Naniescu took care that his disciples did not lack chants. He translated and composed for 64 years, since early childhood, starting at the age of only 15 years (1833) until 1897, five years before his passing to the Lord. In the last five years of his life, he was probably concerned rather with spiritual than material things, for he was known as a pious monk. The Romanian Patericon (a collection of stories of old monks live sand teaching) presents rich material summing up the stories of his contemporaries, describing him as having led a holy life, full of good deeds. In this respect, Archimandrite Ioanichie Bălan (1998, pp ) reports a number of 40 events based on solid testimonies that tell us why Iosif Naniescu was granted the surname of the holy by the people (Vasilache, 1940, p. X). 93

94 Artes. Journal of Musicology His pure life, his deeds of mercy, his spiritual sayings and acts, his lofty life, his virtues, made Metropolitan Iosif a man loved by the people and considered to be the brightest hierarch of the Romanian Orthodox Church in the second half of the nineteenth century, immediately after Saint Calinic of Cernica. References Angelescu, C. C. (1982). Contribuții la biografia Mitropolitului Iosif Naniescu [Contributions to the biography of the Metropolitan Iosif Naniescu]. Mitropolia Moldovei și Sucevei, LVIII, 1-2, ianuarie-februarie, Iași. Bălan, I., Arhimandrit (1998). Patericul Românesc ce cuprinde viața și cuvintele unor sfinți și cuvioși părinți ce s-au nevoit în mânăstirile românești (secolele III-XX) [The Romanian Patericon comprising the life and words of some saints and monks from the monasteries of Romania], III rd edition. Galați: Episcopia Dunării de Jos. Barbu-Bucur, S. Arhid. (2000). Manuscrise muzicale româneşti de la Muntele Athos. [Romanian musical manuscripts from Mount Athos]. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. & Catrina, C. (2013). Protopsalți și Manuscrise de la Mănăstirea Cheia-Teleajen [Protopsalms and Manuscripts from Cheia-Teleajen Monastery]. București: Editura SemnE. Bucescu, F. & Catrina, C. & Barnea, A. et al. (2010). Catalogul manuscriselor de muzică sacră din Moldova secolele XI-XX (I) [The catalogue of the manuscripts of sacred music from Moldova 9 th and 10 th century (I)]. Iași: Artes. Bucescu, F. (2009). Cântarea psaltică în manuscrisele moldovenești din sec. al XIXlea. Ghidul manuscriselor psaltice Moldova, sec. XIX (II) [The psaltic chant in the Moldavian manuscripts from the 9 th century. The guide of the psaltic manuscripts Moldova. XIX century (II)]. Iași: Artes. Buzera, A. Al. (1999). Cultura muzicală românească de tradiţie bizantină din sec. al XIX-lea [Romanian musical culture of Byzantine tradition from the 9 th century]. Craiova: Fundaţia Scrisul Românesc. Buzera, A. Al. (1999). Trei manuscrise de la B.C.U. Mihai Eminescu din Iași cu opera muzicală inedită a lui Ghelasie Basarabeanul [Three manuscripts from the Mihai Eminescu University Library of Iasi, regarding the original music works of Ghelasie Basarabeanul]. Byzantion, II, Iași: Academia de Arte George Enescu. Catrina, C. (2010, Ed.). Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, octogenar [Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, octogenarian]. București: Editura SemnE. Duca, G. & Gheorghe, V. (2007). Tomul întâi al Antologiei [The first tome of the Anthology]. București: Asociația Nectarie Protopsaltul. 94

95 95 Studies Gașpar, I. (1982). Un manuscript de cântări bisericești [A manuscript of church chants]. Mitropolia Moldovei și Sucevei, LVIII, 1-2, ianuarie februarie, Iași. Gavrilă, I. (2010) Muzica Bisericească în ținutul Vâlcii. Studiu Monografic [Religious music in the area of Vâlcea. Monography]. București: Editura Roza Vânturilor. Gheorghiță, N. (2012). De la neumă la interpretare sau despre procesul compozițional în muzica bizantină. [From neume to interpretation or about the compositional process in the Byzantine music]. Analele Putnei, VIII, Putna: Centrul de Cercetare și Documentare Ștefan cel Mare al Sfintei Mănăstiri Putna. Harbuzaru, M. (2012). Manuscrisele psaltice de la Mănăstirea Sinai [The pasltic manuscripts from Sinai Monastery]. București: Editura Cuvântul Vieții. Ionescu, G. C. (2003). Muzica Bizantină în România. Dicționar Cronologic [The Byzantine music in Romania. Chronological Dictionary]. București: Sagittarius. Ionescu, N. (1881). Buchetul muzical ce conține cântările indispensabile unui cântăreț tot timpul anului..., culegere după diferiți autori și compoziții originale de N(eagu) Ionescu [A musical bouquet of chants indispensable to a singer throughout the year collection of different authors and original compositions by Neagu Ionescu]. Buzău. Ionescu, N. (1900). Buchetul muzical [Musical bouquet]. București: Tipografia Cărților Bisericești. Isăroiu, I. (2008). Ghelasie Basarabeanu personalitate marcantă a muzicii bizantine [Ghelasie Basarabeanu significant personality of the Byzantine music]. Pitești: Universitatea din Pitești. Moise, B. (2004). Cultura muzicală românească de tradiţie bizantină, zona Buzău- Vrancea, sec. al XIX-lea (teză de doctorat nepublicată) [Romanian musical culture of Byzantine tradition, Buzău-Vrancea area, the 9 th century (unpublished doctoral paper)]. Universitatea Naţională de Muzică, București. Moldoveanu, N. (2002). Cântări la Sfintele Taine și la Ierurgii și alte cântări religioase [Songs for the Holy Mass and for Hierourgy and other religious chants]. București: Institutul Biblic și de Misiune al Bisericii Ortodoxe Române. Nastasă, I.-G. (2010). Manuscrise muzicale inedite (secolele XIX-XX) [Original musical manuscripts]. Învățământul Universitar Vocațional la Ceas Aniversar Studii și cercetări [The vocational university education s celebration Studies and research] (pp ). Iași: Doxologia. Neacșu, G. (2006). Manuscrise copiate de protopsalți și muzicieni argeșeni din Fondul Direcției Județene Vâlcea a Arhivelor Naționale [Manuscripts copied by protopsalts and musicians of Argeș from the National Archives of the Vâlcea county]. Glasul Bisericii, 5-8, mai-august, Pann, A. (1847). Rânduiala Sfintei și Dumnezeeștei Liturghii [The Layout of the Holy and Godly Liturgy]. București: Tipografia proprie [own printing house]. Pătraşcu, C. (2010). Fondul de manuscrise muzicale româneşti din Biblioteca Sfântului Sinod (lucrare de disertaţie nepublicată) [The corpus of Romanian musical

96 Artes. Journal of Musicology manuscripts from the Library of the Holy Synod (unpublished dissertation)]. Universitatea Naţională de Muzică, Bucureşti. Popescu-Pasărea, I. (1908). Cântările Sf(intei) Liturghii scrise pentru corurile sătești, după melodiile bisericești-tradițional [The songs of the Holy Liturgy written for the villages choirs after traditional church chants]. București: Institutul de Arte Grafice Carol Göbl. Popescu-Pasărea, I. (1925). Liturghierul de strană [The lectern reader]. București: Tipografia Cărților Bisericești. Popescu-Pasărea, I. (1991). Liturghier de strană [The lectern reader]. Curtea de Argeș: Episcopia Argeșului. Popescu, Ș. (1860). Colecțiuni de cântări bisericești [Collections of church chants]. București: Tipografia Nifon Mitropolitul. Posluşnicu, M. Gr. (1928). Istoria muzicei la Români [The music history in Romania]. Bucureşti: Cartea Românească. Safirin, G. (1908). Culegere de cântări bisericeşti [A collection of church chants]. Bucureşti: Tipografia Cărţilor Bisericeşti. Secară, C. (2006). Muzica bizantină doxologie şi înălţare spirituală [The Byzantine music-doxology and spiritual elevation]. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Scurtu, C. D. (2011). Iosif Naniescu privighetoarea Argeșului ( ) [Iosif Naniescu the nightingale of Argeş ( )]. Păstorul Ortodox [The Orthodox Sheperd], Curtea de Argeș: Arhiepiscopia Argeșului și Muscelului. Scurtu, C. D. (2007). Noi mărturii despre arhiereul-protopsalt Evghenie Humulescu- Piteşteanu ( ) [New confessions about the protopsalt Evghenie Humulescu Piteşteanu ( )]. Byzantion-Romanicon, VII, Iaşi: Artes. Uncu, A. V. (1947). Antologhionul [Antologhyon]. București: Tipografia Cărților Bisericești. Vasilache, V. (1940). Iosif Naniescu, strălucit mitropolit al Moldovei [Iosif Naniescu. Brilliant Metropolitan of Moldova]. Mănăstirea Neamţ. Vasile, V. (1994). Iosif Naniescu reprezentant de seamă al muzicii psaltice [Iosif Naniescu significant representative of the psaltic music]. Muzica, new series, IV (16), 2, București: UCMR. Vasile, V. (1994). Iosif Naniescu reprezentant de seamă al muzicii psaltice [Iosif Naniescu significant representative of the psaltic music]. Muzica, new series, IV (16), 4, București: UCMR. Vasile, V. (2007). Tezaur muzical românesc din Muntele Athos [Romanian musical treasury from the Mount Athos], I-II. București: Editura Muzicală. Zmeu, I. (1907). Catavasierul muzical, Tomul Utreniei și Tomul Liturghiei [The musical hymn book. The tome of Matins and the Tome of the Liturgy]. Buzău: Imprimeria Alexandru Georgescu. 96

97 DOI number: /ajm Studies Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur PhD Researcher of the Byzantine Musical Tradition across the Romanian Territory ELENA CHIRCEV Gheorghe Dima Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca ROMANIA Abstract: Professor Archdeacon Sebastian Babu-Bucur PhD is one of the most prominent representatives of Romanian Byzantinology with a tireless activity spreading throughout different fields research, psaltic musical creation, teaching, performing. Our study focuses briefly on several of the researcher s achievements, some of his main concerns having been the Romanianisation process of the church chant in the 18 th century and the manuscripts elaborated by Romanians. We highlighted the merits of the Byzantinist musicologist who contributed to the discovery of most of the Romanian manuscript no. 61 in the Romanian Academy Library, who tracked down and catalogued over 250 Romanian manuscripts to be found in the libraries from Mount Athos, who demonstrated through documenta and transcripta editions the significance of the activity of various Romanian psalm readers whose contribution to the translation of chants in Romanian had been, up to that moment, almost unknown. Archdeacon Sebastian Babu-Bucur s tireless work as a researcher of Byzantine music contributes to a better knowledge and understanding of the evolution of this type of music in the 18 th and the 19 th century and leads the way towards new investigations in the years to come. Keywords: Filothei, Ghelasie, Mihalache, Mount Athos, the Romanianisation process. 1. Introduction Archdeacon Professor Sebastian Barbu-Bucur PhD is one of the most renowned representatives of the Romanian byzantine musicology of the second half of the 20 th century and of the early 21 st century. His activity stands out due to its abundance and diversity. He is an esteemed researcher of the musical manuscripts related to the process of Romanianisation of the Orthodox Church music, as well as a distinguished teacher, a performer and a promoter of this music by means of the Psalmodia psaltic choir whose fonder and conductor he was (Chircev, 2013). The studies and volumes that he printed in the last 35 years represent a precious and useful bibliography for those who approach topics related to the music of Byzantine tradition dating from the 18 th and the 19 th century, to the Romanian musical manuscripts to be found at the Holy Mount Athos or for 97

98 Artes. Journal of Musicology those who are interested in the activity of certain eminent representatives of the psaltic music from across the Romanian Principalities. 2. Biographical Premises of his Activity as Researcher and Performer of Music of Byzantine Tradition Father Sebastian Barbu-Bucur s approach to such a peculiar field as the one of the Byzantine musical paleography resides in his profound passion for music, noticeable even in childhood. Born in the county of Prahova, more specifically in Talea 1, on the 6 th of February 1930, in a peasant family strongly anchored in the Christian values 2, the future researcher (by the secular name of Stelian) was enchanted by the universe of sounds due to the psaltic music that he learned ever since he was a child from the priest from his hometown. That is why the first two decades of young Stelian s life were characterised by the activity in three monasteries, two of which played a special role within the framework of the music of Byzantine tradition. Gifted with visible musical skills 3, he was advised to study music so, at the age of 11, he was already a pupil with the School of Chanters of the Căldăruşani Monastery ( ) 4, a well-known monastic settlement of the time due to the high standards of the pupils musical training. The period spent at the Theological Seminary from the Neamț Monastery 5 ( ), was also beneficial to the completion of his theoretical and performance-related knowledge of psaltic music 6. In the meantime, he had joined the clergy at the Cheia Monastery from the County of Prahova and he had been given his monastic name, Sebastian (1950). His student years ( ) contributed to the fulfilment of his training as a theologist and as a future researcher of Byzantine music. The topic of his bachelor s thesis when he graduates from the Theological Institute with academic accreditation from Bucharest (1957) already points to the coordinates 1 The township of Talea is located in the north-eastern part of the Prahova County. 2 Three of his sisters joined the clergy ever since they were young and his mother soon after she had become a widower (Chircev, 2005a). 3 Father Sebastian would often evoke the moment when his teacher from primary school noticed his musical talent; at the time, the teacher was rehearsing a Christmas carol with the pupils when she noticed the spontaneous intonation of the second voice at a third. The teacher suggested to his family that he would be sent to a specialised school (Chircev, 200a). 4 Căldărușani Monastery is one of the biggest and oldest orthodox monasteries of Wallachia. It is located on the Căldărușani lake waterfront, near Bucharest. It was founded in 1638 by Matei Basarab ( ). 5 Neamț Monastery is an orthodox monk monastery located in the County of Neamț, the first documented mention dating from The clerical settlement has the biggest and oldest monastery library (18000 volumes) and it had a remarkable contribution to the development of Romanian art and culture. The premises also host the building pertaining to the Veniamin Costache Theological Seminary. 6 Among his teachers from the seminary two important psalms readers are to be mentioned: Atanasie Dincă and Victor Ojog. 98

99 Studies of his future interests: The School for the Vocal Church Music of Buzău, Centre of Cultivation and Development of Psaltic Music for the Romanian People, the graduate himself confessing in the work: ever since childhood I have noticed that my soul and my ear would vibrate for music, and especially for psaltic music, and this gave me the conviction that this love for artistic beauty could constitute the essence of my worldly existence and the path of my struggles towards redemption (Chircev, 2005a). Later on this inner impulse determined the young deacon, following the change of the political regime in Romania, to enroll in the Ciprian Porumbescu Music Conservatory of Bucharest (being expelled from the Neamț Monastery because of the 410/1959 decree, issued by the communist regime established in 1948). Even though trained in the schools of Wallachia and Moldavia, the archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur PhD was affectionate to Cluj, the city where his efforts in respect to research peaked with the bestowal upon him of the title of Doctor of Musicology and Byzantinology (1982), granted by the same higher education institution which, over the years, would recognise once more the merits of one of the most illustrious representatives of Romanian Byzantinology by granting him the academic title of Doctor Honoris Causa (2005) the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca. Professor with the National University of Music Bucharest ( ), Father Sebastian conducted for several decades an assiduous research of the musical manuscripts which he highlighted by publishing the hymns in photocopies and transcriptions, by studies and presentations within various scientific events. He instilled passion in regard to the research of these documents; he instilled it into his students and into the PhD students he guided and who continue researching and promoting the Byzantine music. 3. Research related to the Romanian manuscript no. 61 documentary attestation of the church chant in the Romanian language In June 2017 there was the celebration of 120 years from the first mention of the musical manuscript no. 61 to be found at the Romanian Academy Library of Bucharest 7. Known by the name of The Romanian Psalm Book, which was written on the title page by the author Filothei sin Aga Jipa who signed his name on the last page mentioning the date of the completion of his exhaustive book (the 24 th of December 1713) the manuscript was referred to in various articles and studies in the following decades by priests, historians and musicians 8. However, it remained in everybody s memory only 7 The mention belongs to Constantin Erbiceanu, see S. Barbu-Bucur (1989), Fl. Bucescu (1997, p. 149) and C. Catrina (2010, p. 67). 8 The complete list of these mentions is to be consulted in Gheorghe C. Ionescu s work, Muzica bizantină în România. Dicționar cronologic [The Byzantine music in Romania. Chronological dictionary], București: Sagittarius, 2003, pp

100 Artes. Journal of Musicology due to Father Sebastian s hard work unfolding over a period of 25 years. The merit rests with Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur PhD for having pointed out through longstanding and thorough research the importance of this manuscript the oldest musical document of Byzantine tradition, with the text written in Romanian language by a Romanian for the Romanian people. The Professor researched innumerable documents in public archives and libraries and he managed to clarify all the uncertainties regarding Filothei s ethnic origin, proving wrong the opinions expressed until his study. He established the Romanian origin and the genealogy of Filothei s family (the Jipa family) who was part of the Romanian nobility and was kindred with the families of the ruling figures Constantin Brâncoveanu and Șerban Cantacuzino. By corroborating information from various sources, he managed to outline a complete biography of the musician monk, he pointed out the complex training and the activity of translator of different papers printed at the beginning of the 18 th century 9 which contributed to the consolidation and unification of the Romanian literary language (Barbu-Bucur, 1981, p. 42); he also emphasised Filothei s skills as composer of Catavasiilor Floriilor [The Flowers Irmos of the 9 Canons] and of Rugăciunii lui Filothei pentru Constantin Brâncoveanu [Filothei s Prayer for Constantin Brâncoveanu]. The contrastive analysis of the musical content allowed him to identify the Greek sources of the chants from the manuscript as well as the manner in which the adaptation of the music to the Romanian language occurred. The illustrious researcher identified and studied the copies of the manuscript edited throughout the 18 th century, their existence being a proof of the dissemination and perpetuation of the chant in the Romanian language. Concurrently, relying on the documents he studied, he was able to determine the existence of Filothei s various apprentices who contributed to the transmission of this repertoire by means of didactic and chanter activity. The manuscript was printed in four volumes which sum up to over 1800 pages and which include photocopies of the sheets of paper as well as the transcription of the chants onto a staff preceded by substantial introductory studies. The valuable contribution brought to the Romanian musical world by the information discovered during research and the rectification of various errors related to the process of Romanianisation of church music, the significance of the volumes which offer study material to musicians - all this input was appreciated and it resulted in the author being granted, one by one (as the 9 Filothei translated three books which benefitted from a wide disseminaiton across the territory of Wallachia: Învățături creștinești (Snagov, 1700), Floarea darurilor (Snagov, 1700), Catavasier (Târgoviște, 1714). Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur revealed the paternity of these works and highlighted their esteemed features (Barbu-Bucur, 1981, pp ). 100

101 101 Studies books were being edited) the awards of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists (in the years: 1981, 1986, 1987, 1992). For his first volume he was also offered the Ciprian Porumbescu award of the Romanian Academy (1983) (Catrina, 2005, p. 68). 4. From Filothei s Romanian Psalm Book to the Romanianisation of church chants The thorough study of the manuscript dating from 1713 and of some of its adjacent features led the way towards a new research perspective. Another topic to which the Professor brought notable contributions was thus delineated, a topic of conspicuous importance for the knowledge and clarification of various aspects related to the perpetuation of the byzantine tradition in our country: the Romanianisation process of church chants. The investigation, undergoing mostly simultaneously with the one conducted on Filothei s manuscript, was synthesized in the PhD thesis 10 published in 1989 by the title: Musical Culture of Byzantine Tradition across the Romanian Territory in the 18 th century and the Beginning of the 19 th century and the Original Contribution of the Local Culture (Barbu-Bucur, 1989). The work represents an original input in respect to the knowledge of the Romanian musical past, of psaltic education and of the Romanians who perpetuated the byzantine tradition. Documents of the age to be found in libraries, archives and museums, musical manuscripts and writings dating back to the Medieval Era brought to light or clarified the contribution of dedicated monks to a better knowledge and performance of church music in the Romanian language, bringing completion to and coherently outlining the Romanianisation process of church music unfolding over many centuries. Even though the author s attention is directed towards the Romanianisation of the 18 th century church music which represents a substantial part of the volume, the book may be considered a first, concise attempt at presenting the history of Byzantine music across the Romanian territory; the first two chapters synthesize the information related to the Byzantine music across this territory up to the 18 th century, to psaltic education and the medieval musical grammars used in the schools for chanters; the final chapter illustrates the Romanian contributions to Mount Athos. The multitude of the documentary sources is impressive and so are the abundance and significance of the information provided, as well as the manner in which data is corroborated. The 1989 award from the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists represents an acknowledgment of the value and significance of this book which the composer Sigismund Toduță praised in the preface as an original and remarkable contribution to the knowledge of medieval 10 The PhD thesis was presented at the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy of Cluj-Napoca in 1982, having Sigismund Toduță and Romeo Ghircoiașiu as coordinators.

102 Artes. Journal of Musicology Romanian music due to the chapters which unveil and synthesize historical and musical references, due to the inestimable value of the results obtained in the field of Byzantine palaeography (Barbu-Bucur, 1989, p. 8). 5. A dream come true: the catalogue of the Romanian musical manuscripts from Mount Athos Father Sebastian confessed in an interview for Radio Renaşterea 11 : I dearly wanted to go to Mount Athos in order to study the Byzantine musical manuscripts. It would often happen to me to dream that I had been there and I had found them 12 (Chircev, 2005a). For some decades, the investigation of the documentary resources from the libraries at Mount Athos and the finding of the manuscripts elaborated by Romanians were not possible due to the strict surveillance regime the monks were under during the communist period. After a first trip (taken place with the support of the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists) destined for research, study and gathering information, in 1982 he was given the opportunity to access a study scholarship in Greece between when he attended the 4 th and the 5 th year of his bachelor s study programme at the State Conservatory of Thessaloniki 13. He was the first Romanian musicologist to walk the paths of the so-called Garden of the Mother of God after more than a century since Teodor T. Burada 14 s voyage to the Holy Mount Athos, as musicologist Viorel Cosma would note (Cosma, 1990). Over the years, the project of tracking down the ancient Romanian codes to be found at Mount Athos came into being in the form of the volume entitled Romanian Musical Manuscripts from Mount Athos (Barbu-Bucur, 2000). The volume accounts for the diligent work unfolding over almost two decades in which he thoroughly described 253 musical manuscripts with Koukouzelian and Chrysantean notation, manuscripts which had been elaborated by Romanian monks and had been discovered in the libraries of seven monasteries, hermitages and cells from Mount Athos. The catalogue drawn up by Father Sebastian is the first book of the kind to be printed in Romania and is to be praised for the way it points to the existence of various unpublished musical documents which could thus be brought to the attention of the 11 Radio Renașterea is the radio station of the metropolitan church of the counties of Cluj, Sălaj and Maramureșului. In my capacity of producer of the Byzantion show, I organised an interview on the occasion of the Archdeacon s celebration of 75 years of age. 12 Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur refers to the manuscripts elaborated by Romanians. 13 On his graduation, he received the exceptional rating and he was distinguished with the Acra Evareskeia diploma [High Appraisal]. 14 Teodor T. Burada ( ), Romanian musicologist, folklorist, ethnographer and historian, associate member of the Romanian Academy. He contributed to the discovery of the Cucuteni culture (between 5000 B.C. and 2750 A.D.). He wrote the O călătorie la Muntele Athos [Journey to Mount Athos] brochure following his pilgrimage from

103 Studies Byzantine musicologists. Different Romanians who drew up manuscripts, composers, translators or copyists had their names discovered on the pages which had turned yellow with the passing of time; their names are proof of the involvement of our ancestors in preserving the Byzantine tradition and of their solid musical training. The catalogue complies with the codicological standards, being a useful tool for the researchers interested in the music preserved in the manuscripts of Byzantine tradition. Concurrently, the book is a plentiful source of interesting information in respect to the history of church music for psalm readers, copyists, psaltic music composers, as well as for the history of monachism providing data related to the life of the Romanian monks and to their connections with Mount Athos. The award given in 2000 by the Union of Romanian Composers and Musicologists highlighted, once more, the significance of the book. 6. Restitutions from the Romanian psaltic creation of the 19 th century: Ghelasie Basarabeanu Two centuries back, Ghelasie (?-1855) also called by the people the one from Bessarabia or the Archimandrite 15 was settling in Curtea de Argeș as main chanter with the Episcopal Church. His name was associated for a long time only with the Doxology in the 5 th mode which is still sung sometimes in the end of the morning service because none of his creations were printed during his life. Research conducted by priest Ion Isăroiu during his PhD study programme under the supervision of the Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur revealed the significance of this main chanter, composer and cantor of church music in respect to the promotion of chants in the Romanian language. He also transcribed in the new notation system a wide psaltic repertoire; he had a significant teaching activity as well with the Neagoe Basarab theological seminary of Curtea de Argeș where he taught in the period Most of the chants transcribed into musical notes were meant for his pupils, as the mention accompanying the title reveals: to be of use to the Seminary of Argeș (Ionescu, 2003, p. 112). Together with his mentor, Father Ion Isăroiu tracked down over 60 manuscripts which mention the chants that Ghelasie s pupils would learn from their teacher. Out of these manuscripts, Professor Sebastian Barbu-Bucur PhD and Ion Isăroiu PhD collected and edited for print four chant volumes transliterated, verified, improved and transcribed in staff line notation thus 15 The one from Bessarabia cognomen points to his Moldavian origins, the principality being located on the eastern side of the river Prut. The name of Bessarabia was given by the Russian Empire to the territory bordered by the rivers Prut and Dniester, a territory which was ceded to Russia by the Treaty of Bucharest from 1812, at the end of the Russo-Turkish war ( ). 103

104 Artes. Journal of Musicology trying to make the most of the chant repertoire transposed in Romanian by the great psalm reader. The volumes were published between by the Editura Muzicală [Musical Publishing House] from Bucharest being part of the prestigious collection Sources of Romanian Music, accounting for over 2000 pages (Barbu-Bucur, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007). The transcription on staff as well as the chant analysis highlighted Ghelasie s talent and skill to achieve a fluent and expressive melodic line perfectly congruent with the religious text. Due to the above mentioned qualities, the authors of the anthologies called Ghelasie a classic of the Romanian music of Byzantine tradition situating him in terms of significance of his work side by side with his contemporaries, Macarie the Hieromonk and Anton Pann. The complete publishing of Ghelasie s work opens new perspectives for the investigation of his musical input and of the adaptations to the Romanian language of a repertoire originating in Greek sources. The merit rests with the two editors for having gathered and structured the musical material spread throughout tens of manuscripts. Rendered in both notations (neumatic and on staff), the chants give musicologists the opportunity for thorough analysis as well as for assessing the place of the modest psalm reader among the personalities who had a critical contribution to the generalization of church chant in the Romanian language in the first half of the 19 th century. 7. New data regarding the Romanianisation process of church chant in the 18th century: Mihalache Moldovlahul s [the Moldavian-Wallachian] Anastasimatarion For the tireless researcher Sebastian Barbu-Bucur the process of Romanianisation of choir chant represented an ongoing concern until his last years of activity. In his monumental accomplishment represented by the analysis of Filothei Jipa s Romanian Psalm Book, the illustrious hermit set the main historical coordinates of this process considering that it unfolded in four stages (Barbu-Bucur, 1989, p. 95) 16. Over the years he tried to find all the musical documents attesting the continuity of this process and insisted especially on the second stage (starting with the late decades of the 17 th century up to the 1814 Reform). The sequence of the documents lacked a link: the first manuscript in which music is written down directly on the Romanian text. The 16 The stages are as follows: 1) starting with the emergence of the creations on Romanian texts until the end of the 18th century (the transmission of the chant would have taken place by word of mouth, as it was not written with neumes ; 2) from the last decades of the 17 th century until 1814; 3) the first half of the 19 th century, Macarie s and Anton Pann s translations; 4) the second half of the 19th century and the first part of the next, from Dimitrie Suceveanu, Neagu Ionescu, Ștefanache Popescu, etc., up to Popescu-Pasărea, the last one who had a say in regards to the Romanianisation process of church chant (Barbu-Bucur, 1989, p. 95). 104

105 Studies writings of the 19 th century (Hieromonk Macarie and Anton Pann) pointed to the name Mihalache Moldoveanul [the Moldavian] or Moldovlahul [the Moldavian Wallachian], author of an Anastasimatar around the year 1767 (according to Anton Pann), mentioned by Father Sebastian for the first time in a study dating back to 1976 (Barbu-Bucur, 1976). In 1982 in the Great Lavra Library (Athos), the priest was given the opportunity to discover the manuscript of the Anastasimatar with the call number Z 26 which he considered to be the original one elaborated by Mihalache. The study of Mihalache s contribution to the process of Romanianisation of church chant went on and further information was added to it due to the increased interest towards the psalm reader s creation. Two of his manuscripts were discovered in the following years by priest Alexie Al. Buzera PhD (1999) and priest Florin Bucescu PhD (2000) 17. In the year 2008 the series of restitutions from the creation of the Romanian psalm readers was made whole by Father Sebastian with a first volume of Mihalache Moldovlahul s Anastasimatarion (Barbu-Bucur, 2008), published in the Sources of Romanian Music collection of the Musical Publishing House. Two more will follow: in 2011, the second part of the Anastasimatarion comprising the chants in the plagal modes (S. Barbu-Bucur, 2011) and two years later a volume with 30 more chants signed by Mihalache (Barbu-Bucur, 2013 a). Due to Father s Sebastian tireless and perseverant work new data was added to the scarce existent information related to this psalm reader, mentioned by different names Mihalache Moldoveanu [the Moldavian], Mihail Iftimivici, Mihalache Ieşeanul [from Iaşi] and numerous manuscripts were discovered comprising the psalm reader s chants a well as and notes in his regard. The introductory studies of the three volumes dedicated to Mihalache include, along with the codicological description of the manuscripts, the incipits of various chants, examples with contrastive versions of different formulas from various manuscripts, considerations regarding the Greek source of the chants and other adjacent information drawn from archive documents and personal opinions argued and sustained in a convincing manner. Therefore as monk Filotheu Bălan observed, for the time being the merit rests with archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur for having written the first thorough study about Mihalache in the prefaces of the two volumes of Mihalache s Book of Hymns at the Lord's Resurrection (Bălan, 2013). The volumes dedicated to Mihalache have led the way towards new perspectives for research, similarly to other Father Sebastian s writings, and the debates regarding the role the psalm reader played in the perpetuation of the 17 Priest Alexie Buzera discovered the manuscript no. 4556, Anastasimatar, at the National Library of Romania of Bucharest (Buzera, 1999, p. 178), while priest Florin Bucescu the manuscript entitled Octoih, at the Dumbravele Monastery from the county of Neamț (Bucescu, 2002, pp ). 105

106 Artes. Journal of Musicology Romanianisation process of church chants still continues. Even back in 2013, monk Filotheu Bălan would note several observations and questions regarding this psalm reader; he also questioned based on viable arguments the year of the elaboration of the manuscript from the Great Lavra, which he considered a copy. He concluded that Mihalache Moldoveanu [the Moldavian] is one of the least known composers and Romanian translators of the end of the 18 th century (Bălan, 2013). Hence, the chapter dedicated to psaltic music accompanied by text in Romanian dating from the end of the 18 th century remains open to investigation. 8. Conclusions For those who knew him closely, Father Sebastian was always a genuine role model of the researcher passionate, inquisitive, perseverant and interested in deciphering the ancient notation, in understanding the sequence of events, in finding out the source, the author or the smallest details related to the content and notation of a musical manuscript. For those who are acquainted only with his over 80 studies, 15 books he published or with his abundant creation of services for Romanian saints and other church chants, he will still represent for a long time the most significant documentary source in respect to what he himself called the process of Romanianisation of church chant. His constant concern to delineate the Romanian contribution to the preservation and transmission of the Byzantine creation is significantly emphasised by the last book he signed, the anniversary volume celebrating 300 years from the conclusion of Filothei Jipa s manuscript. Entitled Romanian Treasure of Byzantine Tradition. The period unfolding between the 18th and the 21st century, the volume reunites the author s main research topics and reiterates several of his previous studies and articles (Barbu-Bucur, 2013b). This study aimed only at some of the volumes published by the Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur but, looking at things in perspective, his entire activity focuses around the same red thread represented by the Romanianisation of church chant, even though he wove together various interests and different research topics during his life. Focusing especially on the 18 th century, his research resulted in several notable contributions for the knowledge of the byzantine musical tradition across the Romanian territory, of which we mention: his emphasis on the value of one of the oldest church music manuscripts accompanied by text in Romanian as well as stressing the value of its author, Filothei Jipa; the setting of the main coordinates for the Romanianisation process of the church choir chant; the restitution by means of publication in documenta and transcripta versions of Mihalache Moldoveanu s and Bessarabian Ghelasie s musical creation, almost unknown until his research; the focus on the presence of Romanian psalm readers at Mount Athos as well as the elaboration of the first catalogue of the manuscripts to be found 106

107 Studies in seven different monasteries from Mount Athos. The results of his research were also mirrored by his abundant creation of psalmic music with Romanian features as well as in numerous concerts and recordings with Romanian psalmic music brought to life by the Psalmodia psaltic choir of Byzantine Music which he founded in 1988 and conducted for over two decades. Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur s tireless work as a researcher of Byzantine music contributes to a better knowledge and understanding of the evolution of this music in the 18 th and the 19 th century and leads the way towards the premises for new investigations in the years to come. References Barbu-Bucur, S. (1976). Manuscrise psaltice românești și bilingve în notație cucuzeliană [Romanian and bilignual psaltic manuscripts in Cucuzel s notation]. Studii de muzicologie, XII, București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (1981). Filothei sin Agăi Jipei, Psaltichie rumănească [The Romanian Psalm Book], I. Catavasier. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. VII A. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (1984). Filothei sin Agăi Jipei. Psaltichie rumănească [The Romanian Psalm Book], II. Anastasimatar. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. VII B. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (1987). Filothei sin Agăi Jipei. Psaltichie rumănească [The Romanian Psalm Book], III. Stihirariul. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. VII C. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (1989). Cultura muzicală de tradiție bizantină pe teritoriul României în secolul XVIII și începutul secolului XIX și aportul original al culturii autohtone, [The musical culture of Byzantine tradition on Romanian territory in the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century and the original contribution of the autochthonous culture]. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (1992). Filothei sin Agăi Jipei. Psaltichie rumănească [The Romanian Psalm Book], IV. Stihirariu-Penticostar. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. VII D. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (2000). Manuscrisele muzicale românești de la Muntele Athos [Romanian musical manuscripts of Mount Athos]. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. & Isăroiu, I. (2004). Ghelasie Basarabeanu, Vecernier și Utrenier [Ghelasie Basarabeanu at Vespers and Matins]. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XI A. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. & Isăroiu, I. (2005). Ghelasie Basarabeanu, Liturghier [Ghelasie Basarabeanu, Liturgy Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XI B. București: Editura Muzicală. 107

108 Artes. Journal of Musicology Barbu-Bucur, S. & Isăroiu, I. (2006). Ghelasie Basarabeanu, Doxastar. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XI C, București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. & Isăroiu, I. (2007). Ghelasie Basarabeanu, Doxastar, Triod, Penticostar. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XI C. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (2008). Mihalache Moldovlahul I, Anastasimatar. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XII A. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (2011). Mihalache Moldovlahul II, Anastasimatar. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XII B. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (2013 a). Mihalache Moldovlahul III, Muzică bizantină în veșmânt românesc. Sec. XVIII [The Byzantine music in Romania]. Izvoare ale muzicii românești [Sources of Romanian Music] - Documenta et transcripta, vol. XII C. București: Editura Muzicală. Barbu-Bucur, S. (2013 b). Tezaur de muzică bizantină pe teritoriul României sec. XVIII-XX ( ) [Treasury of Byzantine music in Romania]. București: Editura SemnE. Bălan, F. (2013). Creația muzicală a lui Mihalache Moldoveanul [The musical creation of Mihalache Moldoveanul] creatia-muzicala-a-lui-mihalache-moldoveanu.html, accessed on Bucescu, Fl. (1997). Sebastian Barbu-Bucur și restituirea Psaltichiei rumănești [Sebastian Barbu-Bucur and the restitution of the Romanian Psalm Book]. Muzica, 2, București: Editura Muzicală. Bucescu, Fl. (2002). Cântarea psaltică în manuscrisele moldovenești din secolul al XIX-lea. Ghidul manuscriselor - Moldova sec. XIX [The psaltic chant in Moldavian manuscripts from the 19th century. The guide of the manuscripts Moldova, 19th century], 1-2. Iași: Artes. Buzera, A. Al. (1999). Cultura muzicală de tradiție bizantină din sec. al XIX-lea [Musical culture of Byzantine tradition from the 19th century]. Craiova: Editura Scrisul românesc. Catrina, C. (2005, Ed.). Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, 75 de ani [Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, 75 years old]. București: Editura SemnE. Catrina, C. (2010, Ed.). Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, octogenar [Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, octogenary]. București: Editura SemnE. Chircev, E. (2005a). Arhid. Dr. Sebastian Barbu-Bucur - Destăinuiri la 75 de ani [Archimandrite PhD Sebastian Barbu-Bucur Confessions at 75 years old]. Renașterea, 2 (180). Cluj-Napoca: Editura Renașterea. 108

109 Studies Chircev, E. (2005b). Restituiri la Editura Muzicală: Ghelasie Basarabeanu - Vecernier şi Utrenier [Restitutions at the Musical Publishing House: Ghelasie Basarabeanu at Vespers and Matins]. Renașterea, 5 (183). Cluj-Napoca: Editura Renașterea. Chircev, E. (2005c). Moment de omagiere a bizantinologiei româneşti la Cluj-Napoca [Homagial moment of the Romanian Byzantinology at Cluj-Napoca]. Renașterea, 5 (184). Cluj-Napoca: Editura Renașterea. Chircev, E. (2006). Eveniment editorial: Liturghierul lui Ghelasie Basarabeanu [Literary event: Ghelasie Basarabeanu s Book of Liturgy]. Renașterea, 3 (191). Cluj- Napoca: Editura Renașterea. Chircev, E. (2013). Laudatio pentru arhid. prof. univ. dr. Sebastian Barbu-Bucur [Laudatio for Archidiacon PhD Professor Sebastian Barbu-Bucur]. Mărturii și dialoguri despre muzica bizantină [Confessions and Dialogues about the Byzantine music] (pp ). Cluj-Napoca: Editura Risoprint. Cosma, V. (1990). Emoționantă întâlnire cu muzica de tradiție bizantină [An emotional encounter with the Byzantine music]. Libertatea, 97 (17th of April). București. Ionescu, Gh. C. (2003), Muzica bizantină în România. Dicționar cronologic [The Byzantine music in Romania. Chronological dictionary]. București: Sagittarius. 109

110 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology Constantin Catrina a life in the service of the Romanian music IRINA ZAMFIRA DĂNILĂ George Enescu National University of Arts Iasi ROMÂNIA Abstract: A complex personality, with multifarious concerns in research as well as in composition, Constantin Catrina ( ) was active as a folklorist, historian, musicologist, Byzantinologist, composer; he dedicated his entire life to the research of the Romanian music, viewed in all its manifold manifestations: folklore music, Orthodox church music of the Byzantine tradition as well as lay music. His investigations were directed mainly towards the area of Brasov and its surroundings. He diligently studied documents about the musical life of the city in archives and libraries, discovered interesting information about the cultural personalities of this old Transylvanian city, with rich cultural traditions and diverse influences. He also managed to reveal their connections with other cultural centres in Romania. He was a pioneer in the field of Byzantinology, filling a space left empty in the history of Byzantine music by emphasizing the activity of an important centre of church music teaching and education in central Transylvania the School of Saint Nicholas Church in Scheii Brasovului between the 15th and 20th centuries. In terms of folklore research, he investigated the areas related to Brasov and collected a rich ethnographic, literary and musical material which he published in reputable collections. In all three lines of activity, he wrote and published an impressive number of articles in the local and specialised national press, thus proving to have a genuine passion for research and for the dissemination of its results to the specialists and the general public. Keywords: Constantin Catrina, Brasov, historian, musicologist, folklorist, byzantinologist. 1. Introduction I had the opportunity of meeting researcher Constantin Catrina on the occasion of a research project in which I participated in I was a young assistant and PhD student then, at the beginning of my career, especially with regard to scientific research. At the beginning of the documentation stage in the project I had the opportunity of getting in contact with a substantial collection of musical manuscripts with psalm chanting notation, i.e. the manuscript at the Varatec Monastery, Neamt County. Also, I was first introduced to the process of cataloguing such documents, under the guidance of two distinguished specialists: Priest Florin Bucescu, a reputed folklorist and Byzantinologist of Iasi, and the musicologist and folklorist Constantin Catrina, of Brasov. 110

111 Studies Patiently and competently, always good natured, they introduced me to the fascinating study of the manuscripts of church music, which has, ever since, remained a standing interest Constantin Catrina Biographical Data A native of the Oltenia region, Constantin Catrina (Fig. 1) he was born in 1933 in the village of Țiu, Olt county, in the family of Gheorghe and Nicolița Catrina, hard-working broadminded peasants, who encouraged and supported him to study. Constantin proved to be intelligent and to have a great musical sensitivity; he attended Fig. 1 Constantin Catrina ( ) in his study primary school in his native village, and then he attended the theological Seminary of Craiova and Mofleni, Dolj county. The change of the political regime occurring after World War II prevented the young seminary graduate from continuing his theological career and made him redirect his interest towards music. Certainly, the theological and musical education he had acquired at the seminary had a favourable influence on him, but according to his own confessions, his talents were still in a dormant state, in expectation of more favourable times. He then attended the secondary School of music in Craiova, which then graduated in Brașov in 1954, where destiny seemed to guide him. After completing his military service in the military brassbands at Dorohoi and Orastie (Deaconu, 2008, p. 13), which helped him broaden his musical experience, he started his professional activity in traditional music, of which he was fond and which he knew from childhood among the peasants, in the countryside. He was, successively, a councillor, the conductor of the 1 Such a subjective introduction reminiscent of memoirs, may seem unusual, especially at the beginning of a scientific article. However, I consider it to be my duty to acknowledge my connection with Mr. Constantin Catrina, characterised by respect and affection, since his moral and professional stature as a genuine musicologist has contributed to my own development and has been a model to follow. I should also add here that the history of his last book, dedicated to the celebration of his 80th anniversary, has made a deep impression on me. Mr. Catrina patiently began to write it as early as 2011 with his well-known concern for detail and skills; sadly, however, he didn't live to enjoy this beautiful culmination of all his activities in the musical domain, as he was moved from the world of yearnings to that where there are no yearnings just a few months before his birthday, to take place in November This is one of the personal, subjective reasons that made me choose to write a portrait of this distinguished musician Constantin Catrina. 111

112 Artes. Journal of Musicology Culture House choir and of the brassband in Rupea (Brasov county), the secretary and inspector to the Department of Education and Culture of the District of Rupea. During he continued his musical studies at university level, at the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory of Bucharest, but in fact graduated at the Gheorghe Dima Conservatory in Cluj Napoca, after a six years' break due to his professional activity in Brasov, as inspector methodologist and teacher (Deaconu, 2008, p. 14). Due to his inquisitive spirit and tireless passion for everything that means tradition, he had many initiatives in researching folklore, setting up a folklore research and folklore collection sub-branch at Rupea, and a research laboratory in Brasov to study the issues of mass culture; he made himself remarked for publishing on folklore, but also as a composer. In recognition of his invaluable activities as a musicologist and composer, in 1977, Constantin Catrina was made a member of the Union of Composers and Musicologists of Romania (Deaconu, 2008, p. 15). In the years to follow, Constantine Catrina strengthened his position as art manager and promoter of the cultural life of the city of Brasov, and continued his tireless and passionate activity as a researcher and collector of folk music. After the events in December 1989, along with the changes brought about by the fall of the totalitarian regime, important changes in all areas occur in Brasov, including changes in higher education. The University of Brașov, established in 1971 as a merger of the Polytechnic Institute with the Pedagogical Institute, will be renamed as the Transylvania University in 1991 and will significantly increase the number of domains by adding other domains, including that of musical studies, which existed as early as 1971, but only as a department of music. Between , Constantin Catrina will teach the course of Musical Folklore at the Faculty of Music established in 1991, as an associated Assistant Professor, PhD. He defended his doctoral thesis in 2000 on an interesting topic in Byzantinology, The Music of Byzantine tradition in Scheii Brasovului the school and the teachers; his PhD coordinator was the reputed researcher and paleographer, professor archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur (Deaconu, 2008, p. 17). In the years that followed his retirement from teaching he continued his activity as a celebration of his entire life, dedicated to historiography, research, folklore and musical Byzantinology, as well as cultural media in Brasov, as we will detail in what follows. 3. Musical historiography and musicology Constantin Catrina s fields of outstanding achievement. As early as his first years of professional activity, Constantin Catrina began to teach himself the methods of scientific research in the field of folklore and historiography. He had a special talent in discovering archive documents, he improved constantly over time and became a reputed historiographer, well 112

113 113 Studies known especially in the Brasov area, but also at national level. His eagerness to study old documents was stimulated by the cooperation with Gheorghe N., teacher and priest Dumitrescu-Bistrița ( ), acclaimed folklorist, founder of the journal of folklore Izvorașul. This journal appeared in the period ; it addressed a wide range of information in the field of folklore musical, literary, ethnological; the focus was especially on musical folklore, and on the ornaments in folk music (Bârlea, 1974, p. 401). The journal was particularly appreciated by specialists and it represented a model designed with the very aim of publicising at a national level the transcripts of traditional music, of processing choir folklore, so much appreciated by the amateur choirs from both the rural and urban areas, as well as some valuable papers covering general folklore issues. Information was provided by the author but also by the many collaborators of the magazine, who were the most agile and inquisitive minds of the time: priests and teachers, pupils and students, farmers and housewives, clerks, with the aim of putting forward the everlasting «reservoir» of the material and spiritual culture all across unified Romania. (Catrina, 2009, p. 174) Grateful to folklorist priest Gheorghe N. Dumitrescu-Bistrița, Constantin Catrina will dedicate a book to his mentor during the years of youth and professional maturity, entitled Priest Gh. N. Dumitrescu-Bistrița and the magazine Izvorașul (2009). The work is based on the novel correspondence, received from Gheorghe N. Dumitrescu in the 40 years in which they collaborated, as well as on studies, articles and communications that Constantin Catrina developed about the work of the distinguished folklorist of Mehedinti, especially after The large number of letters is impressive for their great documentary value on account of the information related to the activity in the field of folklore research, and especially on account of the way in which they outline the professional and human profiles of the two folklorists: a deep mutual respect, elevated ideas, a passion for the values of the Romanian folklore, the love of the people and of their motherland. Priest Gh. N. Dumitrescu s role as a mentor is emphasized by the correspondence published; he identified and appreciated his disciple's genuine talent in discovering and exploiting documents in archives and in collecting folklore in field research activities; he encouraged his disciple and also served as a necessary model to any researcher who is just beginning his career. One of Constantin Catrina's key contributions in musicology is his book Studies and Documents on Romanian music, published in two volumes (1986, 1994 respectively). Relying on painstaking research carried out in library archives, Constantin Catrina tackles the personalities of the Romanian music, especially those that were linked to the musical life of Brașov city. For example, the second volume presents novel aspects of the musical work of composers Gheorghe Dima, Sabin V. Drăgoi, Paul Richter and Tiberiu

114 Artes. Journal of Musicology Brediceanu. He also dedicated three articles to George Enescu, in which details of the great conductor's journeys to Brasov in the interwar period are presented for the first time. An ample chapter is dedicated to documents in various archives, namely to the collection of texts and correspondence belonging to historian Mihail Gr. Poslușnicu, in the Library of the Romanian Academy in Bucharest. The importance of publishing such documents results as shown by Constantin Catrina from the fact that they shed light on aspects related to the history of music education, some initiatives, ideas and points of view on the phenomenology of Romanian artistic life [...] as well as some details related to many of our musicians' creation and performance. (Catrina, 1994, p. 150). In the last chapter of the book, entitled The heritage value of manuscripts, music sheets and music books he resorts once more to old documents from libraries, as well as from the print media of the 19th century. Thus, relying on arguments from archives, the author first shows the importance of the patriotic songs of 1848, which was preserved in an unpublished manuscript discovered in the old town of Rupea, near Brasov (Catrina, 1994, p. 208). Then, in the musical paper cores edited by Astra, he emphasizes the role of the Astra cultural association of Brasov in printing and disseminating valuable Romanian music sheets, a heritage that has contributed to strengthening the national identity in the years before the Great Unification of 1918 (Tiberiu Brediceanu The musical ethnographic poem Transylvania, Banat, Crişana and Maramureş in the clothes, dancing and songs, 1905 and The evening social gathering the image of the people, 1908) (Catrina, 1994, p. 217). Finally, in the last article of the chapter mentioned, Contributions to disseminating books on Romanian old music, Constantin Catrina adds new information on the circulation of the volumes by Macarie the Hieromonk in the area of Brasov and Sibiu, thus emphasizing once again the important role that the publishing of the first theoretical books and repertoire by Macarie the Hieromonk had in implementing the Chrysantean reform in the Romanian Principalities. To conclude, we emphasize once again the value of the studies and papers in the volume under discussion, which follows from the use of extremely reliable resources, found in archives books and old documents, the written press. The book The Music and Musicians of the City, published in two volumes, is of particular interest for the history of Romanian music, in general, and of the music-related personalities in the Brasov area, in particular. The first volume was published in 2010; in the first three sections, new details are added to issues related to the moments when the activity of composers Ciprian Porumbescu, Timotei Popovici and Norbert Nori came into contact with the musical life of Brașov. The author also includes unpublished pages of correspondence by Gheorghe Dima (letters from prison) and Paul Richter, as well as by other Transylvanian musicians, outlining or filling in the larger picture of the musical and artistic life of the city of Brasov. The third section, 114

115 115 Studies Always on a genius of Romanian music: George Enescu, resumes the memorable moments of the great composer's concerts in Brasov; the fourth section, which discusses journalistic and musicological issues, includes a few interviews in which Constantin Catrina talked to reputed female-musicians from Brasov, women with excellent artistic results at national and international level: teacher and conductor Elena Criveanu, the opera manager Carmen Dobrescu, organ player Lidia Sumnevici and young composer Ana Szilágyi. The cleverly devised questions manage to elicit interesting responses and to outline the balanced spiritual and professional portraits of the talented artists. The paper ends with the review of three volumes, the first two of which are dedicated to two personalities of Brasov, namely conductor and organist Viktor Bickerich and conductor Dinu Niculescu, who greatly contributed to heightening the prestige of the symphonic orchestra and generally of the musical activity in Brașov. The third volume reviewed, whose author is Vasile Tomescu, one of the seniors of Romanian musicology, is particularly interesting, as its theme is a creative period less addressed in the specialised literature Renaissance as manifested in the Romanian music. The issue addressed in the volume is masterfully and meticulously presented by the musicologist; his discourse is elevated, yet accessible. 4. The music of Byzantine tradition. Șcheii Brașovului (a locality close to Brasov) or the historiographic method masterfully applied to Byzantine music Constantin Catrina established his reputation in the field of musical Byzantinology towards the end of his career, when he had reached full maturity and acquired ample professional experience. As mentioned in the second section of this paper, the way the musicologist prepared to be admitted to the seminar had an important role in his spiritual development, but also in terms of acquiring in-depth knowledge of the Orthodox cult music of Byzantine tradition. The knowledge and skills acquired in this area remained dormant during the period of the communist regime and were activated and used much later, after 1990, when Constantine Catrina found favourable conditions to do research in this valuable area of Romanian music. One of the noteworthy achievements in this respect was his doctoral thesis, The Music of Byzantine tradition. Scheii Brașovului, defended in 2000 at the National University of Music in Bucharest, coordinated by Byzantinologist Archdeacon Sebastian Barbu-Bucur. The thesis was appreciated by the specialists as early as the time when it was published (Braşov: Arania, 2001). This is, for example, an assessment by his very PhD coordinator, S. B. Bucur: the thesis written by Constantin Catrina is exceptional, as the PhD candidate is himself an exceptional researcher, for over forty years. [...] For a long period, his work focused on researching the

116 Artes. Journal of Musicology manifestation of this music (15th-20th century), the age, name and activity of church singers natives of the place, the evolution and profile of the school, the cultural and religious events sponsored by the two institutions mentioned (St. Nicholas Church and the School from Scheii Brașovului; the author identified new and significant directions for musicological research, which he reported in a large number of pages that also contained illustrations, comparative morphological analyses, etc. To this end, Constantin Catrina read a huge number of bibliographical resources [...], as well as numerous archive documents and musical manuscripts mainly from the library of the Museum of the Sf. Nicholas church in Scheii Brasovului or from various other documents in the archives and special collections in the country (Catrina, 2001, pp. 5-6). Researcher Constantin Catrina s volume The music of Byzantine tradition. Scheii Brașovului mainly focuses on the evolution of the educational institution (in Scheii Brasovului, author's note) and to the degree to which it was involved in cult music (Catrina, 2001, p. 9); it is organized in six parts which follow its development chronologically. The researcher discovers and analyzes old documents, mainly from the archive of the Library of the Museum of St. Nicholas Church from Schei attested as early as 1495, but also from the National Archives in Brasov, and corroborates the results; the researcher thus manages to outline a history of the musical and theological school in Scheii Brasovului, pointing out the significant moments of its development. The first timid manifestations of theological and musical education date from the 15-16th centuries; the early years are linked with the introduction and the development of the printing press, especially in the 17 th - 18 th centuries; cult books purchased by the Church of Schei and the church singers were instrumental in this process, as they improved in the study of the method to perform psaltic music, mainly in the Romanian Principalities. The important role of the Duma family of scholars is emphasized, from among which Ioan sin Radului Duma Braşoveanu (John s son Radu Duma from Brasov) stand out; the latter was a teacher and singer at the church of Şchei and the author of the manuscript Psaltichie rumănească (1751). To compile this important musical document, Ioan Duma draws inspiration from the eponymous manuscript produced in 1713 by the Romanian protopsaltis Filothei sin Agăi Jipei, a teacher of the school within the Metropolitan church in Bucharest; this demonstrates the strong ties between the Orthodox Church in the centre of Transylvania with the church in Țara Românească, and especially the existence of a unified repertoire and set of worship practices. These links will be maintained along the 19th century; regarding church music, this century was influenced by the implementation of the Chrysanthean reform in the Orthodox cult of the Romanian Principalities. Constantin Catrina's contribution can be seen in the description of this period, as he sketched portraits of the 116

117 117 Studies musicians who were involved in the reformation process in the Brasov area. Interesting information is summarized about Anton Pann, who was a teacher and main church singer with the church of Schei for a short while; however, he held an important role in the formation of teachers here. Protosinghelos Varlaam Barancescu's ( ) activity as a cantor, a creator of Byzantine music, a poet and an exceptional orator is presented briefly (Catrina, 2001, p. 70); for a decade the Protosinghelos was a main church singer and taught psaltic music at the School within the Church in Scheii Brasovului. Church singer George Ucenescu ( ), a disciple of Anton Pann and a teacher at the same school, is also given an interesting and detailed portrait. Littleknown or even unpublished aspects of this valued musician's activity are highlighted. With regard to teaching, the manuscript Tractatu teoreticupracticu de musica eclesiastică grecească orientală is briefly presented; it contains a compact grammar and a collection of psalm chants intended for the students and includes all the eight modes of the Byzantine Oktoikh. Regarding the church singer's work, the alphabetical index of the chants composed or adapted by George Ucenescu (54 chants) is offered, along with the index of songs distributed according to their authors. Interesting information about Ucenescu's activity as a folklorist and editor is integrated, thus continuing the chapter on that about Anton Pann, the complex musician who collected lay songs in the compilation Spitalul amorului sau cântătorului ( ). Along the same line, Ucenescu compiled the manuscript Carte de cântări cu note psaltichie, which contains 567 of songs, many of which were taken from his mentor's collection, while other pieces (Christmas carols, songs about the star, songs from children's folklore) were collected from his students and then adjusted after the fashion of the time. In the final sections of his PhD thesis Muzica de tradiție bizantină. Șcheii Brașovului, Constantin Catrina reviews the psalm chanting manuscripts at the Library of the Museum within the Church in Scheii Brașovului, the George Bariţiu County Library, and Romanian and bilingual manuscripts on psalm chanting extant in other localities in Romania, as well as at Mount Athos (Greece). Basic codicological data basic are offered, as well as a summary of some theoretical and morphological aspects extracted from the manuscripts he studied. Information on upgrading the church chant by introducing harmonic choir singing and the connection of theological education in the Brasov area to contemporary trends and ideas conclude Constantin Catrina s exceptional thesis; with the experienced historian's eye, he managed to capture the finest and most relevant details of the evolution of the psalm chanting school from Scheii Brasovului, whose activity was closely linked to that of the other major centres in the Romanian Principalities. Constantin Catrina further important achievement in the field of musical Byzantinology is his volume Ipostaze ale muzicii byzantine/aspects of

118 Artes. Journal of Musicology byzantine music, published in 2004, at the prestigious Publishing house Editura Muzicală in Bucharest. The author's opinion on the volume is as follows: my book brings to the fore important personalities from the world of Byzantine music. I have presented in a few pages the personality and the creation of Ioan sin Radu Duma Braşoveanul, then I discussed Ilie Fotino, also Nicolae Brătescu and his six manuscripts at Şcheii Braşovului, Ilie Stoianovici, George Ucenescu and Oprea Demetrescu Anton Pann's students. [...] in this book I have tried to develop, to connect, Byzantine music in Transylvania and its affinities with various cultural centres in the country, such as Iaşi, Buzău, Târgovişte, Curtea de Argeş, Craiova, Putna, Neamţ, Cluj. By emphasizing these links in the pages of the book, I have finally come to the conclusion that the national unity of the musical culture of Byzantine tradition in the last three or four hundred years is undeniable (Chircev, 2004, p. 8). Therefore, part of the topics of this volume The School from Scheii Brasovului are continued and further explored in Ipostaze ale muzicii bizantine. Using the technique of the interview, the author also creates a very useful approach of the contemporary world, by outlining portraits of famous Byzantinologists who established their reputation as professors and researchers or composers: Titus Moisescu, Sebastian Barbu Bucur, Dragos Alexandrescu, Alexie Buzera, Vasile Vasile, Vasile Grăjdian, Doru Popovici. 5. The activity in the field of folklore collection and research Constantin Catrina's lifetime passion His achievements in the field of collecting folklore were constant and noticeable throughout his entire career: he collected material and published volumes, collaborated and authored volumes, and published an impressive number of papers in ethnology, in literary and musical folklore. Also, his effort in collecting folklore during field trips ended with praise worthy results: he collected and transcribed around 2000 folk songs. His activity as a conductor, composer of adapted choral folklore, and as artistic manager has been particularly appreciated; this shows in the fact that, for almost two decades, he held important positions in institutions involved in the creation and preservation of the folk traditions of Brasov County (Deaconu, 2008, pp , 21-36). I will briefly point out only one of his remarkable achievements in folklore his last one, the volume Tezaur de etnografie și folclor în județele Covasna și Harghita (2013, Sfântu Gheorghe: Eurocarpatica, in collaboration with Nicolae Bucur, PhD). The author did not live to see the day when the volume was released, but it was peer-reviewed posthumously in the final section of the volume In memoriam dedicated to the anniversary of Constantin Catrina (Lăcătuşu, 2013) by one of his friends and collaborators, Byzantinologist and ethnomusicologist Constantin Secară. According to the 118

119 119 Studies latter, the volume brings together the most important studies on the musical and literary folklore, the culture and spirituality, and, perhaps most importantly, the testimony of the existence and vitality of the Romanians in the areas they have inhabited in the course of their history (Secară, 2013, p. 512). Constantin Catrina authored 12 of the studies in this volume; the studies had various topics: historiography George Bariţiu about issues of art creation in 19th century Transylvania, Issues related to ethnography and folk art in the the magazine Transylvania ; Folklorists as and musical folklore in the Covasna county. A Historical Outlook; a bio-bibliographic contribution personalities from Covasna with an important role in enriching the Romanian heritage in South-Eastern Transylvania (Secară, 2013, p. 513); ethno-musicological: Notes on several collections of musical folklore in the Covasna county, and Remarks on the pastoral customs and poetic-musical creations from Southeastern Transylvania (the Land of Bârsa and Covasna). Circulation and strafication. In these studies, the author aimed at investigating the musical phenomenon in the past ages from a diachronic-historic perspective (Lăcătuşu, 2013, p. 512) in the specified area. In the paper mentioned, Constantin Catrina and Nicolae Bucur, PhD., offer, at the same time, an extensive bibliography, particularly useful for future research. The volume Tezaur de etnografie și folclor în județele Covasna și Harghita represents the highest point in Constantin Catrina's meritorious life-long efforts devoted to folklore as a diligent and prolific researcher. 6. Conclusions A complex personality, with multifarious concerns in research as well as in composition, Constantin Catrina ( ) was active as a folklorist, historian, musicologist, Byzantinologist, composer; he dedicated his entire life to the research of the Romanian music, viewed in all its manifold manifestations: folklore music, Orthodox church music of the Byzantine tradition as well as lay music. His investigations were directed mainly towards the area of Brasov and its surroundings. He diligently studied documents about the musical life of the city in archives and libraries, discovered interesting information about the cultural personalities of this old Transylvanian city, with rich cultural traditions and diverse influences. He also managed to reveal their connections with other cultural centres in Romania. He was a pioneer in the field of Byzantinology, filling a space left empty in the history of Byzantine music by emphasizing the activity of an important centre of church music teaching and education in central Transylvania the School of Saint Nicholas Church in Scheii Brasovului between the 15 th and 20 th centuries. In terms of folklore research, he investigated the areas related to Brasov and collected a rich ethnographic, literary and musical material which he published in reputable collections. In all three lines of activity, he wrote and published an

120 Artes. Journal of Musicology impressive number of articles in the local and specialised national press, thus proving to have a genuine passion for research and for the dissemination of its results to the specialists and the general public. Beyond his professional career, with scientific results acknowledged and appreciated by his peers, Constantin Catrina the man remains in the memory of those who knew him as a generous great hearted person, broad minded, modest; such qualities are seldom found even in the most elevated environments. Evidence to that are the portraits included in the volume that was dedicated to him on his 80th anniversary; words of sincere and warm appreciation are used to describe him, a unanimous gratitude of friends, colleagues and close collaborators emerges from their contributions. As Byzantinologist, Elena Chircev mentioned in the portrait that she dedicated to Constantin Catrina on his 75th anniversary, he remains in our memory as an informed interlocutor in Byzantinology and ethnology, an avid researcher and devoted mentor to younger collaborators, a generous friend to all who had the chance to meet him and to appreciate together the beauty of a psalm chanting manuscript, a peasant's suit or an ancient folk song (Chircev, 2008, p. 8). References Catrina, C. (1994). Studii și documente de muzică românească [Studies and Romanian Music Documents], II. București; Editura Muzicală. Catrina, C. (2001). Muzica de tradiție bizantină. Șcheii Brașovului [The music of Byzantine tradition. Șcheii Brașovului]. Brașov: Editura Arania. Catrina, C. (2003). Ipostaze ale muzicii de tradiție bizantină din România [Aspects of byzantine music]. București: Editura Muzicală. Catrina, C. (2005, Ed.). Sebastian Barbu-Bucur 75 de ani [Sebastian Barbu-Bucur, 75 years old]. București: Editura SemnE. Catrina, C. (2009). Pr. Gh. N. Dumitrescu-Bistrița și revista Izvorașul [Pr. Gh. N. Dumitrescu-Bistrița and the review Izvorașul ]. Râmnicu-Vâlcea: Editura Fântâna lui Manole. Chircev, E. (2003). Portret la 70 de ani Constantin Catrina [Portrait of Constantin Catrina 70 years old]. Renașterea, 11 (165), noiembrie, 7. Cluj-Napoca: Arhiepiscopia Ortodoxă a Vadului, Feleacului și Clujului. Chircev, E. (2004). Să ne preocupăm de muzica credinţei noastre. Interviu cu prof univ. dr. Constantin Catrina [Let us study our religious music. Interview with Prof. PhD Constantin Catrina]. Renașterea, 11 (177), noiembrie, 8. Cluj Napoca: Arhiepiscopia Ortodoxă a Vadului, Feleacului și Clujului. 120

121 Studies Chircev, E. (2008). Privitor în oglinda timpului Constantin Catrina la 75 de ani [Looking in the mirror of time. Constantin Catrina 70 years old]. Intermezzo, 2, decembrie, 86. Cluj Napoca: Academia de Muzică Gheorghe Dima. Deaconu, G. (2008, Ed.). Constantin Catrina privitor în oglinda timpului [Constantin Catrina Looking in the mirror of time]. Râmnicu-Vâlcea: Editura Fântâna lui Manole. Ionescu, G. C. (2003). Muzica Bizantină în România. Dicționar Cronologic [Romanian Byzantine Music. Chronological Dictionary]. București: Sagittarius. Jompan, D. (2015). Constantin Catrina și Brașovul muzical enciclopedic [Constantin Catrina and the Encyclopedic Musical Braşov]. 7 zile. Ziarul gugulanilor, la Caransebeș. Retrieved from Lăcătușu, I. (2013, Ed.). Constantin Catrina 80 de ani [Constantin Catrina 80 years old]. Sfântu-Gheorghe: Eurocarpatica; Brașov: Mecatrin. Secară, C. (2013). Gânduri la despărțirea de Constantin Catrina [Thinking of the loss of Constantin Catrina]. In Lăcătușu, I. (Ed.). Constantin Catrina 80 de ani [Constantin Catrina 80 years old] (pp ). Sfântu-Gheorghe: Eurocarpatica; Brașov: Mecatrin. 121

122 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology Aspects of Musical Semantics from the Perspective of Structuralism, Semiotics and Narratology MIHAELA-GEORGIANA BALAN George Enescu National University of Arts Iaşi ROMANIA Abstract: Music is a universal force, a widely spread mean of communication on the entire planet, because it has a strong ability to influence human emotions, even without words (when referring to instrumental or symphonic music). Thus, music is one of the most challenging arts in 'deciphering' the hidden message of its creator. The present paper is focused on three analytical techniques which imposed themselves in the musicology field of the 20 th century structuralism, semiotics, narratology. Our purpose is to offer a general outlook on these perspectives and some specific principles of applicability when approaching a musical score, in terms of formal construction, sonorous structures, equivalence classes applied to musical elements, energetic potential of musical isotopes using modal verbs, essential aspects in determining the narrative frame (spatiality, temporality, actoriality). Structuralism, semiotics and narratology emerged as independent sciences successively, during half a century, influencing each other in a stimulating coexistence which enabled a wide scientific opening until present. Keywords: semantics, linguistics, musical language, structural analysis. 1. Introduction Music is said to be a universal language, a mean of communication between human beings, without needing words or verbal language. Since ancient times, philosophers, aestheticians, theoreticians tried to explain the inner force which lays in music, allowing people to use it in different purposes (religious, utilitarian, politic, aesthetic or for one's pleasure, either Apollonian or Dionysian). In the modern period, the great variety of sciences, research fields and theories generated a large background, which allowed the development of new directions in music analysis, with specific methods and broad artistic perspective. Music became subject for different types of approach, such as: hermeneutic description, formal analysis, psychologic ideas, Gestalt Theory, math calculus such as probability, Fibonacci sequence, Set Theory, generative grammar, etc. All these perspectives and methods create a general view on music, having a great impact on its reception and perception in listeners' conscience. 122

123 123 Studies 2. General perspective on structuralism, semiotics and narratology Structuralism, semiotics and narratology were three directions approached in different fields of research, particularly in the history of cultures, the theory of signs and linguistic patterns used in communication, as well as in different arts. They emerged as a causal chain which had extended during a half century and enabled a wide scientific opening until present. These three directions influenced each other in a coexistential relationship which determined researchers to draw clear borders in order to separate each investigation area. Structuralism is a plurivalent concept in the context of sciences in the 20 th century, with a wide applicability in the field of linguistics, antropology, psychoanalysis, political economy, philosophy of culture, literary and artistic critics, as well as in musical analysis. It was initially used by Ferdinand de Saussure in the field of linguistics (Cours de linguistique générale, 1914), then by Claude Lévi-Strauss as a particular method to organize concepts and information inside the anthropologic system (Anthropologie Structurale, 1958) and by Umberto Eco in his semiotic theory of sign and communication (Trattato di semiotica generale, 1975). Eventually, structuralism reached the musical field, as a technique named the paradigmatic method, used by the Belgian theoretician Nicholas Ruwet (Langage, musique, poésie, 1972) and as a concept used to identify the principle of semiological tripartition, applied in musical scores by the Canadian musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez (Fondements d'une sémiologie de la musique, 1975). Semiotics developed as a particular research direction, based on the structural example offered by other disciplines and crossed a long journey until its present status as an independent science of meaning, interfering with the theories of communication and the philosophy of language. Initially, semiotics was mentioned in the General Linguistics Course written by Ferdinand de Saussure (first edition, in French 1914; Romanian edition 1998), who used a different term semiology and explained it as dyadic pattern of classifying the components of the sign the signifier and the signified. In America, another researcher, Charles Sanders Peirce, set the basis of semiotics, in which he theorized the sign and its parts from a different perspective, considering the structure of sign as a triadic pattern, represented by representamen, object and interpretant. Modern semiotics was approached by Umberto Eco (first edition, in Italian 1975; Romanian edition 1982), who formulated the definitions of sign, referent, iconicity from a new perspective, including communication codes, interpretation and information theories. The semiotic field is organized in three directions of research, corresponding to the triple function of signs: syntactic-semantic-pragmatic. Therefore, syntax concerns the network of relations between signs, focusing on the formal aspect of the discourse, semantics refers to the relations between signs and objects/concepts, while pragmatics has as research aim the entire ensemble of connections between

124 Artes. Journal of Musicology signs and speakers, the psychological and sociological relations between users of signs and expressions. As concerns the position of semiotics among other sciences, one must consider the multidisciplinary basis of this field and the permanent process of interfering with aesthetics, philosophy, psychoanalysis, hermeneutics, mathematics, logic, etc. But one can't agree with the idea of semiotics as a hybrid field, a simple result of other former disciplines research, because it had gained an autonomous status as a modern field, based on ancient premises of almost 2000 years. Moreover, general semiotics has its particular methods of research and analysis, which can be applied on different objects concerned during the scientific investigation. Narratology detached from the multiple directions of literary research and semantic interpretation which had been approached by semioticians. It refers to a general wide-spread tradition in all cultures and fields, concerning the principles of narration, organised as genuine laws of presenting a succession of events, in a certain temporal order chosen by the narrator. It refers to passing from a previous state of things to a certain subsequent order, generated by the earlier situation or event. In literature, narratology was introduced in order to analyse the process of telling a story, which became, in a general perspective, a science of narration, a particular method to analyse a discourse. Among the first researchers who created the scientific frames of the new branch of study were Roland Barthes, author of a genuine narratological manifesto Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives (1966), Tzvetan Todorov, who imposed the term of narratology to name the science focused on the art of telling stories (Todorov, 1969). Other founders of this discipline were Gérard Genette, who was one of the most influential narratologists of the 20 th century, Algirdas Julius Greimas, as a representative figure of the French semiotic school, Claude Bremont, who was concerned with the logic of narrating. 3. Music between artistic and linguistic approach In the musical field, structuralism, semiotics and narratology were approached by borrowing specific terms used in other fields, generating a complex research system with interdisciplinary connections. Over time, musical analysis has constantly diversified its techniques, changing its approach and objectives depending on the followed issues. Structuralism, as a largely applicable concept, can be also used in the musical field, where structure became an essential concept for the 20 th century musicology. It is mainly used in the analysis of musical forms (at both micro- and macrostructural level), but also for the harmonic analysis, the writing manner of composition and the other musical language parameters. Structure can be defined as an emerging totality of sonorous objects which tends to be conserved (Şurianu, 2008, p. 526) and refers to a particular inner order, 124

125 Studies governed by specific laws of the sonorous unfolding, which are necessary to accomplish a genuine musical grammar. The relations between the whole and its components, between structure and content, diversity and unity represented a highly interesting point for musicians from the Romanticism period, when musical writings about meaning had reached a similar aspect to the literary field. This is why many articles and texts about music in the 19 th century were written in a different manner, with metaphoric language and belletristic manner of expressing ideas (Bent, 1994). This stage can be considered a process of associating musical meanings with concrete aspects of life and different human feelings. The connection between the structural components of a musical work became a much more concerning object of interest for musicologists, who began to develop a stronger tendency towards emphasizing the musical meaning based on the analysed elements of the sonorous structure. Therefore, the semantic level of a musical work would be approached from many points of view, starting with the general structure and the organizing principles. In the 20 th century, the musical thinking became more and more focused towards the idea of construction, due to the emergence of structuralism and the semiotic-linguistic conjunction 1. Being applied to the structure, musical analysis found itself in a paradoxical situation of being designated as structuralist, because the redefinition of conception and its instruments happened as a result of some transfers (with the necessary adjustments) from the structural linguistics and semiotics. Considering the structural reality of a musical work in a theoretical references system, in categories and laws of organization and also in an ensemble of essentially different conventions than classical principles, the initiative of structural analysis is in both historical and epistemological perspectives a head-series of the deep transformations which musical analysis has crossed in the last decades of the 20 th century (Firca, C. L., 2008, p. 35). In other words, a musical work represents an independent, functional system, built on a structural basis that is balanced by the equilibrium between whole and parts, similarly to the linguistic field where any system of communication is based on a hierarchically stratified organization. The purpose of structuralism in the musical analysis is, therefore, the intention to focus on the sonorous substance itself, because any artistic creation is considered a finite product, a concrete result of the composition activity perceived as an autonomous act. The need for scientific rigour in any analytical process leads to the use of methods with linguistic origin and the organization of the musical discourse on many levels, layers, parameters, categories, similarly to the principles that were borrowed from other fields. A relevant 1 Both syntagmas belong to Jean-Jacques Nattiez, apud Firca, C. L. (2008, p. 35), Analysis. 125

126 Artes. Journal of Musicology example is given by the terms morphology and syntax which are used as main categories of structural components of the musical forms. In order to understand at a higher level the relation between linguistics and music by using structural methods, we will present the perspective of the famous conductor, composer and pianist Leonard Bernstein, who has approached this complex issue through some edifying examples, demonstrating the validity of the techniques applied in both fields. He was invited to become a professor at the Harvard University at the Charles Elliot Norton Department of Poetry, where he had to teach for one year, counsel students and prepare six public lectures. L. Bernstein focused his lectures on the musical meaning related to linguistic systems, poetic concepts and aesthetic criteria of artistic value: I Musical Phonology [1] II Musical Syntax [2] III Musical Semantics [3] IV The Delights and Dangers of Ambiguity [4] V The 20 th century Crisis [5] VI The Poetry of Earth [6] Starting from the concept of monogenesis, L. Bernstein set the premises for establishing a common basis for music and language in all cultures of the worlds, where semantics (referring to meaning, signification) is a result of two other linguistic branches, phonology (the study of sound, based on the natural resonance) and syntax (the analysis of structure, aiming towards the connection between sounds themselves and musical parameters: melody, harmony, rhythm, timbre): Fig. 1 Semantic perspective on music, related to verbal language Moreover, there can be established certain equivalences between the musical and the verbal language, from the smallest structural elements to the complexity of an entire work or coherent text (Bernstein, 1973, 2nd lecture). note = phoneme (a sound, such as m, n, a, e) motive = morpheme (a syllable, such as ma) musical phrase = word section = clause movement (from a work) = phrase musical work = text Table 1 Equivalences between the musical and the verbal language 126

127 127 Studies The fifth equivalence (in which a movement from a work corresponds to a verbal phrase) might generate confusion, because in German, satz means both movement and proposition. Bernstein indicates that not all perfect cadenzas are marks of musical phrases, as it happens in verbal language, where a period means the end of an idea. Therefore, in music, we have the impression of hearing many musical ideas in a single work or in a movement of symphony, concert, quartet, et cetera, where connections between musical propositions are created by using specific conjunctions, relative pronouns or adverbs (which can be suggested by certain motives or accompaniment formulas, certain harmonic relations which might generate the impression of continuation, pause or stop). Moreover, Bernstein created analogies between morphological elements of grammar and musical language components. For example, a certain motive or leitmotiv might be seen as a noun (on the horizontal level), whereas the harmonic structure of the chord gains the value of adjective (on the vertical level), generating specific features for the idea suggested by the previous noun. There is also the idea of action, corresponding to verbs, created by certain types of rhythms which suggest the power of the previous leitmotiv to influence the evolution of the musical discourse. A very interesting aspect of musical language is the process of transforming propositions by using different techniques: a. deletion (of some words in order to avoid unnecessary and disturbing repetition); b. embedding (of many clauses in a single phrase); c. permutation (of certain elements which must change their location after applying the previous transformations); d. pronominal substitution ( pronominalization, which leads, in music, to different modified versions of the initial leitmotiv). e. conjunction, which in spoken language results from joining many clauses in the same phrase, in order to accomplish an extended meaning, while in music, conjunction appears when the end of a musical motive, phrase or idea is the beginning of the next sequence at the same time. In the following table (Bernstein, 1973, 2nd lecture), Bernstein organized the levels of meaning in music and poetry, in order to highlight the existence of a deep structure which generates the superior strata towards the visible artistic surface. The most important idea emphasized by Leonard Bernstein is the existence of a higher level inside the linguistic structure, which can't be considered art, because it has a specific function to communicate ordinary facts. From this reason, music appears at the surface structure as a perfectly coherent artistic language (level D, because it has a single aesthetic function), while verbal language is considered to be simply a prose structure and is located at an inferior level (C). To reach the artistic function of expressing higher

128 Artes. Journal of Musicology meanings, verbal language has to go further in its transformational process, becoming poetry. This is the level of equivalence between music and poetry, where both arts fulfil the necessary aesthetic conditions. Verbal language levels 128 Musical language levels D: Poetry (Super-Surface Structure) D: Music (Surface Structure) C: Prose (Surface Structure) C: Prose (Deep Structure) B: Underlying strings (Deep Structure) A: chosen elements (morphemes, words, etc.) B: Underlying strings (melodic, harmonic, rhythmic) A: chosen elements (key, time signature, etc.) Table 2 Structure of poetic and musical language comparative table In his third lecture, Leonard Bernstein approaches the subject of ambiguity, which is a common feature to both poetic and musical language. The semantic perspective in music is focused on different elements than poetry, but the process of transforming feelings and ideas into artistic language is based on common stages and techniques. As an example, he mentions the term zeugma which leads to confusion in verbal language by extending the meaning of some words and associating unexpected terms. In literature and poetry, it is used as a deliberate artistic technique. One of the most relevant literary means of expression concerning ambiguity is the metaphor, which replaces an element with another one, as a result of certain implied comparison between them, based on common features. A B (based on a common element, x) Of course, the background process of connecting A and B by discovering the intermediary element (or elements) must be remade by the receiver (reader, listener), gaining often new meanings in his personal perspective. During the interpretation of these artistic methods, Bernstein draws attention on the difference between meaning and expression: the former refers to the objective, intrinsic meaning of music and the latter corresponds to the subjective aspect, related to the listener. The Belgian musicologist, linguist and literary critic Nicholas Ruwet wrote about a key factor, the repetition principle, which may be found in all levels of existence and culture. Speaking about this aspect, Bernstein quotes the famous linguist and theoretician Roman Jakobson (Bernstein, 1973, 3rd lecture): It is only by the regular reiteration of equivalent units that poetry

129 Studies provides an experience of time comparable to that of musical time. In music, repetition involves not only the identical segments which can appear again in a given fragment, but also those elements which were transformed by different musical techniques (inversion on melodic direction, change of intervals between sounds, augmentation or diminution of rhythm, transposition of a musical unit on other notes or in different keys, etc.) These are important aspects in the process of elaborating a musical discourse, in order to avoid monotony and to make it comprehensible, coherent, interesting to follow; in other words, we say it has to be meaningful. The example of modern poetry is full of artistic means used by poets of the 20 th century in order to increase ambiguity, creating great masterpieces in which every word is a particular entity of the spiritual universe of the poetry. Bernstein explains the intersection of poetic and musical languages by offering a very simple image on artistic concepts and aesthetic meanings in both arts. Fig. 2 Final sketch of reaching semantic meaning and intersecting artistic languages The final unification of the two concepts is given by certain compatible elements which result from the previous semantic process, leading to a common level of meaning. It can be imagined as a new artistic entity, as a pure act of creation, with its own inner meaning and power of suggestion. In his highly valuable academic lectures, L. Bernstein has approached many issues of the musical structures and its semantic dimension, elaborating a parallel perspective between between the linguistic and musical fields, by associating the hierarchical categories of their specific organisation. Bernstein s viewpoint is an ambitious statement of musical analysis principles, offering an inspiring source in understanding a musical score. His perspective is elitist, clear, sensitively argued and based on a rigorous research. 4. Methodological aspects concerning the application of structuralist, semiotic and narratological principles in the musical analysis Musical analysis focusing on structural, semiotic, narratological elements must start from the premise that these methods imply certain risks. When it 129

130 Artes. Journal of Musicology comes to combine musicological techniques with other perspectives, one must be aware of two aspects: on the one hand, the constant interpenetration, the intertwining process between these fields and their principles (also interfering with psychological, hermeneutical, aesthetic, stylistic and other directions); on the other hand, there is a problem of incompatibility between certain methods and some musical works, due to their stylistic features, genre, historical period and other strict musical elements. From these reasons, these types of analysis can't be pure (which refers to strict application of some methodical principles), because it is necessary to combine different procedures so as to emphasize the compositional technique, the structure of musical discourse and semantic substrate. However, any musical analysis must begin with a general and detailed perspective on the musical form and structural elements, which is the basis of any investigation, no matter its purpose. One of the major problems of any structural analysis of a musical work is the adjustment of linguistic principles and terminology, leading to a complex process of transposing the methods of interpretation signs and meanings. The notion of musical discourse, which is frequently used in the contemporary musicology, is originated in the field of linguistics and the sciences of communication, having tangent connections with the general principles of the rethoric field. In music, creating a discourse should consider all its levels of existence: the score (which is an immanent form of existence, related to the historic factors, the context when a work was composed), the act of performance (the existence in fact of music, given by the temporal coordinate of playing or singing in a moment of time which could be associated with present continuous) and the memory of the audience (the level that can't be considered a proper discourse, because after the end of performing and listening a work, the process of decoding the message reaches another phase of existence, from active to passive, from ephemeral to eternal). At this level, the echo of the audition remains as psychological sign, marked by the listeners' infinite subjectivity and ability of understanding. During the last decades, musicologists have tried to create a clear, coherent system, as close as it can be to the musical structure reality, by using linguistic notions and ideas in order to improve the process of understanding artistic creations. The Romanian musicologist Gheorghe Firca mentioned a few terms used in the field of musical analysis and which had been borrowed from other scientific languages: the non-semantic character of music, the nonidentity between the artistic language and the current, notional language, the existence of a musical content itself or, in extremis, the absence of this content (Firca, Gh., 1974, p. 56). These terms indicate the approximate aspect of the musical signified, the impossibility to imagine it in tangible state or, at least, as a concrete representation. In music, there is a high risk to fall into approximations and metaphors, which made Nicolas Ruwet express his opinion 130

131 131 Studies that it is necessary to establish many abstracts levels of representation, each of them being characterized by a system of units and particular laws, in order to create a strong connection between the by using strict rules of representation. (Ruwet, 1972, p. 11) Starting with these considerations, he gave up the general terminology used when analysing musical forms (motive, phrase, period, theme) and introduced a new method of approach based on the recognition of musical elements that impose themselves through reiteration. He intended to use a semiotic system of analysis in order to emphasize the connection between words and music by arranging all the musical units in synthetic tables in which the vertical columns are based on common semantic features. The process of transformation of the initial musical material enables the unity of the sonorous discourse and has the function to organize its evolution according to intrinsic criteria, which are discovered during the unfolding of the musical work. The paradigmatic principle used by Ruwet generates equivalences between morphological units of the musical discourse, offering a synthetic perspective on music in general, inspired by the mythological analysis used by Claude Lévi-Strauss. He compared the reading of a myth with the performance of an orchestral score, which enables the discovery of the most intimate connections among its smallest components. The generative grammar, which inspired many musicologists in their analytical works, is focused on the enumeration of different types of wellconstructed phrases and discourses (by assigning a certain structural description), which are possible in given language (Ruwet, 1972, p. 15). As in general linguistics, the idea of possible human language refers to specific restrictions imposed by its grammar laws, similarly, a poetical or musical grammar should aim at following an ensemble of artistic works which are possible in the case of a certain author (poet, writer, composer), in a certain culture or style, by using a particular system of rules. The example offered by Noam Chomsky in the linguistic field generated a new way to analyse a musical score by considering its components as units organized according to specific grammar rules, in order to create a syntagmatic tree. The unfolding of the sonorous discourse can be followed in hierarchical settlement, structured in three levels: inferior level (III) which is subordinated to the medium one (II), whose components are dominated by another superior level (I). The main criterion imposed by Ruwet in this system is the length of units. Therefore, musical segments with the same structure are integrated in the same level, without relating to the formal terminology used in musical analysis (motives, phrases, periods). The length that Ruwet mentions is quite imprecise, because musical units have many levels of differences, related to the density of notes, rhythm, tempo. This aspect leads to the segmentation of the sonorous discourse by following the continuity of its unfolding, by keeping the order of events which form, together, a complex structure with semantic meaning.

132 Artes. Journal of Musicology A very important element used in linguistics and applied in music is the sensitiveness to context, which generates the classes of equivalence. When two distinct musical elements have a common context or an ensemble of possible contexts in a work or a given repertory, they can be described as functional equivalent elements; the totality of features which have identical contexts create a class of equivalences. (Bent & Drabkin, 1998, p. 170) This point of view leads to a new form of organization, according to the preponderance of their return (by reiteration or variation) and their features which generate the similarities between segments, leading to a paradigmatic structure. In Ruwet's opinion, the value of this method is given by the application of simple principle of analysis, proposed by structuralist thinking and the exigency of formal perspectives, which allowed the introduction of incontestable strictness in the field of musical analysis (Ruwet, 1972, p. 17). Of course, any type of art (literary, visual, kinetic, musical) possess a particular code which allows the access to unique message. Analytical methods, no matter how complex they are, can t guarantee the exhaustive understanding of encoded meanings by using other types of language; and generative grammar presents the same risk. When a musical work has a clear structure, it enables a detailed form analysis, with all component units which can be organized in hierarchical levels, generating a general sketch of the macrostructure. This method can be considered a taxonomic technique that can be applied to a musical work, leading to a tree-like image of its internal organization. The microstructural elements (motives, cells, figures) can be analysed by using a particular method, approached in music by musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez in his volume Fondements d'une sémiologie de la musique (Nattiez, 1975). It refers to a detailed classification of all microstructural units into classes of equivalence, based on their common features and their transformation during the musical discourse. This classification is realised by organizing all microstructural units in a paradigmatic table, which also contains symbolic indicators, marked by capital letters which refer to specific melodic or rhythmic features (explained separately). The final table is relevant for the logic of the score, the fluency of the discourse, the variational potential of musical motives, leading to a very consistent perspective on the structural and stylistic coherence of the analysed work. Therefore, the structuralist approach leads to the discovery of the particular meanings which lie at the bottom of the semantic substrate of the music. The purpose of semiotics is to emphasize the multiple connections established between all components of the discourse, by accomplishing a systematic analysis, organized in many sections, according to the musical parameters and grammar layers, in order to reach 132

133 Studies a functional hierarchy of all sonorous units and to individualize each segment in the context of the entire semantic ensemble. As the Romanian musicologist Antigona Rădulescu observes, the function of the semiotic approach in a musical analysis can be identified in two main directions: On the one hand, it refines the process of observing the grammatical dimension, considering both components of the musical language syntax and vocabulary; on the other hand, it requires the necessity to form and reinforce the semantic demarches (in direct connection with grammar) that are usually ignored by traditional analysis. (Rădulescu, 2013, p. 65) Narratology can be used in music as an alternative interpretation of a particular work, which is neither lyric theatre (opera, operetta, musical comedy, ballet), nor program music (involving an extra-musical narrative). The concept of narrativity (different than narration, which refers to the act of telling a story) can be applied to music as a supra-structure idea, as a system endowed with the ability to shape and influence the sonorous discourse according to specific laws. In a general perspective, one could speak about a narrative dimension in a musical score which has an evolution by variation, elaboration, development of certain musical material, leading to a genuine musical dramaturgy. Narrativity could be identified on two levels: on the one hand, in the musical work itself, which refers to the logic of score, the construction of the sonorous discourse. This aspect reminds the well-known opposition between pure, absolute music and descriptive, programmatic music. On the other hand, the musical performance can also have narrative features, because the player (or the singer) has the ability to give particular meanings to the music he performs (meanings which can be close to the historical and stylistic context when the work had been composed or with different intentions, more personal and intimate). The Finnish musicologist and semiotician Eero Tarasti comes with two specific terms which define these aspects of musical narrativity: statement the music itself, written in the score and enunciation the performance (In the French version, the terms are énoncé and énonciation Tarasti, 1996, p. 42). These elements prove a type of narrativity which appears only as a result of a temporal unfolding of musical discourse and can't be analysed without considering the interaction between subject and object during the musical communication. This idea is based on certain tensions generated as internal movements, which give an energetic charge in the evolution of the musical work. The following figure represents a global image of the elements that compose the narrative frame where a musical discourse unfolds. 133

134 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 3 General image of a musical narrative construction It is interesting to discover new meanings in works which have a strong plasticity of melodic lines, harmonic chains, rhythmic pulsation, particular timbres, sonorous textures, suggesting different images, ideas, feelings. Musical discourse is similar to a narrative thread, like a storyline, due to the diversity of sonorous material and the striking character suggested by musical themes. The narratological analysis involves specific elements, such as isotopes and their semantic functions; essential aspects in determining the narrative frame spatiality, temporality, performership ; narrative units or programs that form together a musical discourse; modalities (to do, to be, can, must, to want, to know) and potential of actants in each program; narrative strategies used to establish isotopes and coherence in the discourse. Isotopes are the first criteria used for the analysis of musical discourse. The definitions offered by Tarasti for this term (with origin in the field of physics) are related to both aspects of formal segmentation and semantic signification: the first idea is that isotopes are levels of meaning in a certain text, serving as main factor for the segmentation of the analysed work (Tarasti, 1996, p. 79); another reference about isotopes is about semantic fields located at the deepest level of meaning, where signification becomes recognizable (Tarasti, 2006, p. 24). The general idea of the analytical system conceived by Tarasti is that signification appears as an abstract idea, coming from deep resources of the discourse where lays its essence and ensures its coherence. Isotopes are levels of meaning perceived as dynamic (not static) entities, because they progress, transform, develop or diminish their force of affirmation, creating a living discourse. Spatiality, temporality and performership are categories which generate articulations of the musical flowing, time organization, involving thematic elements as well. Musical space represents the place where isotopes manifest themselves, referring to two aspects: external space (totality of registers where music unfolds, which leads to the ambitus sonorous extent of an instrument or placement of instruments in the case of chamber or orchestral music) and 134

135 135 Studies internal space (defined by an organic movement of harmony, rhythm, less visible aspects of music). Musical time is a complex concept, which has been defined, classified theorized by numerous musicians, philosophers, physicists, generating polemical discussions with valid arguments and stimulating opinions on every side involved. Tarasti tried to narrow the entire problem for the semiotic field by indicating two paradigms: memory (which refers to the succession of musical events in the mind of the listener) and expectancy term originating in the field of psychology (which is generated during the unfolding of musical performance, when sonorous events accumulate and agglomerate, gaining a specific course, a certain direction in the mind of the listener, sometimes predictable, other times with unexpected deviations). Tarasti emphasized that this level reaches the highest point at the beginning of a work, when the audience doesn't know anything about what will happen, having an empty space at the horizon of his musical expectation (Tarasti, 1996, p. 39). Concerning memory and expectancy, there are intersections between musical semiotics and the theory of information, because the terms of entropy and redundancy are introduced in order to describe the quantity of musical information stored in the mind of the listener. In this artistic frame, defined by two dimensions space and time one discovers another element of the musical evolution: the existence of certain heroes, defined by an individual profile and a dominant feature. Performership is a foreign term for music, borrowed from the dramatic art of theatre, suitable for classifying these levels of sonorous signification. The theatrical level is composed of many musical ideas, characterized by a certain specificity of the characters. In Tarasti s opinion, performership is attached to the anthropomorphic side of music (Tarasti, 1996, p. 40), referring to connections between themes and different other ideas transposed in music (abstracts ideas, in the case of pure music, or concrete features, in the case of descriptive music, suggesting a human character typology, a symbolic element, a certain situation). Besides these categories of structural units and unfolding levels, Tarasti introduced in his analysis certain terms related to harmonic, rhythmic or dynamic movement, which aim, in fact, towards moments of progressive tension, climax and energetic relief of the discourse. Pairs of terms such as embrayage débrayage (French terms), internal external, nucleus (core) periphery, centripetal centrifugal, designate intrinsic forces which operate at the level of musical meaning, listeners' feelings, mobilizing or releasing the concentration on the sonorous events. Modalities result from spatial, temporal and theatrical aspects which define the state of a certain isotope. Although they seem to be subjective or arbitrary interpretations inserted in the discourse, modalities have an essential

136 Artes. Journal of Musicology function in determining the potential of motives, their mobility to evolve, transform, unfold into larger musical ideas, generating that bow shape (constructed from the beginning by exposing, tensioning, culminating towards the ending). The most important verbs used to express modality are to be (referring to the initial state of the sound, the absence of tension, neutrality, stability, consonance) and to do (indicating action, event, dynamism, dissonance). The alternation between tension (to do) and relaxation (to be) is considered to be the simplest form of narrativity. Other modalities are expressed by the following verbs: - to want (associated with kinetic energy, the tendency to advance towards something, with a certain purpose); - to know (indicating the information provided by music, its cognitive potential); - can (referring to the strength of music, the efficiency of its message, of its technical resources; this quality is obvious in writing manner of the composer and also in the musical talent and virtuosity of the performer); - must (related to order imposed by elements such as genre, form, relation between a musical work and the aesthetic, stylistic, technic features of a certain historical period); - to believe (indicating the truth value of music, its ability of persuasion during the performance/ listening process, generating associations with aspects such as verisimilar non-verisimilar, appearance essence, etc.) Modalities can't be assigned to arbitrary structural units in a work, because they can be discovered in the structure of the musical discourse as immanent elements of meaning, located in the background level. Modality provides a signification which represents a semantic dimension without specific semantic content (Tarasti, 1996, p. 225). Therefore, it indicates the existence of a structural logic inside the message. Likewise, another observation made by Tarasti is about establishing the right modalities in musical discourse, by considering the style of the epoch, the vision of the composer, the cultural, historical ad geographic context where belongs a certain musical work. Music is not just a sign among many others, which would lead to a necessary decoding process and interpretation of its message, but rather a logic consequence of signs, a mean of communication which develops and gains its own value by having a particular form of narrativity. 5. Conclusions In a musicological research, structural analysis based on taxonomic principles and paradigmatic methods and semiotic analysis aiming towards the association of the units and the artistic meaning generated by music require a very detailed and technical work, by setting the musical material 136

137 Studies beneath the objective lentil of segmentation, organisation, classification, establishing connections between all levels of structural units and observing the principles applied by the composer himself/herself. The narratological approach is a different perspective on a musical discourse, offering a much wider analytical framework, due to the high degree of freedom inside semantic interpretation. All these methods have in common their deep and distant origins in the linguistic field, bringing new directions of investigation in the musicology of the 20 th century. References Bent, J. D. (1994). Musical Analysis in the Nineteenth Century, II Hermeneutic Approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Bent, I. & Drabkin, W. (1998). L analyse musicale Histoire et methods. Paris: Editions Main d Oeuvre. Eco, U. (1982). Tratat de semiotică generală (after the original edition Trattato di semiotica generale from 1975). Bucureşti: Editura Ştiinţifică şi Enciclopedică. Firca, C. L. (2008). Analiză [Analysis]. In Firca, Gh. (Ed.), Dicţionar de termeni muzicali [Dictionary of Musical Terms] (pp ). Bucureşti: Editura Univers Enciclopedic. Firca, Gh. (1974). Logos musical et structure. Revue roumaine d histoire de l art, série Théâtre, Musique, Cinéma, XI, Bucarest: Acade mie des Sciences sociales et politiques de la Re publique Socialiste de Roumanie. Lévi-Strauss, C. (1978). Antropologia structurală [Structural Anthropology]. Bucureşti: Editura Politică. Nattiez, J. J. (1975). Fondements d'une sémiologie de la musique. Paris: Union Générale d Editions. Rădulescu, A. (2013). Introducere în semiotica muzicală [Introduction in Musical Semiotics]. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Ruwet, N. (1972). Langage, musique, poésie. Paris: Editions du Seuils. Saussure, F. de (1998). Curs de lingvistică generală [Course of General Linguistics]. Bucureşti: Polirom. Şurianu, H. (2008). Structură [Structure]. Firca, Gh. (Ed.), Dicţionar de termeni muzicali [Dictionary of Musical Terms] (pp ). Bucureşti: Editura Univers Enciclopedic. Tarasti, E. (2006). La musique et les signes Précis de sémiotique musicale. Paris: Editions de l Harmattan. 137

138 Artes. Journal of Musicology Tarasti, E. (1996). Sémiotique musicale. Collection Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques. Paris: Pulim. Todorov, T. & Weinstein A. (1969). Structural Analysis of Narrative. NOVEL: A Forum on Fiction, 3 (1), Durham: Duke University Press. Websites Bernstein, L. (1973). Norton Lectures. Retrieved April 1-30, 2016, from [1]< Nv1lc1_zUSB2O65d7> (1st lecture) [2]< Nv1lc1_zUSB2O65d7&index=2> (2nd lecture) [3]< 2V0mwtNv1lc1_zUSB2O65d7> (3rd lecture) [4]< tnv1lc1_zusb2o65d7&index=4> (4th lecture) [5]< wp2v0mwtnv1lc1_zusb2o65d7> (5th lecture) [6]< wtnv1lc1_zusb2o65d7&index=6> (6th lecture) 138

139 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology Interpretative and Compositional Connotations from a Musicological Perspective NELIDA NEDELCUȚ Gheorghe Dima Music Academy Cluj-Napoca ROMANIA LUCIAN GHIȘA Gheorghe Dima Music Academy Cluj-Napoca ROMANIA Abstract: Musicology, viewed as a general science regarding all the defining elements of music, can approach compositions using hermeneutical methods, both through a critical view on the interpretation, the stage performance of the creative act, and through the subsequent musicological writings, becoming a meta-interpretation that requires a thorough exegesis. The couplet hermeneutics-interpretation together with that of compositional concept versus stage production are the ones underlying our research, while hermeneutics is the very art of performing that penetrates the most cryptic elements present in the musical act, viewed from the perspective of the triad creation-interpretation-reception. In an attempt to emphasize the ways in which the composer suggests to the performer certain indications for stage performance, through writing, agogics, dynamics and special sound effects, we intend to study, from the standpoint of the musicologist, the piece 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) 1 by Constantin Rîpă. Built on a structure of five tableaux, the work comprises fifteen songs on poems by five contemporary Cluj poets and outlines a new concept of musical performance, which aims to experiment in composing music with the idea of the primordial nature of the poetic text, which is associated with elements of motion and gestures of the interpreters and is based on an arbitrary compositional concept, a defining technique that can be found in a great part of the choral creation of this composer. Keywords: musicologist, interpretation, hermeneutics, poetry, musical performance. 1. Introduction In a first phase, from a semantic point of view, interpretation implies the attribution of meaning or signification to facts of different nature: speech, attitudes, events, situations. The assignment of meaning is based on a referential system which gathers the knowledge of the subject and which is the necessary prerequisite for understanding a situation (Doron & Parot, 1999, p. 368). A literary, musical or any kind of text is understood, receiving meaning and mental representations if the reader knows the specific signs (words or musical 1 Untranslatable wordplay in Romanian language between the plural forms of two resembling nouns: 5 Tableaux with Shadows (Umbrellas). 139

140 Artes. Journal of Musicology notes) and becomes intelligible by simply going over it. Still, most texts impel the reader to a further reflection in order to be able to understand the adjacent meanings. The interpretative-hermeneutical approach is triggered when there is a need for interpretation, that is employing a number of special means in order to understand a text. When you realize that something is wrong with what you re reading [...] then you become aware that the text is trying to talk to you, or, more precisely, that it is trying to attract you into its secrets. (Papadima, 2006, p. 9) The musical term of performance, in the simplest way of thinking and in a first sense, represents the action of faithfully rendering, staging, performing a musical composition by an instrumentalist. The interpreter also has the role, in addition to the natural exposition of music, to reinterpret, to deliver meanings, significations and feelings embedded in the musical work. Due to these features, the work of art reinvents itself each time it is rendered, because every interpreter sifts through his/her own mind the elements transposed into music by the composer. Thus, there can be found two types of performance involving the musical style: performance in the style of the composer (Mozart s style, for instance), or performance in the artist s personal style (Sviatoslav Richter s style). In both cases, the interpreter has to set his personal footprint on the musical work, a complete depersonalization being undesirable. Style is the particular way in which a composer organises his conceptions and speaks the language of his craft. Language is the element common to the composers of a particular school or epoch. [...] the musical apparatus used in an epoch leaves its stamp upon the language and, so to speak, upon the gestures of its music, as well as the composer s attitude towards tonal materials. These elements are the immediate factors of the set of particulars that help us to determine how musical and language style are formed. (Stravinsky, 1967, pp ) In the twentieth century the aleatoric period imposed a quasi-total freedom of performance and an obvious involvement of the performer in the creative act, the musical work being completely new each time it was performed. Aleatorism is not an exclusive discovery of the 1900s, because aleatoric elements have been discovered throughout the history of music in various forms: starting from the improvisatory elements specific to the epoch of the musical Baroque (from ornamentation, to improvisational forms such as the prelude) through the improvisational and virtuosity cadence regarded as a section of the musical form within an instrumental concert, and afterwards by the typology of the expressionist Sprechgesang. The second half of the 20 th century reaches the total liberty offered to the performer, a freedom that comes as a reaction against the constraints of the integral serialism, which favours the detail at the expense of inspiration. Whatever the development of musical performance, the audience is a key element in understanding, since the members of the audience are the ones who 140

141 Studies decode the musical meanings in the most real way possible. The music lover reinterprets the message sent by the performer differently from the uninformed one. Accordingly, performance is a term that refers to the way of understanding, of comprehending a musical work, depending on the type of musical performance and the typology of the audience. In this way, the performance is transformed from the mere staging of a musical work into a concept, while music must be elucidated and understood to the slightest and deepest details, representing a vision, a perspective on a composer s musical thinking. But what does the same work mean to the one who renders it? Firstly, a printed document. He (the performer) cannot and must not follow the pulse of his inner feelings but the details already mentioned in a work finished long ago, which belongs to someone else. As one may say, he has to go backwards and not forward, as the creator goes. That is, he must advance against the direction of any living element, from the outside to the inside, and not as a creator from within out. (Furtwängler, 1987, p. 77) The temporal arts - theatre, music, dance can only exist through the mediation of an interpreter. He is at the same time both a receiver and a creator, because in a first stage he reveals and represents the work of art for himself, and afterward as an artist he directs this flow of information, feelings, senses and meanings to the art consumer. In other words, the interpreter must know the work of art for himself, in order to make it known to others, thus becoming the representative of the author and of the moment in which he presents its creator. Most of the time, the type of performance is coded in the score by common musical signs (such as the indications of expression or tempo), but, to the same extent, there are also a number of elements that can not appear in writing but which are sine qua non. And here, of course, we refer to the stylistic typologies specific to each musical period, which the instrumentalist must take into account. Romanticism brings with it specific musical genres that help the perception of the musical message to be most accurate. Here we obviously refer to the programmatic music, which brings something adjacent with the purpose of a perfect understanding of the musical idea. Practically, all the composers effort an effort noted in the score along with the style specific to each musical trend, is mainly aimed at understanding the compositional message as accurately as possible. Consequently, joining the two terms understandinginterpretation opens the door to a fascinating, intricate world, full of meanings, of musical hermeneutics. It is the magic key that can open and illuminate an unimagined world at first reading. 2. Hermeneutics Hermeneutics is a science and an art of text interpretation, of discovering meaning by understanding a message that appears at first sight as meaningless. Musical hermeneutics opens to the listener the world of the composer s mind 141

142 Artes. Journal of Musicology and an infinite flow of latent experiences. Obviously, hermeneutics involves a wide range of sciences such as philosophy, psychology, or sociology of music, along with the theory of perception and musical analysis. We refer to the concept of content, along with the concept of meaning, with related terms such as explanation or exegesis. Very similar, even identical, is the notion of exegesis (hermeneia). The original meaning is the same: hermeneutics is an exegesis (= commentary, explanation of meanings, texts, etc.). However, the practice introduced since the Middle Ages a dissociation, which is preserved to this day: hermeneutics refers to the principles and rules of interpretation; it is the science and method of interpretation, while the exegesis is the practical application of the hermeneutical rules, the interpretation proper, applied to the texts. (Papadima, 2006, p. 16) Practically, each work is interpreted, and each reader is an interpreter. For a musician performer, by applying the general and particular rules and principles of hermeneutics, he will be able to penetrate beyond the language itself, in order to decode the complex fabric of the musical discourse proper. In other words, the interpreter has to reproduce both the meaning and the musical signification. Extrapolating, the central concepts of hermeneutics are understanding, comprehension, interpretation, and explanation. All these notions revolve around each other, namely around the notion of meaning. From a panoramic and synthetic point of view, we assert that performance is the action of revealing the meaning of the artistic work, understanding the state in which the meaning gives the interpreter a more authentic perspective on the subject in mind, comprehension the act of internalizing the meaning, and explanation the logical-ordering intervention on it and its context. It is as if, once in the possession of a key (meaning acquired through interpretation), you come to see what it may open... (Voloc, 2009, p. 8). 3. Case study: 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) by Constantin Rîpă Conceived as a dramaturgic show subtitled musical performance, 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) contains 15 songs on lyrics by five poets from Cluj: Sânziana Mureşeanu, Marcel Mureşeanu, Ovidiu Pecican, Ion Mureșan, Constantin Cubleşan; from each author the composer Constantin Rîpă arranged three poems. The intention to create a particular stage assemblage is underlined by the author in the booklet of the production bearing the same name and had its first performance in Cluj, in the Studio Hall of the Gheorghe Dima Music Academy on November 26, The poems selected for this production mostly aimed to be playful, I never thought for a moment that these songs should be beautiful, because it would have been a betrayal of poetic content. Everything had to be simple, true and consistent with the poetic text. In other 142

143 Studies words, the music was just the environment of the text. From the perspective of the vocal technique needed to resolve the score, the prevalence of the poetic text, the approach of moments of Sprechgesang or random improvisation leads to complex approaches to vocal emission. The vocal effects associated with the score allowed for the exploitation of multiple sound resources of the human voice, as well as of accompanying instruments (piano, electronic organ). The stage performance expected by the composer started from the idea of presenting the poems of the selected authors compactly, the work being structured in a succession of five musical-poetic tableaux, each of them bearing the emblematic expression of a poet. The translation of the poetic content into the scenic space is mediated by a neomodal compositional language, with frequent loans from tonal-functional sonorities, with certain musical parameters left to the improvisational decision of the performers. We consider it useful to make an incursion from the perspective of the musicologist in the compositional language of the five tableaux of the work, trying to highlight the characteristics of the vocal and instrumental writing as well as the interpretative-stage indications claimed by the author: 4. Interpretative exigencies and writing aspects Tableau I aims to capture some surrealist aspects of the poetry of Sânziana Mureşeanu, in contrast to the direct and real ways of sizing one s own feelings. Ieșiți în ploaie 2 (for voice and piano) (Nedelcuț, 2016, p. 241), noted in a traditional writing that overlaps the binary metric in the vocal score (desired to be declaimed) to the ternary one in the piano accompaniment. The fluency of the sixteenths in the piano writing confers the periodicity of the rain drops, which at the end of the song fade away in a ppp. Fig. 1 Ieșiți în ploaie, mm. 5-6 Riga (poetry transcribed for female voice and piano), suggests the characteristics of the dance rhythm in which the author pretends the voice to 2 Come out into the rain 143

144 Artes. Journal of Musicology have an execution in recitativo narante, the vocal writing being placed within a narrow range (F-D ). The piano accompaniment composed of ad libitum clusters on the piano keyboard, but placed on the tonic accents of the spoken words, structures that will be played by the instrumentalist with the palm, the forearms, being left to vibrate (with prolonged resonance). The ending triggers a speaking out loud speech that evolves, becomes a cry, sounds are desperately uttered. The third poetry, Singapore, written for tenor solo and electric organ, brings to the fore the composer s preoccupation to reiterate the declamatory course of the dramatic genre. We notice the diverse instances of the expressive recitation: alert, precipitated, bluntly (détaché), low-pitched, which call for a careful interpretation of the text. The dynamics of the sung utterance of the text is placed in an extended ambitus from fff to pp, while the agogic fluctuation is marked by indications: accel. poco, a tempo, rit., rall., the density of the agogic change conferring a rubato character to the musical discourse, although the work is scored on a constant two-beat pattern. The necessity of declamation is evidenced by the indication next to the solo voice: quasi recitativo, although the tempo expected by the author is allegrisimo. The articulation of sounds is in a constant fluctuation among staccato, accents and tenuto, which demands from the interpreter a very careful coordination of his/her vocal emission. The piano accompaniment is left to the discretion of the instrumentalist, the composer aiming to avoid the hypostasis in which the instrument represents the so-called partner of the soloist. Although the improvisational moments of the musical score are indicated with traditional elements, the composer employs sound effects, such as the prolonged vibrations of a sound, which accompany a moment of Sprechgesang of the voice. Fig. 2 Singapore, mm

145 Studies Tableau II contains poems by the poet Ovidiu Pecican, considered a great figure of contemporary literature. He publishes everywhere, being constantly sought by all journals. He is an excellent speaker and an exceptional interlocutor. He has an open and sincere character, permanently with good humor and being kind to everyone (in the Booklet of the programme). Curriculum for voice and piano is electronically assisted, as the accompaniment notes: a microphone is to be placed in the piano. In the vocal score are used Sprechgesang effects, without specifying the pitch, suggested by indications such as intense whispers in the microphone, put the finger on the lips and return to intensive whispering, speaking, uttering quickly, free speech turning into whispering. The singer is asked o realize sound and stage effects such as: cough with your mouth closed through the interjection ghm, put the finger to your mouth and return to intensive whispering, speaking and finally, on this presentation of the female soloist, the male soloist appears on the stage unseen, approaching the gong with a mallet, striking is heavily and attacking (vocally) his first musical phrase. The girl is scared, suddenly interrupting her whispers and runs away, hiding behind the piano. The piano accompaniment consists of a vibrating sound (possibly in the low register) in ppp, with a vibr. indication, the trill sign is overlapped sporadically with very low and acute sounds creating the effects of a pointilliste writing. The manner of using the pedal is very elaborate and accurately indicated throughout the work, either by the usual indications sonorous pedal stroke with the sole, or by distinct signs: Fig. 3 Curriculum, mm.1-4 The second poetry, Motto, is written for bass, gong and piano; it contains two characters a bass voice and a girl the latter is assigned with stage moves: recites from behind the piano sings angelico, dolce, cantabile, the glissandos are noted as portamentos, passages in suave, dolce, legato, afterwards the girl walks in front of the piano and stands behind the bass singing quasi recto tono a church-like melody (with frequent mordents) then gets scared, flees and hides behind the piano, from where she finally recites with a child s voice. 145

146 Artes. Journal of Musicology The bass sings on fff-ff nuances, articulates recitations over an extended vocal range, to the end sarcastically mimics laughter, sings scaringly, barbaro, yelled, and strikes the gong with a mallet. Fig. 4 Motto, mm. 1-3 In the piano score are noted the specific sound effects frequently met in the experimental phase of the twentieth century music such as: tremolo with both hands in ff (decresc to p), clusters with the fingers, quasi or semper détachée or tremolo with the fingers on the keyboard. Urmaşul Sfântului Petru 3 written for voice and piano, is the last poem by Ovidiu Pecican set to music by Constantin Rîpă, the vocal writing of the soloist evolving in continuous recitation. Pronouncing the words in a singing manner is achieved by: actively talking, caricature-like in a hasty speech (but clear) similar to the recitative, on the same pitch bluntly, détachée (articulated parting of words), precipitated, firmly declaimed. The vocal score uses ornaments, in the context of prefiguration of the vocal range of the recitation the composer asks for: speaking in crescendo / decrescendo, articulation with head voice, the connection between sounds is made frequently by portamento or glissando: 3 The Successor of St. Peter Fig. 5 Urmașul Sfântului Petru, m

147 Studies The construction of the piano accompaniment is mostly designed on clusters (large and small), articulated and left to vibrate over large fragments (by vibrating the right pedal), ascending and descending glissandos (vibrated in the pedal) or sounds without determined height, left to the discretion of the interpreter. Fig. 6 Urmașul Sfântului Petru, m. 20 Tableau III bears the optimistic mark of the poems written by the poet Marcel Mureşeanu, pervaded by irony evolving towards the ludicrous, creating an obvious empathy with the interpreters who alog the development of the musical pieces laugh make jokes and are engaged in fast-moving actions. Cine a-nghițit un căluț 4 written for female voice addresses an aleatoric writing that demands the musical segments to be repeated 3-4 times, inserted in geometrical frames. The voice emission has to resemble the voice of a child, which frequently includes a spoken singing, with a female voice or a bit sullen, a thickened female voice (disagreeable). The same interpreter has to perform the two hypostases. He has to perform the score in an extended colourful ambitus: he sings shyly, with a bold voice, screams, participates through gestures in the stage action. The composer includes in the incisive rhythmic values many ornaments, difficult to realise in the fast tempo of this section. Scenetă 5, subtitled The Soldier and the Girl for soprano, baritone (steps and voice) and piano is a poem in which for the musical and stage approach the composer notes in detail the stage development: the girl is (or enters) with the accompanist, moves and smiles frankly, but ignores any applause; the soldier arrives within 5-6 minutes in marching steps, further marches but in diminuendo, gradually renounces the march, but sways his body in the same rhythm (recourse to a special sign for swinging), then gives up motion; at the end the soldier begins to march on the spot, the girl and the soldier leaving the scene repeating a rhythmic-melodic formula in a decresc al niente. 4 Who Swallowed a Tiny Horse 5 Short Sketch 147

148 Artes. Journal of Musicology The musical text is noted in a 2/4 meter, with an agogic in constant motion and the trochaic rhythm alternating with tuplets, configured in a rhythmic ostinato. The musical development is accompanied by indications that place expressivity on the numerous motion indications: a noisy tramping, intensifying their steps (indicated in the score with rhythmic values); very serious and determined (grotesque) are to mimic anger, an angry attitude but childish, they gesture with the head etc. Fig. 7 Scenetă, m. 57 The score for the accompaniment is complex, integrating the pianist into the dramaturgic development (speaks, smiles, gestures with his hand).the use of ornaments (trill, arpeggiato, tremolo, mordents) is accompanied by vocal and instrumental effects, frequent clusters (white, black keys and in flageolet), the thoroughness of marking in the score the use of the pedal, moments of improvisation, repetition of a bar for times or to an impossible speed, integrates the piece in a manifestly aleatoric writing. The evolution of the voice to a Sprechgesang with leaps over an extended ambitus may be noticed in the following example: Fig. 8 Scenetă, m

149 Studies Lumea de lume 6 (voice and piano) is written in a lively movement, the eigth note = 132, that impresses also by the rapid way in which action takes place. The frequent exceptional divisions (quintuplet, 10-tuplet) integrated within the four beat meter (quarter or half note as time unit) confer a rubato character, indicated by the composer only through the frequent acceleration and slowing down of the movement: Fig. 9 Lumea de lume, mm Tableau IV is intended for poems by Constantin Cubleşan, a poet who approaches the poetry selected by the composer Constantin Rîpă, a classic and dense style in terms of expression of a feeling. It is remarkable the abundance of metaphors, which benefit from the dissimulated sincerity of the poet. Mai tornă-mi iubito 7 for male voice and piano is built on a waltz rhythm, bearing the metronome indication (quarter note = cca.56) corresponding to an adagio tempo, as well as the oscillation between time signatures and agogic confering a free character to this versed song. The male voice can be of any type, indicates the composer, since the vocal range is convenient, of only one tenth (D - F ), accessible both to basses and tenors. The melodic vocal line is predominantly based on the adjacent motion, in a dominant mf (menoforte) and in terms of expressiveness the aim is to express the bitterness of the lover Mai tornă-mi iubito în suflet otrava, Mai toarnă-mi iubito, o cupă de vin (Pour once more, my darling, the poison; Pour once more, my darling, a cup of wine), the harmony being built on the fourth and fifth chords specific to modal structures. By contrast, Destin 8 (tenor and piano) is accompanied by a tempo indication with a double metronomic value in a vivo motion framed within a 1/4 meter: we must underline the minuteness of the composer in noting in the vocal score frequent dynamic and agogic movements, expressive indications that take place in arpeggiato, come chitara or come arpa chords in the piano. 6 Men of the world 7 Pour some more, my darling 8 Destiny 149

150 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 10 Destin, mm. 1-2 Exploring innovative timbre effects, the composer Constantin Rîpă designates for the poem O artistă 9 (voice and electronic organ) a musical discourse in a quasi parlando, which alternates a melismatic writing with a syllabic one. Prosodically, the oscillation between measures in 2 and 3 beat patterns in quarters confers an asymmetrical appearance to the rhythmical development, each measure highlighting the prevalence of text, freely configured in terms of metre. The clusters in the piano score are noted in extenso and the agogic changes (sost., rit., poco accel., a tempo) along with indications for the soloist voice such as: sententious, melanconico, tenuto, quasi p, meno f, voice trill, create distinct sound effects, different from the context of the other pieces of the production envisaged by the author. Tableau V explores the verses of Ion Mureșan from the Alcool 10 cycle. The extremely complex poetry lies between real and fantastic and involves a kind of mirage tragically ended by the death of the soul and of the heart. Alcool II (subtitled O viziune 11 ), for baritone voice and piano bears the indication chanting, the singer emplying a free speech that is halted by a misurato part which doubles the speed of execution, the manner of articulation of the voice being staccatto e marcato sempre. The text mocks those who drank until they kicked the bucket, the state of hallucination completing in the same rubato in rallentando to be able to drink until the end of the world. Alcool I (Poem) 12, conceived by the composer Constantin Rîpă also for baritone voice and piano brings along its development vocal effects that give an experimental aspect to the vocal score: the baritone intones on a quasi parlato voice, alternating with misurato, full of appoggiaturas or uttering on same sound in sostenuto sempre, interjections on high notes hâc, with juvenile voice, free chanting rhythm (stammering), singing in falseto (with joy), speaking bluntly (angrily), quasi piangendo (imitating a whiner), talking with a deep voice. The piano score abunds in sound effects such as palm gliss 9 A female artist 10 Alcohol 11 Alcohol II. A Vision 12 Alcohol I. (Poem) 150

151 Studies (rotational) on a free rhythm suggesting a stuttered walking, free tremolo along all octaves, clusters along the entire keyboard. Fig. 11 Alcool I, m. 43 The final moment brings a Cântec de leagăn 13 for male voice, female voice and piano ending the cycle of songs composed for the poet Ion Mureșan, bringing into focus a male voice with much suffering and a female voice singing very gently. The tempo sways between quasi rubato and misurato, portamento with a dynamic under continuous fluctuation of the meter. 5. Conclusions The musicologist is the person who has the necessary tools to enter the secrets of a score. The simplest, most common musicological activity, with an educational purpose, is the musical analysis of the compositions. The musical analysis is a method of investigating the musical message, which in a first stage addresses the didactic and pedagogical aspects of approaching the composition technique. The musical analysis uses a number of methods already classical, each in part having clearly defined roles (we mention, without being exhaustive, the historical, statistical, hermeneutical, Schenkerian method, etc.), and as contemporary methods we must mention the mathematical, quantitative or informational analysis (Martinakova-Rendekova, 2012, p. 15). A musical analysis does not have to follow a template, it is not a descriptive writing of a work of art, it does not have the role to emphasize... the mere evidence (the motifs, the phrases, the forms, the harmonic chainings, etc.), but the musicological analysis has the purpose of penetrating into a musical work, to observe the musical logic (Riemann), the inner dynamics, the style, the message, aspects that can only be identified through a careful hermeneutic look. In contemporary music, the lyrics are often replaced with syllables or phonemes without literary meaning, not having primordiality in rendering the artistic message. In an opposing circumstance, the music production entitled 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) proposes a separation from the concept of lied and tries to find a way for the literary text to prevail. The return to the types of singing used 13 Cradle Song 151

152 Artes. Journal of Musicology by all religions in preaching, namely, the chant (psalmody) and declaimed speech, represents the basic technique of musical composition in this cycle of songs, which will bring to the fore the Sprechgesang and declamation. To the same extent, the care for the perception of the text is echoed in the piano accompaniment, or in the instrumental accompaniment respectively, as the composer retained the piano (sometimes electronic organ) due to its presence in all concert halls. Nevertheless, the accompaniment will be permanently reduced, schematized, the instrumentalist will not be in the position of a partner to the singer, in order to leave the possibility of the poetic text to arise above the overall sonority of the musical-stage production. The poems selected for this cycle of songs focused largely on jocularity I have never thought for a moment that these songs should be beautiful, as this would have been a betrayal of the content of the poems. Everything had to be rough, real and according to the poetic text (from the Booklet of the concert program). The musicologist s vision of an innovative concept of musical performance in the work 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) was directed toward the compositional means of rendering the poetic message. As the composer points out, the poems selected for this cycle of songs have mostly been the subject of the ludicrous. The aleatoric writing approached in the compositional language can be highlighted by the variety of vocal-instrumental writing, the preponderance of the declamatory moments, the improvisational moments, the presence of melodic recto-tono evolutions (on the same sound or adjacent sounds) in the aspect of recitative improvising tones (Riga, Urmaşul Sfântului Petru), or crosses which mark the intervallic leaps, the dynamic hypostases of the vocal writing that are on extreme sounds (ffff-pppp) or left to the interpreters decision, their involvement in the scenic unfolding, creating the premises of a musical happening. Although the composer wanted a diminuation of the accompaniment, in the piano score we notice a musical writing based on various sound effects, the performer being involved in the scenic approach also through the theatrical movements circumscribed into the development of the musical performance. References Doron, R. & Parot, F. (1999). Dicționar de psihologie [Dictionary of Psichology]. București: Humanitas. Furtwängler, W. (1987). Pagini de jurnal [Notebooks]. București: Editura Muzicală. Martinakova-Rendekova, Z. (2012). Adecvarea metodelor cantitative în analiza muzicală / Adequacy of Quantitative Methods in Musical Analysis. ICTFM, III,

153 Studies Nedelcuț, N. (2016). The Concept of Musical-Poetical Production in 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) by Constantin Rîpă. Proceedings of International Musicology Congress, 3-rd edition, Timișoara: Editura Eurostampa. Papadima, L. (2006). Limba și literatura română. Hermeneutică literară [Romanian Language and Literature. Literary Hermeneutics]. București: Ministerul Educației și Cercetării. Rîpă, C. (2015). 5 tablouri cu umbre(le) [Five Tableaux with shadows]. Cluj-Napoca: MediaMusica (1st ed.). Stravinski, I. (1967). Poetica muzicală [Musical Poetics]. București: Editura Muzicală. Voloc, C. (2009). Critică și interpretare [Criticism and Interpretation]. Hermeneia. Journal of Hermeneutics, Art Theory and Criticism. Semn și interpretare [Sign and Hermeneutics], 9. Iași: Axis. 153

154 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology Decoding the Musical Message via the Structural Analogy between Verbal and Musical Language ROSINA CATERINA FILIMON George Enescu National University of the Arts Iași ROMANIA Music is the universal language of mankind. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow ( ) Abstract: The topic approached in this paper aims to identify the structural similarities between the verbal and the musical language and to highlight the process of decoding the musical message through the structural analogy between them. The process of musical perception and musical decoding involves physiological, psychological and aesthetic phenomena. Besides receiving the sound waves, it implies complex cognitive processes being activated, whose aim is to decode the musical material at cerebral level. Starting from the research methods in cognitive psychology, music researchers redefine the process of musical perception in a series of papers in musical cognitive psychology. In the case of the analogy between language and music, deciphering the musical structure and its perception are due, according to researchers, to several common structural configurations. A significant model for the description of the musical structure is Noam Chomsky s generative-transformational model. This claimed that, at a deep level, all languages have the same syntactic structure, on account of innate anatomical and physiological structures which became specialized as a consequence of the universal nature of certain mechanisms of the human intellect. Chomsky s studies supported by sophisticated experimental devices, computerised analyses and algorithmic models have identified the syntax of the musical message, as well as the rules and principles that underlie the processing of sound-related information by the listener; this syntax, principles and rules show surprising similarities with the verbal language. The musicologist Heinrich Schenker, 20 years ahead of Chomsky, considers that there is a parallel between the analysis of natural language and that of the musical structure, and has developed his own theory on the structure of music. Schenker s structural analysis is based on the idea that tonal music is organized hierarchically, in a layering of structural levels. Thus, spoken language and music are governed by common rules: phonology, syntax and semantics. Fred Lerdahl and Ray Jackendoff develop a musical grammar where a set of generating rules are defined to explain the hierarchical structure of tonal music. The authors of the generative theory propose the hypothesis of a musical grammar based on two types of rules, which take into account the conscious and unconscious principles that govern the organization of the musical perception. The structural analogy between verbal and musical language consists of several common elements. Among those is the hierarchical organization of both fields, a governance by the same rules phonology, 154

155 155 Studies syntax, semantics and as a consequence of the universal nature of certain mechanisms of the human intellect, decoding the transmitted message is accomplished thanks to some universal innate structures, biologically inherited. Also, according to Chomsky's linguistics model a musical grammar is configured, one governed by wellformed rules and preference rules. Thus, a musical piece is not perceived as a stream of disordered sounds, but it is deconstructed, developed and assimilated at cerebral level by means of cognitive pre-existing schemes. Keywords: musical perception, decoding the musical message, verbal and musical language, cognitive psychology. 1. Introduction The topic approached in this paper aims to identify the structural similarities between the verbal and the musical language and to highlight the process of decoding the musical message through the structural analogy between them. The process of musical perception and musical decoding involves physiological, psychological and aesthetic phenomena. Besides receiving the sound waves, it implies the fact that complex cognitive processes are activated, whose aim is to decode the musical material at cerebral level. During the process of musical perception, the aural analyser does not passively receive sounds, and is not limited to merely carrying to the brain the sound waves captured by the ear. The vibrations of the eardrum are carried to the brain as neural impulses and undergo a number of transformations on account of perceptual processes in which the structure of the sound is segmented and reorganized in rhythmic, melodic and formal schemes; as a result, the musical message is decoded (Schroder & Driver & Streufert, 1967, pp. 3-7). The process of musical reception and perception initially drew the researchers attention on the aspect of emotional experiences triggered by listening to music, according to Behaviourism a trend in psychology which interprets the mind's phenomena by excluding mental processes. However, Cognitivism a trend in psychology that emerged in the 60s as a result of renewed efforts to study the mind, reconsidered how human reactions are triggered at cortical level by analysing the information that occurs between stimulus and response. Starting from the research methods in cognitive psychology, music researchers redefine the process of musical perception in a series of papers in musical cognitive psychology. Thus, musical perception and implicitly musical decoding is regarded as a cognitive phenomenon which involves the activation of complex mental mechanisms and operations of preparing, transforming, storing and recovering music information contained in the sensory input. Some of these papers are Musical Structure and Cognition de Peter Howell and Ian Cross (1985), Music Cognition by Water Jay Dowling and Dane L. Harwood (1985), Music, Cognition, and Computerized Sound de

156 Artes. Journal of Musicology Perry R. Cook (2001) as well as John Sloboda's 1 papers The Musical Mind. The Cognitive Psychology of Music (1985), Musical Perceptions (1994), Perception and Cognition of Music (1997), Generative Processes in Music (2000), Music and Emotion (2001), Exploring the Musical Mind (2004), Psychology for Musicians: Understanding and Acquiring the Skills (2007). 2. Decoding the musical message via the analogy between language and music In the case of the analogy between language and music, deciphering the musical structure and its perception are due, according to the researchers, to several common structural configurations Noam Chomsky and Generative Grammar A significant model for the description of the musical structure is Noam Chomsky s generative-transformational model. Leonard Bernstein considered that the linguistic system proposed by Chomsky can be applied to music and that both Chomsky s analytical methods and his terminology are valid (Bernstein, 1984, p. 122). The founder of transformational generative grammar, the American linguist Noam Chomsky 2 (Fig. 1) has contributed an original theory which has revolutionized linguistics through its generative models. Chomsky claimed that, at a deep level, all languages have the same syntactic structure, on account of innate anatomical and Fig. 1 Noam Chomsky physiological structures, that became specialized as a consequence of the universal nature of certain mechanisms of the human intellect (Nierhaus, 2009, p. 4). Discussing the importance of the role played by heredity in the development of the intellect, Chomsky takes part in the debate known as the controversy between Inneism and Constructivism (1975), against the Swiss psychologist 1 John Anthony Sloboda (b. 1950) studied psychology at Oxford and London, music at Royal Academy of Music, London; Professor in Psychology and Director of Unit for the Study of Musical Skill and Development, University of Keele, Staffordshire, Director of the journal Psychology of Music, associate editor at Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 2 A famed professor in linguistics, Avram Noam Chomsky (b. 1928, Philadelphia) with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), best known for his Theory of generative grammar and for his contributions to the field of theoretical linguistics; he has revolutionized modern linguistics through his generative models. Among his linguistics works are Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (1966), Language and Mind (1968), Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar (1972), Modular Approaches to the Study of the Mind (1984), The Architecture of Language (2000). 156

157 Studies Jean Piaget ( ), who was the supporter of the view that linguistic structures are acquired in the process of language acquisition (Piattelli- Palmarini, 1980). Piaget claimed that environment and the experience acquired had a crucial role in human development, but did not completely deny the role of heredity in the functioning of the brain according to innate principles; however, he challenged the idea of excessive cerebral specialization and stated that linguistic constructions appear not earlier than the age of one and a half, after the development of sensory-motor thinking has made some progress. In the process of acquiring experience, schemes are created, which are organised and thus enable the gradual creation of the complex structures of language and thought. [...] Perception, thinking, language imply the synthesis and the construction of sense related data, which are closely linked to our reactions and actual actions on reality (Cosmovici, 1996, p. 92). Chomsky s theory has revolutionized linguistics and has influenced research in many other fields: psychology, logic, mathematics and music. Chomsky s studies supported by sophisticated experimental devices, computerised analyses, algorithmic models, have identified the syntax of the musical message, as well as rules and principles that underlie the processing of sound-related information by the listener; this syntax, principles and rules show surprising similarities with the verbal language Heinrich Schenker and his analysis of musical structure The musicologist Heinrich Schenker 3 (Fig. 2), 20 years ahead of Chomsky, considers that there is a parallel between the analysis of natural language and that of the musical structure, and has developed his own theory on the structure of music, a system both doctrinal and analytical to understand the music (Preda Ceamurian, Fig. 2 Heinrich Schenker 1996, p. 28). Schenker s structural analysis is based on the idea that tonal music is organized hierarchically, in a layering of structural levels. His analytical method identifies the existence of a particular type of structure, underlying all tonal musical creations of unquestionable value, regardless of the genre or the form (Bach to Brahms, with the exception of Wagner) (Cucu, 2004, p. 39). His analysis starts from the original structure, common to the entire tonal music, called the Ursatz, consisting of a melodic and a harmonic line that represents the skeleton of the work. The deep fundamental structure Hintergrund or Background, is developed using the technique of reduction, by 3 Heinrich Schenker ( ), musicologist, music critic, composer, pianist, teacher. 157

158 Artes. Journal of Musicology means of intermediary structures Mittelgrund or Middleground, up to the superficial form Vordergrund or Foreground, which is the written score (Nierhaus, 2009, p. 93). A speaker produces grammatical clauses and sentences by developing each expression as a unified structure that relates the parts of the discourse, between which it creates relations that can be represented as a branching structure. By analogy, the composer is able to create a work because he can infer the structures of the Ursatz that guide him in the process of generating the sequences of notes. Schenker s analysis offers a complete view of tonal musical structures through a synthesis of the contrapuntal and harmonic components of the musical piece. The analysis of the form proposed by Schenker uses a rich original symbolism; only the graphical analysis of the score is presented, which does not require additional explanations. The analysis begins by identifying the main pillars of the structure; they are distinguished by harmonic, melodic and rhythmic criteria (Preda Ceamurian, 1996, p. 32). The original nature of Schenker s analysis will be followed by Schönberg s; both musicians were considered progressive theorists at the beginning of the 20th century. Schönberg starts his analysis of musical structures presented in his theoretical writings from an entity he named Grundgestalt. It designates a basic musical motif whose role is that of generating the musical form (Dudeque, 2005, p. 137) Musical and linguistic structure. Phonology, syntax, semantics Schenker s and Chomsky s research points present surprising similarities between spoken language and music, between linguistic and musical structure. Thus, spoken language and music are governed by common rules: those of phonology, which studies the selection of a finite number of phonemes out of an infinite number of sounds, those of syntax, which studies the combinations of sounds and of words, those of semantics that studies the meaning of these structures and their combinations. Phonology (or functional phonetics) studies the sounds in a particular language, from a functional point of view, the manner in which stress is placed on the word and in the sentence, the various intonational patterns of the languages and of sentences. The smallest unit of sound in language, the phoneme, which can change the meaning of a word significantly, represents a class of sounds occurring at a certain frequency and duration; it constitutes a class through which the language is perceived at the syntactic and semantic level. Phonology studies the mechanisms that allow the speaker, at the earliest age, to make the distinction between sound duration and the various manners of pronunciation, as for example that between two different consonants. In musical phonology the phoneme is the musical note, the sound. Each note is perceived as a member of a scale where all the other sounds are in an interval relationship to each other. The difference between the various manners of 158

159 159 Studies producing a sound is achieved in a similar manner, in the case of the violin, for example, the difference between a pizzicato note and a sound created by the draw of the bow, or the classification of rhythmic schemes according to their duration and frequency in musical works (Sloboda, 1988, p. 54). Syntax is that part of linguistics that studies the way words are organized and structured in larger units, and the relations between them; the units are the phrase and sentence. In the syntax of a language the elements of a sentence are related to each other grammatically, but also psychologically; the functions of language favour unity and stability. These structural relationships occur similarly in music; the musical syntax represents the organization of elements in the musical language and is an important component of the musical style (Snyder, 2000, p. 201). Thus, the syntax of music studies the rules by which musical signs are combined in a piece. Each musical culture, each period, each composer has its own musical syntax. Starting from the analysis of works belonging to Brahms, Debussy and Berio, Michel Imberty 4 demonstrated that music is based on a symbolic representation of the existential experience of time. There are basic rules in language which have to be complied with in order for the spoken language to be understood. The same happens with the musical language: for the musical message to be understood by the listeners, who possess the genetic and cultural code to decode music, a minimal set of rules must be observed. Equally, understanding the musical language depends on the listener s ability to grasp the various structural strategies created by the composer. For music to have a certain style a minimal set of grammar rules must be observed: those are rules regarding melody, harmony and rhythm. The way musical language is structured in modules and the way in which the modules are linked reflect creative processes that underlie the mechanisms of musical composition; the listener mainly perceives structural coherence, even if the piece contains decorative details, too. Semantics is the area of semiotics that studies the relations the signs have with the objects and events to which they refer. One of the prerequisites of a communication system is that its signs should signify and refer to a reality that transcends them. There are various opinions on the semantics of music that lead to two points of view: on the one hand, the musical language is devoid of meaning and exists only as a convention, within specific social groups, within specific historical and cultural contexts; the concept of musical semantics emerges contextually, closed upon itself; on the other, semantics is studied in terms of both the relationship between sound and extra-musical reality, which is mainly emotional-attitudinal, and also as an intertexture of sounds that have suggestive powers. The musical language appeals to meanings outside music and sometimes imitates the sounds of reality; it symbolically refers to events 4 Michel Imberty, Professor of Psychology at the Paris Nanterre University, Director of Centre de Recherche en Psychologie et Musicologie Systématique (Psychomuse).

160 Artes. Journal of Musicology using various musical motifs which trigger or illustrate certain ideas or emotional states. An interest in semiotics appeared as early as the ancient world: Plato and Aristotle studied signs and the language. Currently this area has become a major interest of modern philosophy. The science of signs, semiotics, branches into three subfields semantics, syntax, pragmatics and was founded almost simultaneously by two European linguists, Ferdinand de Saussure ( ) and Charles Sanders Peirce ( ); the latter viewed it as an essentially philosophical discipline, included in the field of logic and phenomenology; semiotics is defined as the science that studies the processes of semiosis. Peirce, a mathematician, physicist and philosopher, known for his research and contributions in the field of logic and epistemology, the founder of Pragmatics and modern Semiotics, identifies a three-sided relation in semiosis, between sign-object-interpreting instances; in this relationship, the sign plays the role of mediator between the world of objects and the inner world of ideas (Jachia, 1994, p. 69). In the semiotics of music, the name was created by Jean-Jacques Nattiez (Nemescu, 1983, p. 13), the relationship between the parts of the musical project imitate the existing relationship between the objects and the events to which they refer this is the case of music that imitates the dancers rhythm and movements; this is also the case of the way the musical sign is used to highlight the changes, in the case of the ascending musical scales used to represent the ascent, and the descending scales used to illustrate fall and descent. In this case the process used to create this is similar to metaphor Universal innate structures A hypothesized musical syntax, based on the analogy between musical and verbal language, has made researchers to pursue Paul Fraisse (1958), Michel Imberty (1981), Célestin Deliège (1984) some universal innate structures, biologically inherited. The existence of a variety of musical cultures has made possible the discovery of certain features which are universal, as there are fundamental intercultural differences determined by specific contextual elements. However, certain universal elements have been identified. This is the case of the rhythmic structures individualized by Paul Fraisse: the rhythmic elementary relation between two durations, one of which is the double of the first, in a ratio of 2 to 1 (2:1). Fraisse remarks on the fact that both ternary and binary rhythmic structures derive from this type of relation (Fraisse, 1956, p. 74). A few years after Fraisse s remarks, Constantin Brăiloiu writes the following about the universal nature of children s rhythmical structures: the documents show that it (the rhythm) is strictly identical in the whole of Europe [...] and outside it, at least in the case of the kabili, the tuaregs, the population of Senegal, from Dahomy and the Sudan, to the indigenous people of Taiwan. The fact seems all the more striking as, within the children s 160

161 Studies rhythmic creations, the position of stress is immutable, while the idioms use multiple stress (Brăiloiu, 1967, p. 125). The hypothesis of universal rhythmic structures has triggered a search for intervals and universal melodic structures. A study conducted by Michel Imberty must be mentioned here, the one that highlights the presence of a pivotal interval around which the whole structure is built, in all musical scales in children s songs. Similar mobile intervals account for the musical systems that do not pertain to western music (Imberty, 1981, pp ). Musicologist Célestin Deliége s research of universal musical structures reveals the existence of a three-sided structure, present both in spoken and musical language. This corresponds with the structure of the prosodic organization called anacrusis-accent-ending and labelled ATK an acronym of the Greek words Arsis (momentum), Thesis (climax), Katalexis (falling action) (Deliège, 2005, p. 211). However, such a structure does not have a universal character, as it is absent from many musical cultures that are based on bipartite structures. The research carried out by Deliége on the structure of phrases in human language emphasizes the fact that the bipartite structure is followed by the tripartite structure in the evolution of language. These experiments indicate the hypothesis of a possible parallel evolution of the ATK structure in the musical language. These findings may lead to the conclusion that there are no rigid structures. Also the role of the differences between listeners, contextual factors and considerations of style of the musical discourse, the sequence of the musical events in time and space during the audition music must be taken into account The Generative Theory of Tonal Music Fred Lerdahl 5 and Ray Jackendoff 6 published, in 1983, A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (1983), a work "in which the influence of the psychology of form is combined with the model proposed by Chomsky s linguistics (Nattiez, 2005, p. 26). Lerdahl and Jackendoff develop a musical grammar where a set of generating rules are defined to explain the hierarchical structure of tonal music. The authors of the generative theory propose the hypothesis of a musical grammar based on two types of rules, which take into account the conscious and unconscious principles that govern the organization of the musical perception: well-formed rules that describe the perceptual mechanisms that allow an intuitive understanding of musical structure and preference rules related to the preferences that the listener have at a 5 Alfred Whitford (Fred) Lerdahl (b. 1943), composer, musicologist, Professor of Musical Composition at Columbia University, New York. 6 Ray Jackendoff (b. 1945) studied with Noam Chomsky at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); linguist, Professor of Philosophy, musician (clarinetist); Co-director at Center for Cognitive Studies, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts. 161

162 Artes. Journal of Musicology particular point in the structuring of the sounds; the choice is made from among a series of possible logical solutions (Lerdahl & Jackendoff, 1983, p. 9). 3. Conclusions The structural analogy between verbal and musical language consists of several common elements. Among those is the hierarchical organization of both fields, governance by the same rules phonology, syntax, semantics, and as a consequence of the universal nature of certain mechanisms of the human intellect, decoding the transmitted message is accomplished thanks to some universal innate structures, biologically inherited. Also, according to Chomsky s linguistics model a musical grammar governed by well-formed rules and preference rules is configured. Thus, a musical piece is not perceived as a stream of disorderly sounds, but is deconstructed, developed and assimilated at cerebral level by means of cognitive pre-existing schemes. The predefined processes are governed by an inherent grammar of the musical language; within the musical message received, there is a morphological structure, which is the carrier of meanings that are different from the structural elements of the piece, which are created and reassembled by the listener to form complex conceptual structures. References Ayotte, B. McK. (2004). Heinrich Schenker: A Guide to Research. New York and London: Routledge. Bernstein, L. (1976). The Unanswered Question. Six talks at Harvard. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Brăiloiu, C. (1967). Ritmul copiilor [The rhythm of the children]. In Brăiloiu, C. (Ed.), Opere [Works], I (pp ). Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Chomsky, N. (1978). Topics in the Theory of Generative Grammar (Janua Linguarum. Series Minor, Book 59). Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter. Cosmovici, A. (1996). Psihologia generală [General psychology]. Iaşi: Polirom. Cucu, O. (2004). Conceptele analizei schenkeriene [The concepts of Schenkeriene analysis]. Muzica, new series, XV, 1 (57), Bucureşti: UCMR. Deliège, C. (2005). Sources et ressources d'analyses musicales: journal d'une démarche. Wavre: Mardaga Editions. Dudeque, N. (2005). Music theory and analysis in the writings of Arnold Schoenberg ( ). Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing. Fraisse, P. (1956). Les structures rythmiques. Louvain: Publications Universitaires de Louvain. 162

163 Studies Gorlée, D. L. (1994). Semiotics and the problem of translation: with special reference to the Semiotics of Charles S. Peirce. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi. Imberty, M. (1986). Suoni, Emozioni, Significati. Per una semantica psicologica della musica. Bologna: Clueb. Imberty, M. (1981). Tonal articulation and perceptual structuring of musical time in children. Basic musical functions and musical ability (pp ). Stockholm: The Royal Swedish Academy of Music. Jachia, P. (2006). Umberto Eco: arte, semiotica, letteratura. San Cesario di Lecce: Manni Editore. Leisi, E. & Watts, R. J. (1984). Modes of interpretation. Tubinger: Gunter Narr Verlag. Lerdahl, F. & Jackendoff, R. S. (1983). A generative theory of tonal music. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Monti, Martin M. (2017). The role of language in structure-dependent cognition. In Moody, M. (Ed.), Neural mechanisms of language (pp ). New York: Springer US. Nattiez, J.-J. (2005). Istoria muzicologiei şi semiologia istoriografiei muzicale / Histoire de la musicologie et sémiologie de l'historiographie musicale. Iaşi: Artes. Nemescu, O. (1983). Capacităţile semantice ale muzicii [The semantic capabilities of music]. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Nierhaus, G. (2009). Algorithmic composition. Paradigms of automated music generation. Wien: Springer-Verlag. Piattelli-Palmarini, M. (1980). Language and learning: the debate between Jean Piaget and Noam Chomsk. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Preda Ceamurian, H. (1996). H. Schenker pro şi contra [H. Schenker Pros and Cons]. Muzica, new series, VII, 2 (26), Bucureşti: UCMR. Schroder, H. M. & Driver, M. J. & Streufert, S. (1967). Human information processing. Individuals and groups functioning in complex social situations. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Sloboda, J. A. (1988). La mente musicale. Psicologia cognitivista della musica. Bologna: Il Mulino. Snyder, B. (2000). Music and memory: an introduction. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. Temperley, D. (2001). The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 163

164 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology The Subject A Key Element of the Fugue Form during the 20th Century GABRIELA VLAHOPOL George Enescu National University of Arts Iaşi ROMÂNIA Abstract: The great stylistic epochs of the past mostly had syntaxes and specific forms, escaping in the context of the application of polyphonic syntax to the tonal system. The twentieth century, characterized by a continuous mobility and search in the field of the musical language, does not intend to create new musical forms but takes preexisting patterns, which adapt to the creative contexts specific to the composers. Thus, despite the blurring of some of the fundamental elements, other factors of configuration and construction were maintained and amplified, as well as the particular phenomenon, the most significant phenomenon being the development of the thematic principle, which will have its particular manifestations in the fugue form, the diversity of its interpretations bearing the mark of some new directions. Keywords: the fugue form, theme, exposition, 20th century, imitation, poliphony. 1. Introduction A complex thematic form, based on the exposition archetype, the fugue form has as a main constructive reference the thematic articulation, which in the course of the work undergoes more or less considerable transformations, and which, through episodic appearance, determines the organization of the whole in distinct architectural segments with specific functionality. Due to the importance of the theme in establishing the coordinates of the form, the present study deals with several aspects of articulation in the musical context of the 20th century, which are novelties in relation to the knowledge about the theme of the Baroque fugue. 2. Particularization Regarding the intonations employed, as well as the melodic and rhythmic aspects, we have already noted some significant aspects in a previous chapter. We will continue to provide some additional observations on the rhythmic and melodic setting of the fugue themes, particularly focusing on the aforementioned features. From an intonational point of view, we observe the use of a variety of formulas that refer either to Baroque themes (Gregorian or Protestant choral or instrumental style), or units that process elements adopted from folklore (song 164

165 Studies or dance) or are manifestations of the serial, atonal, tonal-geometric thought of the composers: The Gregorian choral style: Erik Satie, Fugue litanique; Dmitri Shostakovich, Fugue IV of 24 Preludes and fugues The Instrumental style: George Enescu, Suite op. 20 (first theme); Sigismund Toduţă, Concert no. 2 for string orchestra Fig. 1a George Enescu, Suite no. 2 op. 20 for orchestra, part I, theme 1, mm. 1-3 Fig. 1b Sigismund Toduţă, Concerto no. 2 for string orchestra, theme, mm. 1-5 The Bachian sonority: Dmitri Shostakovich, Quintet op. 57; Max Reger, Variations and fugue on a theme by J.S. Bach; The Christmas carol: Sigismund Toduţă, Nainte-mi de curţi, Colo-n josu mai din josu (Before the gate, Down below); George Enescu, Fugue from Suite for piano op. 3; The dance: Tudor Ciortea, Octet for wind instruments and piano; Sigismund Toduţă, Mioriţa Oratorio; Fig. 2 Sigismund Toduţă, Mioriţa Oratorio, Fugue, mm

166 Artes. Journal of Musicology Serial theme: Doru Popovici, Symphony II (Spielberg) (fugue theme consisting of 2 complete series); Fig. 3 Doru Popovici, Symphony II (Spielberg), mm. 1-4 Atonal theme: Arnold Schönberg, Pierrot lunaire Der Mondfleck; Fig. 4 Arnold Schönberg, Pierrot lunaire, Der Mondfleck, mm. 1-4 The tonal-geometric theme: Béla Bartók, Music for strings, percussion and celesta, part I; The Funnel 1 theme: Zeno Vancea, Concert for orchestra; Fig. 5 Zeno Vancea, Concerto for orchestra, Fuga, mm. 1-7 Chromatically enriched Byzantine sounds: Gheorghe Firca, Contrapuntal sketch on a Byzantine theme; 1 Term introduced by Dan Voiculescu in the work Polyphony of the 20th Century. 166

167 Studies The theme without melodic intonations, achieved only by/through acoustic effects: Şerban Nichifor, Anamorphose; Fig. 6a Şerban Nichifor, Anamorphose, mm

168 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 6b Ernst Toch, Geographical Fugue, mm. 1-3 The melodic structure of the themes is the direct expression of the composing thought belonging to the authors who approached the fugue technique, a tendency that can be framed in several main directions: - late romanticism (Max Reger), which exploits tonal thinking in an intensely chromatic hypostasis; - neo-classical, which takes the Baroque tonalism (George Enescu, Suite op. 3); - tonal with pentatonic and pre-pentatonic modal influences; - diatonic modal (Erik Satie); - tonal system based on the first partials of the natural harmonics series (Paul Hindemith, Ludus tonalis, Trio); - chromatic modalism (Sigismund Toduţă, Concerto for orchestra no. 2); - dodecaphonic system; - atonal system (György Ligeti, Aurel Stroe); - serialism (Doru Popovici). In some cases, we even observe certain correspondences between the fugue subjects of some composers and the intonational patterns from the creation of others. In the fugue from Sonata for solo violin by Marcel Mihalovici, the theme takes on variation one of Szymanowsky's choral works (via ornamentation on modal-chromatic basis). 168

169 Studies Fig. 7a Karol Szymanowsky, Cine bate, mm Fig. 7b Marcel Mihalovici, Sonata for solo violin, theme, mm. 1-2 From the point of view of the interval structure, the Baroque fugue was based on scalar formulas, connected by leaps not exceeding a sixth, but framed in a clearly defined tonal context In the twentieth century, due to the progressive expansion of the tonal system, on the one hand by the increase of the chromatic complexity, and on the other by mixing with elements of modal thinking in various hypostases up to atonal and serial thinking, we see a change in the melodic design of the themes, manifested by the introduction of successive leaps, sometimes exceeding an octave. We observe a differentiation on this line between the tonal or the tonemodal themes and those of intense chromatic or atonal conception: gravitational thinking stands out by itself, the melodic formulas are individualized and are recognizable precisely through the logic of melodic organization and clear latent harmonic chains; the atonal system (serial, geometric) can only be imposed upon hearing via shocking formulas, leaps or successions of unexpected leaps, or specific melodic formulas. 169

170 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 8 Aurel Stroe, Sonata for piano, part III, Fuga, mm Due to the rugged structure of such thematic constructions, we can no longer speak, as in the case of Bachian fugues, of the existence of a welldefined climax, but of an ensemble of musical and extra-musical factors (text in the case of vocal or vocal-symphonic fugues, emission mode, attack type, intervalic, rhythmic formulas, etc.), which determines a discursive route with particular expressive meanings oscillating between pure objectivism (Hindemith, Ravel) and maximum subjectivity (in Wozzeck, each theme of the triple fugue bears the mark of the character's symbolic nature, becoming a leitmotiv). From a rhythmical point of view, we observe the same delimitation of the manifestation tendencies also applicable to intonation, this time focused on two major sub-classes: - the neoclassical line, which takes on the rhythmic formations specific to the Baroque fugue, whether of a vocal nature in stile antico, or of an instrumental style, characterized by the fluency of the sixteenth grouping. Fig. 9 Arthur Honegger, Prelude, Arioso et Fughette sur le nom BACH, Fughette, mm

171 Studies - with the rhythmic factor emancipation in the 20th century music, there is a diversification of the rhythmic formulas, the expression of the thematic articulation being influenced by the punctuated formulas, by the rhythmic ornamentation by multiple divisions of the time units, by the association of asymmetric formulas disproportionate as number of elements and temporal aspect. The diversification of the rhythmic side at the level of the theme will extend to the variation of its later aspects (in the median halves), not only by augmentation or diminution, but by the diversification of the rhythmic formulas that alter the grouping of the original values and metro-rhythmic accents (ex. Myriam Marbé, Sonata for two violas, part 2, György Ligeti, Requiem Kyrie). We also encounter a metric variation of the themes, highlighted by the polymetry of some thematic articulations (see Aurel Stroe, Fugue from the Sonata for piano). As with the Baroque fugue themes, we encounter aspects of latent polyphony in the construction of the thematic articulations, yet along a similar line of application of the process. A special type of latent polyphony, particular to the creation following the 1950s, is the one obtained on punctualist bases such as the fugue from the Sonata for solo clarinet by Tiberiu Olah. The apparent planes belonging to the same monody are delineated based on timbre and attack, as well as on the valorisation of the dynamic elements. Fig. 10 Tiberiu Olah, Sonata for solo clarinet, theme, mm The tendencies for maximum rationalization of modal structures placed their mark on the ways of conceiving fugue themes. Thus, in serial works, we often encounter quasi-symmetrical thematic constructions, whose internal organization allows precisely because of the similarity of the variants - their simultaneous processing. For example, the theme of the fugue from the Sonata for two violas by Myriam Marbé is subject to multiple permutations, which also give rise to symmetric modules. 171

172 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 11 Myriam Marbé, Sonata for two violas, theme The whole discourse of the section (Aria) is built up by overlapping and juxtapositions of different variants of the primary and derived series in multiple rhythmic scenes. The relationship of the two structures determines, on the one hand, the sound unity of the whole, and on the other hand, by imprinting the sensation of mono-thematism, it gives birth to the form, which becomes a fugue in a very free aspect. The imitation of the two component voices is never strict, and melodic differences (generated by the many added sounds to the initial series) but especially the rhythmic ones make it sometimes difficult to perceive the imitated model. Fig. 12 Myriam Marbé, Sonata for two violas, part II, Aria, mm

173 Studies 3. Thematic treatment in the fugue exposition We will continue to address some of the types of response and the fugue of the 20th century. The expositive response is divided into two categories: 1. the octavian response, which continues the traditional closing line of the imitation circle with the return to the base tone (C-G-C). The process is especially applied by neo-classical composers whose extended (tono-modal) tonal language is still dominated by the gravitational dominant functionality (Bartók, Enescu, Shostakovich, Stravinsky, etc.). 2. the non-octavian response can be divided in two subclasses: - the superior fifth interval response (or lower fourth) without closing the imitative string in the octave circle. In this category, there are the fugue expositions of a considerable number of authors who use intensely chromatic sonorous language, to the limit of atonalism or in the serial works of the composers concerned with constructivism as a way of conceiving creation. Fig. 13a Arnold Schönberg, Pierrot lunaire, Der Mondfleck, mm

174 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 13b György Ligeti, Musica ricercata, no. XI, mm The same category includes some of György Ligeti's works, who openly expresses his intention to take over, as a tribute, some of the old polyphonic techniques (Omaggio a Girolamo Frescobaldi). - the response at a different interval than the fifth. In this category, a great number of opuses are aligned, complying with the sign of a complex modalism obtained by chromaticism, or as is the case of Hindemith or other composers, of a personal sonorous system. Moreover, in most cases, it is no longer a question of a proper response, but of a succession of entries according to criteria other than the traditional ones, which are based on the dominant tonal principle. In Music for strings, percussion and celesta (1st movement) by Béla Bartók, the vocals entry is conducted according to a rigorous and originally structured tonal plan, which follows the circle of fifths both in ascending and descending directions, the latter two, at an extended fourth interval, thus resuming the first bipolar axis. In Sonata for violin and piano, 3rd movement by Paul Hindemith, the expositive entries take place at a descending second interval, the last entry preceding the first episode ending the series of exposes in an octave interval, while replaying the theme in the original version (C-Bb-A-G-C). Between the extreme exposures on the same sound, we discover an intonational differentiation, made by enharmonic permutation, in order to avoid the vertical occurrence of a collision between two different alterations of the same sound (G# with Gb m. 19). 174

175 Studies Fig. 14 Paul Hindemith, Violin sonata in C major no. 4, 3rd movement, mm In the same scalar layout, the entries in the exposition of the fugue in part IV of the Trio by the same composer are ordered in a wave-like manner E F# A Ab (the B-A-C-H formula). We can see a preference of the composer for the imitation on the second and on the third, the latter being especially capitalized in Ludus tonalis 2. 2 An aspect noticed and commented by Dan Voiculescu in the work Polyphony of the 20th Century, Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală,

176 Artes. Journal of Musicology 176

177 Studies Fig. 15 Paul Hindemith, Trio op. 34, part IV, mm In Stravinsky s case (Octet, 3rd movement) we encounter what we might call self-imitation the presentation of the theme and of the response at the same voice. The theme is exposed consecutively on the same tune by the 1st bassoon, the aspect of fugue exposition being suggested by the entry of an additional instrumental counter-subject, in the upper plan of the second appearance. Other examples of changes in the relationship between thematic exposures in the exposition: At Tiberiu Olah (fugue from the Clarinet sonata) we encounter the succession of entries at a small ascending second interval F-F#-G. The explicit deviation from the gravitational conception of classical tonalism is expressed by the three expositional entries of the theme from the Spielberg Symphony by Doru Popovici. The intonation 177

178 Artes. Journal of Musicology cycle does not conclude in an octave interval, but in the distorted spirit of the diminished octave (8-), expressed by the relation E-Eb. An original succession, based on the perfect fifth / diminished fifth combination, can be found in the three voice exposition from the Sonata for solo violin by Marcel Mihalovici Eb / A / Bb. The three sounds are not only found in the eight-element chromatic series (with 2 repetitive sounds) which forms the basis of the theme, but also represent its pillars: incipient, middle and final. Fig. 16 Marcel Mihalovici, Sonata for solo violin, 2nd movement, Fugue, mm. 1-5 In Ede Terényi s piece for organ, the thematic entries follow the order of pitches in the B A C H series Bb - A - C both in the exposition and in the stretto following it. How could we explain, based on a sonorous reasoning pertaining to functionality or non-functionality, the thematic exposures in Anamorphose by Şerban Nichifor or in Ernst Toch s Geographical Fugue? In such cases, from the entire rigorous imitative technique, only the principle of the successive entries of a sonorous event for all the voices involved in the polyphonic discourse is preserved. An element of novelty in the 20th century fugue is the abandonment in some cases of the enunciation of the subject by a single voice, specific to the model of the Baroque period. In this situation, we also encounter various ways of accompanying the theme: By introducing a free counterpoint, which can embrace more hypostases depending on the degree of repeatability and visibility during later statements of the subject; A free counterpoint that does not bear further treatment. For example, in Contrapuntal sketch by Gheorghe Firca; A counterpoint that becomes the ostinato pedal throughout the entire exposition. In Trio by Paul Hindemith (Fugue 1), the ostinato unfolds unchanged together with the first two entrances, being 178

179 Studies modified by successive transpositions to a different discursive plane (from G# to F#, C#, G, A, D and finally to Ab). The ostinato counter-subject is based on the first motive of the theme; Fig. 17 Paul Hindemith, Trio, 4th movement, Fugue, mm A particular type of exposition is the one found in the fugato from the String Quartet op. 7 by Bartók. The four statements placed at a descending fourth (F-C) are grouped into pairs that feature two interesting peculiarities: the incipit in stretto and the partial similarity of the subject with the response (at a rhythmic level they are different), the latter taking the appearance of a counter-subject. 179

180 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 18 Béla Bartók, String Quartet op. 7 no.1, 1st movement, mm A particular case of great interest is the exposition of the second theme of the Organ composition fugue by Ede Terényi; Fig. 19 Ede Terényi, Organ composition, mm After its initial statement, the theme is gradually imitated at all voices, its counterpoint being accomplished by repeating the same thematic lines in various rhythmic variants. Thus, the theme becomes a counterpoint to itself. 180

181 Studies In the same context of counter-subjects, one can notice the preference of fugue composers of the 20th century for the strict counterpoint, sometimes with even two and up to three counter-subjects. The power of these accompanying lines of the theme determines their individualization, sometimes transforming them into stand-alone themes. In Quintet op. 57 by Dmitri Shostakovich, one of the two counter-subjects from the exposition will have a considerable constructive significance in the subsequent sections: it is resumed in the second episode as an actual theme, and in the final part, the first counter-subject is played in between the two statements of the subject, without being present in this section with the original function. In the cycle 24 Preludes and fugues, Shostakovich also employs a wide variety of counter-subjects, the appearance of which during the fugue leading to the emergence of multiple counterpoint ratios. 4. Conclusions As a musical idea with developmental virtues, referring to a certain structure of form, the theme 3 far exceeds the significance of a simple musical idea precisely through its formal core function in the context of the respective architecture, becoming what Valentin Timaru (1990, pp ) designates as a formal landmark for musical forms with a refrain and for variational forms, and a form of reason for complex thematic forms. The fluctuating and free use of means of sound expression in the twentieth century music determined the change of the concept of fleeing manifested through a new authenticity. The layout of the fugue form, directly influenced by the innovations of the thematic concept, has embraced creative values that impose limits on the composer s fantasy and enrich it precisely through these constraints. The variety of means of conceiving the form of escape, manifested in the musical and structural parameters, becomes the starting point for the most unexpected hypostases of the form, often surprising in their modernity. References Scriabine, M. (1954). Athematisme et fonction thematique. Polyphonie, Paris: Richard-Masse. Timaru, V. (2002). Dicţionar noţional şi terminologic. Prolegomene ale unui curs de analiză muzicală [Dictionary of notion and terminology. Prolegomena of a music analysis course]. Oradea: Editura Universităţii din Oradea. 3 We call the theme a musical idea of reference for the evolution of a musical discourse, in which the sound organization imparts some interdependence relations crystallized in a certain principle of superior organized musical form. (Timaru, 2002, pp ) 181

182 Artes. Journal of Musicology Timaru, V. (1990). Morfologia şi structura formei muzicale (Curs de forme şi analize muzicale) [Morphology and Structure of Musical Form (Course on Musical Forms and Analysis)], I. Cluj Napoca: Academia de Muzică Gh. Dima. Vancea, Z. (1973). Despre polifonie [About Polyphony]. Muzica, 6, Bucureşti: UCMR. Vancea, Z. (1980). Polifonia modernă [Modern Polyphony]. Muzica, 4, Bucureşti: UCMR. Voiculescu, D. (2000). Fuga în creaţia lui J. S. Bach [Fugue in the oeuvre of J.S. Bach]. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Voiculescu, D. (1974). Aspecte ale polifoniei în muzica românească contemporană [Features of polyphony in contemporary Romanian music]. Muzica, 6, Bucureşti: UCMR. Voiculescu, D. (2005). Polifonia secolului XX [Polyphony of the 20 th Century]. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Voiculescu, D. (1979). Structuralismul şi polifonia [Structuralism and polyphony]. Lucrări de muzicologie, 8-9, Cluj-Napoca: Academia de Muzică Gh. Dima. 182

183 DOI number: /ajm Studies Performing practice 1 comparative analysis PETRUȚA-MARIA COROIU Transilvania University Brașov ROMANIA ALEXANDRA BELIBOU Transilvania University Brașov ROMANIA Abstract: Musical notation and its relationship with the concept of performance is very complex, depending on the context. Our paper discusses some important ideas about performance, referring to ascpects specific to great conductors such as S. Celibidache and W. Furtwängler. We begin by outlining the basic concepts behind their interpretations before going into more detail with specific examples. Keywords: performance, analysis, conducting. 1. Introduction Musical notation is defined as a set of instructions which show the interpreter the way the composer intended the work to be performed 2. Interpreters have always enjoyed a certain degree of freedom in performing a musical piece. In time the degree of precision of the composer s notation increased as well as the interpreter s requirement to carry out every detail 3. In deciphering a musical score, one must look for the precise meaning of each musical symbol and sign, depending on the period of musical history to which it belongs... When a certain work is being studied, the following aspects must be taken into consideration: - the exact tempo (which depends on the size of the ensemble, of the room, on the interpreters state of mind at that time) - possible modifications of the tempo, if allowed - the sonority (for example, reproducing Baroque sonorities if playing period instruments 4 ) - the phrasing - the types of ornamentation permitted (for example, during late Renaissance or in the case of Baroque arias) 1 In German Auffuhrungspraxis. 2 New Grove s Dictionary for Music and Musicians, electronic edition, Performing practice. 3 In Ancient Greece or in medieval neumatic writing, the notations were mere approximations in rendering the details of the musical score. 4 Fortepiano, harpsichord. 183

184 Artes. Journal of Musicology - possible improvisational passages, if allowed (for example, the music of minstrels and trouveres, and the continuous bass of the Baroque in the 17 th and 18 th centuries) However, it is not possible to write down every detail of the interpretation as a musical score. Even the successive interpretations of the same work, performed by the same interpreter 5, may display variations in tempo, phrasing or tone 6. In the 15 th century, the interpreter had the freedom to choose several aspects of the interpretation: the size and composition of the ensemble, the alterations (musica ficta 7 ), the correspondence between the text and the musical accompaniment. In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, the notation was descriptive or approximate. Starting with the 19 th century, the precision of the notation and of the interpretation increased (from Beethoven): the tempo (including metronimic notations), the phrasing, the bow features, the dynamics. The 20 th century saw the first electronic recordings of differing versions of various pieces. Although there has been a movement towards deferring to the composer s vision, in the 20 th century extremes of musical notation were recorded: From the precise details in G. Enescu s scores, to John Cage s free hand. In order to understand all aspects surrounding interpretation, the following elements must be investigated: - the music and the society of that period - organology (musical instruments, their specific features) - interpretation treaties, theoretical writings (ex: the writings of Leopold Mozart 8 or J. Mattheson) - the size of the ensemble - the acoustics of the room - the nature of the occasion of the interpretation. 2. Comparative analysis and conclusions Sergiu Celibidache ( ) was a Romanian conductor and composer, honorary member of the Romanian Academy. From 1979, he was the general musical director of the city of Munich and permanent conductor of the philharmonic orchestra and under his direction; it became one of the best symphonic orchestras in the world. He was a great interpreter of post-romantic 5 Depending on the character of the movement. 6 Ex Glenn Gould, Arta fugii [The art of the fugue] (versions 1956, ). 7 They add accidentals, sharps and flats to the written notes, following the rules of musica ficta. New Grove s Dictionary for Music and Musicians, electronic edition, Musica ficta. 8 Eisen, C., New Grove s Dictionary for Music and Musicians, electronic edition, Leopold Mozart ( ): composer, violinist, pedagogue and theorist, author of a definitive theoretical work for violin, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule (1756). 184

185 Studies music (Bruckner) and of French Impressionists. His conducting style was very original (the variety of tempos) however unfortunately he refused to have his music recorded on disc. He also composed and wrote a Requiem and four symphonies. Sergiu Celibidache adopted an original approach to conducting, matched by his atypical career as the conductor of some of the most important German orchestras. After he graduated, after World War II, for seven years, Celibidache was the conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, until its conductor none other than Wilhelm Furtwängler was reinstated following obligatory denazification. Having conducted several big European orchestras, the Munich Philharmonic, he felt, owed him nothing short of perfection. Fig. 1 Sergiu Celibidache Celibidache s interpretation brought a fresh original approach to the musical sound and its musical culmination. The inner logic is built on his unique notions of sensitivity and expressiveness, made many of his collaborators uncomfortable. His ideas can be related to the concept of otherness, which refers to the search for a new content through music, (...) as a result of his desire to eliminate tradition, either wholly or in part, and to accept new meanings for the music of the past, present or future; he challenges the nature of musical references and releases it from ideological, racist or nationalist constraints (Rădulescu, 2003, p. 4). Celibidache s theories of music take it not as a singular sound, but as the relationship between at least two sounds. He takes into account especially the way time is shaped (chronologically and artistically) within the sound: music is temporal architecture, whose norms, patterns, and needs can be extrapolated to any field in time; music is the most powerful proof of the human capacity to infer, imagine, feel, represent and create time, and this is undoubtedly why it 185

186 Artes. Journal of Musicology generates the feeling of abstraction experienced in life (Iorgulescu, 1988, pp ). The musical style of the great Romanian conductor was built especially on the idea of deviation rather than conformity: the deviation from a style cannot be defined exactly and objectively: (...) it represents the distance from the school tradition or the archive, the divergence from the norms of the period in question (Sandu-Dediu, 2010, p. 18) but it becomes harder to delineate. According to Sergiu Celibidache, music has a powerful and extensive effect on the human personality (both at the conscious and the subconscious level). Music is seen as a living, changing organism unravelling time, not from a static perspective. Celibidache often noted the precarious, ephemeral nature of musical sound, and its creation (which disappears as it unravels in time), yet this evanescence does not prevent it from revealing its beauty. Celibidache revolutionized the way musical phenomena was considered, removing it from the academic world and connecting it more to emotional interpretation and making this the main standard for the conductor and audience to interpret the piece. He believed musical experiences had to beyond the power of language and directly related to the lived experience. And this was a combination of sound and expressiveness. As a world class interpreter of post-romantic music (Anton Bruckner) and Impressionism (Maurice Ravel, Claude Debussy), Celibidache thought of each musical performance as a living act, which could not withstand repetition or recording. He had the courage to promote slower tempos than was customary, believing it gave full weight to the sound and thus, the complete emotional range Sergiu Celibidache s principles of interpretation We have synthesized some of his main ideas on musical performance. Celibidache stated that he had a heroic and incorrigible attitude: I want to try to do things which reason excludes. I asked myself: could a short hour be more than a long quarter of an hour? (Celibidache, 2012, p. 12) Music is not anything, but notes can become, in unique conditions, music. The sound is not music, the sound can become music. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 13) The sound has an unequivocal influence on the human spirit (Celibidache, 2012, p. 14): musical sound loaded with semantic meaning can induce certain states of mind, feelings and ideas. It shapes the whole human condition starting with its values. 186

187 Studies Fig. 2 Sergiu Celibidache The sound (music tone) is movement, it is created by constant and equal vibrations and only by humans (Celibidache, 2012, pp ): the sound is not a simple static finite element of music, it is only the starting point, made up of an infinite number of superior harmonies which stir up its interior. The sound of music is a living world. The musical tone is ephemeral (Celibidache, 2012, p. 16): any sound has a limited duration, but music in itself, as a form of art, is ephemeral, because it is consumed in time (it is temporal art), it cannot be stopped or preserved in stone. The musical tone (which vibrates constantly) never vibrates alone. A long string of sounds vibrate together and meet in a completely new and resonant multitude. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 16) Music starts from the relationship between two sounds, from the way they relate to each other. Is music only the consequence of the sound? The essence of music is the relationship between the musical tone and the human being, in the search for correspondences between sound structure and the structure of the human emotional universe (emotions and feelings from the emotional world). (Celibidache, 2012, pp ) The tone is born at man s initiative and belongs to the universe at the same time. One tone cannot become music; (...) it materializes only through the birth of the following tone. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 22) The human spirit is an indivisible unit, closed in itself, which always takes a multitude of forms. It can only relate to another ONE. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 28) These things cannot be explained in words, they can only be lived! (Celibidache, 2012, p. 32) 187

188 Artes. Journal of Musicology One tone cannot become music. When after the first tone comes another, the first link is created, which sets the first connection between what is being heard and what has already been heard. This is not enough to fascinate the listener with the movement of sound. What is the connection between two consecutive sounds? The second tone is equal to the first. The first tone is followed by something different. (Celibidache, 2012, pp ) The longer the distance between the two tones, the greater the tension. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 37) There is no repetition in music. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 33) Frescobaldi said: expressive passages must be performed softer than others. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 40) Bach said: the one who cannot recognize the tempo of the tone should give up music. (Celibidache, 2012, p. 40) Haydn said: the harmonies of a final part must be simple (tonic, dominant, subdominant). The slow parts can also contain chromatic harmonies (the relationship between sound and tempo). (Celibidache, 2012, p. 41) 2.2. Wilhelm Furtwängler s principles of interpretation Wilhelm Furtwängler ( ) was a German composer and conductor who had a varied career conducting in Mannheim and Vienna. By 1933 he had become the director of the Berlin State Opera. Fig. 3 Wilhelm Furtwängler We note some of his important ideas about the art of performing: In the case of modern works (Strauss, Tchaikovsky) you can give something of yourself, but in the case of classical works, above all, you have to perform with style. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 32) I think nothing of a so-called interpreter of 188

189 Studies Beethoven who fails to perform a waltz by Chopin or an opera by Puccini. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 32). His references about subtle stylistic elements are varied and they contribute to the quality of his performance. Like Sergiu Celibidache, Furtwängler considered the microstructure as important as the macrostructure of musical discourse (both being useful in understanding the work of art): Focusing on the detail, musicians became less and less able to identify ample bowing and to take into consideration the natural relationship between the whole and the part (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 35). There are moments in which the spiritual expression has a direct influence, for example, the approach of the so-called rubato (a free fluctuation of the rhythm): depending on the spiritual resources of each of us, we can read it as a barometer if the said impulses are in agreement with the true meaning of the work, whether they are real or not. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 64) Fig. 4 Wilhelm Furtwängler Furtwängler is one of the great conductors who talks about the quality of the reception of music by the audience giving value to the piece. The public cannot discern between what is authentic and necessary and what is fake. The public has lost its sense of differentiating between the expressive gesture (which derives from the work itself), and the conductor s empty gesture, meant only to impress the public. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 64) An interpretation which is permanently aimed at virtuosity, at external effects and changes will cause and develop some similar features in the public. In such conditions, the 189

190 Artes. Journal of Musicology music loses its significance, its capacity to answer an inner need. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 65) The spiritual depth of a performance is thought of as a clash of values: the interpreters spiritual mark is visible in their work methods (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 65). In the absence of the understanding of the authentic form we begin to search for substitutes, for crutches to support the wobbling construction. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 62) The technical side must not become a purpose in itself: this means you lose sight of the fact that the soul must be form and the form, soul, you lose the sense of the need for and authenticity of the artistic creation. (Furtwängler, 2005, p. 63) 3. Case study In order to support the above ideas, we would like to perform a comparative analysis of the interpretation by the two directors of the first part of Beethoven s 5 th symphony. In the case of maestro Sergiu Celibidache, we chose to focus on a disk produced by the record label EMI Classics in February 1998 (Münchner Philharmoniker). The conductor s opinion concerning the deep understanding of a musical creation s meaning is reflected from the first notes of Beethoven s score. The musical material is, in a sense, like a landscape, it has mountains, valleys, rivers. It has its own topography. What can we do to become aware of this landscape and its different natural variances? We cannot change them, we cannot alter them, but we can ignore them. If we do not want to ignore these features, we must integrate all the information about the landscape into a single unity. Musically speaking, one cannot change the music to make it more expressive. (Celibidache, 1993, p. 29) His interpretation as director avoids the exaggerated anger and drama in favour of a mature climax, and the chosen controlled tempo suggests the importance of internalizing the musical moments, but does not deny the connection between each sound and the whole. With his specific musical wisdom, Celibidache offers space and time to musical themes, without segmenting the musical discourse, not even during the customary pauses at the beginning of the symphony, but managing to connect the elements of the musical texture in order to accumulate expressive tension at the climax. The silence which separates the incipient Beethovenian motifs is, under the conductor s stick, an inaudible music connecting the whole. The development of the first part of the symphony in A minor emphasizes the lack of resistance to the tragic, but it does not suggest resignation due to the lack of courage. The reconciliation we are discussing stems from the fusion of these two themes in the first movement, Celibidache masterfully manages to create unity between the dramatic tension and the feeling of bliss. 190

191 Studies The conductor proposes for each timbre a well-defined place in the orchestra. No matter how rich Beethoven s musical texture is, the voices which make up the whole can be easily followed. The words that characterize Sergiu Celibidache s interpretation as conductor refer to the way the musical elements are connected to the whole, and the sonorous results recorded on CD confirm the fact that music represents an evolution. In opposition to the idea of dilated time specific for Celibidache s interpretation, in the recording of Beethoven s Symphony no. 5 conducted by Wilhelm Furtwängler we notice musical intuition subject to authentic expression, a storm which reflects a sensual perspective on art. We refer to the 1954 recording made by the Berlin Philharmonic. Characterized by an inner flame that generates a sonorous vortex into which the listener is drawn without being aware, maestro Furtwängler s interpretation is much more dynamic and accentuated than the first recording, with a more alert tempo, and contrasts which highlight the conductor s preferences for Schenkerian analysis (Cook, 2007). Following the harmonic pillars, Furtwängler manages to construct a colourful and dramatic sonorous universe. The motif of destiny is, in the musician s opinion, the heart and is represented by the long sound, and the three eights which precede it do not require rhythmic rigor, but function as an elastic trampoline for the harmonic pillar. This is in opposition to Celibidache s idea about this famous motif, as shown by the previously mentioned interpretation. If in Celibidache s case, the equilibrium generates a motif in the beginning with stable equal and agogic rhythm, for Furtwängler, the initial measures present a greater freedom of movement showing the conductor s impulses. A pertinent example is the way the two maestros understand the motif of destiny, the first sounds that can be heard represent a synthesis of the entire conducting experience. Volcanic and passionate, Furtwängler s conducting style bewitches us through powerful feelings, in contrast with Celibidache s balanced interpretation. 4. Conclusions We presented some essential ideas about musical performance, ideas that belong to two great conductors of the twentieth century. Between the two titans, a post-war conflict developed in the history of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra (Lang, 2015), a dispute presented by Klaus Lang exhaustively, through the conductors correspondence. 191

192 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 5 The eternal conflict Their concepts show two different attitudes to musical performance, one more revolutionary, the other more traditional. But both lead to the same result: a brilliant musical act. References Celibidache, S. (2012). Despre fenomenologia muzicală [About Musical Phenomenology]. București: Spandugino. Celibidache, S. (1993). La mu sica, sin alternativa. ABC Newspaper, 10. Cook, N. (2007). The Schenker Project. Culture, Race, and Music Theory in Fin-desiècle Vienna. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Furtwängler, W. (2005). Muzică și iubire [Music and Love]. București: Editura Niculescu. Iorgulescu, A. (1988). Timpul muzical: materie și metaforă [Musical time: matter and metaphor]. București: Editura Muzicală. Lang, K. (2015) Celibidache şi Furtwängler. Marele conflict postbelic de la Filarmonica din Berlin [Celibidache and Furtwängler. The Great Post-War Conflict at the Berlin Philharmonic]. București: Editura Muzicală. Rădulescu, A. (2003). Perspective semiotice în muzică [Semiotic Perspectives in Music]. București: UNMB. Sandu-Dediu, V. (2010). Alegeri, atitudini, afecte despre stil și retorică în muzică [Choices, Attitudes, Emotions about Style and Rhetoric in Music]. București: Editura Didactică și Pedagogică. 192

193 DOI number: /ajm Studies Critical Reception of Late 19 th Century Iași-based Music. Alexandru Flechtenmacher DALIA RUSU-PERSIC George Enescu National University of the Arts Iași ROMANIA Abstract: In late 19 th -century periodicals, music criticism captured only a few details on the composition techniques, the structural organization, the rhythmic-melodic or vocal and stage interpretation of various performances. The press shed light on these pieces only at an informative level, mentioning titles, composers, and interpreters and even omitting some details due to, on the one hand, the authorities indifference to the musical phenomenon and, on the other hand, the editors sheer ignorance of particular stylistic or musical language features. However, the attempts made by the personalities active in the cultural and artistic life were real and unrelenting, their results being guided by the desire to promote music with specific national traits. This study provides an analytical perspective on the current reception of that social-artistic context. Taking into account that new sources have favored a more detailed and profound investigation of the 19 th -century critical phenomenon, our analysis supplements the information presented in the music history studies already published in Romania. Consequently, the first section of this paper approaches the extremely dynamic phenomenon represented by the creation of new journals / newspapers in the 19 th century. It is our belief that starting from general journalism, we can acquire a better understanding of the development of musical criticism. This research aimes to discover new dimensions of Iași-based music, placing special emphasis on the critical reception of the composer Alexandru Flechtenmacher. We will follow its reflection in the Romanian press, starting from the first accounts in this respect, and ending with the subsequent assessments formulated in 20 th -century musicology. Although the texts that tackle musical issues are quite few and social aspects prevail in the commentators list of interests, by combining the information provided by general literary, historical, social sources with the details included in specialized articles we can create a new perspective on late 19 th -century Iași-based compositions. Keywords: Romanian newspapers, 19 th century, musical press, Iași, Alexandru Flechtenmacher. 1. Introduction In the 19 th century, the Romanian Principalities teemed with various critical, folk-based, didactic, and historical endeavors that aimed to provide guidelines for Romanian music and satisfy the aesthetic aspirations of audiences. They went hand in hand with the development of musical life and 193

194 Artes. Journal of Musicology the composers increasing openness to other compositional perspectives. The interest in theoretical musical issues becomes a certainty in the latter part of the 19 th century, even if the term musicology may not be appropriate in this context because it is said to have a more recent origin in Romania. However, it is a fact that the introduction to the first issue of Doina magazine mentions the word musicologists, which means that the activities related to musical thinking were allotted scientific weight in the common acceptation of that age (Breazul, 1973, p. 41). The musicians who also explored the area of music theory in our country were not professionals, i.e. specialists; music critics did not see themselves as having a stable profession in this field. Musicians acted as teachers, orchestra/choir conductors, marching band leaders, writers, or connoisseurs asked to give private music lessons. In other words, musicological activities had not yet acquired the right to exist. The critics work and passion for music are only evidenced and recorded in the publications of that period. The information presented in this research draws, first of all, on new Romanian and foreign sources, i.e. several studies that focused on 19 th -century cultural journalism. It is worth mentioning in this respect is the volume The Making of Modern Romanian Culture: Literacy and the Development of National Identity by Alex Drace-Francis, which was particularly useful by providing an up-to-date and outward perspective on Romanian journalism in its early stages. In addition, several other contemporary Romanian studies by historians and philologists, edited or available online were particularly useful: Marian Petcu (ed.) Istoria jurnalismului din România. Enciclopedie cronologică [History of Journalism in Romania. Chronological Encyclopedia];; Istoria artelor frumoase (Arhitectura, Sculptură, Pictură, Musică, din tóte timpurile și din tóte țerile, inclusiv Rumînia) [History of Fine Arts (Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Music, from our ages and all the countries, including Rumania] by N. E. Idieru, Bucureşti, Gutenberg Printing House, 1898 digitalized volume in the collection of the Bucharest Digital Library; Dicționarul contimporanilor [Dictionary of Contemporaries] Dimitrie R. Rosetti, 1 st edition, Bucureşti, Editura Lito- Tipografiei Populara, 1897 digitalized in the collection of the Bucharest Digital Library). These new sources favored a wider and more detailed analysis of the 19 th -century critical phenomenon, supplementing the information presented in the music history studies already published in Romania. Consequently, the first section of this paper approaches the extremely dynamic phenomenon represented by the creation of new journals / newspapers in the 19 th century. It is our belief that starting from general journalism we can acquire a better understanding of the development of musical criticism. 194

195 195 Studies 2. The first writings about music in the Iaşi press A general historical overview shows that the first Romanian newspapers were founded with the support of the last Russian occupation during the Russian-Turkish War: But it was with Russia's support, and during the latter's occupation of the Principalities, that the first newspapers in Romanian were established. Both Golescu in Wallachia, and the Moldavian Gheorghe Asachi had established close links with the Russian occupying authorities (Drace- Francis, 2006, p. 124). Curierul românesc 1 [The Romanian Courier] (Petcu, 2012, p. 16) was founded in April 1829, and Albina Românească 2 [The Romanian Bee] (Petcu, 2012, p. 16) in June of the same year. Both produced important literary supplements Heliade added Adaos literar 3 [Literary Addition] (Petcu, 2012, p. 16) in 1830 and 1831, and Asachi published the Alăuta românească 4 [The Romanian Lute] or Lira Românească [The Romanian Lyre] The Romanian Lyre] (Petcu, 2012, p. 22) in 1837 and 1838 which effectively established the belles-lettres as a field distinct from the mainstream of official written news. From 9 Jan to 24 Nov Gazeta de Moldavia [The Moldavia Gazette] appears twice a week, continuing Albina Românească, where the new supplement is published Noua Albină română [The New Romanian Bee] , April 19. Bucharest. The first newspaper in Muntenia; its founder, editor and owner is Ion-HeliadeRădulescu , June, 1. Iaşi: Albina Românească. Gazetă politico-literară [The Romanian Bee. Political-literary gazette] starts to appear bi-weekly (1 June January 1835, 3 January January 1850). It is the first newspaper written in Romanian in Moldova, which, along with Curierul românesc [The Romanian Courier] ( ), written by I. Heliade-Rădulescu in Bucureşti, and Gazeta de Transilvania [The Transylvania Gazette] by George Bariţiu, from Brasov, laid the foundations of the Romanian periodical press. Owner and editors: Gh. Asachi, V. Fabian-Bob, Gh. Saulescu, Iancu Codrescu. Albina Românească aims to publish political and interesting novelties from all around the world, bulletins from the theater of war, historical, literal, moral, philological collections, the first papers on useful discoveries , January 3, Bucharest. First press run of Adaos literar la Curierul românesc [Literary Addition to the Romanian Courier], published irregularly till 1832, edited by I. Rădulescu , March, 14. Iaşi. First press run of Alăuta Românească [The Romanian Lute] as a literary supplement to Albina românească. Published irregularly till February 3, 1838, then bimonthly from 1 July to 1 Sept Initiated by Gh. Asachi, and then edited by M. Kogălniceanu. In the eight issues edited by Gh. Asachi s, the supplement included poems and prose by C. Negruzzi, Gh. Asachi and C. Aristia, a feuilleton, and a fragment from the play Zaira by Voltaire. The magazine, i.e. the five issues edited by M. Kogălniceanu, marked an important moment in the evolution of the Romanian literary press, being transformed from an occasional and provincial publication into a modern magazine meant to inform readers about the European literary movement and to stimulate local literary creation based on the history and traditions of the nation in order to produce a national revival. In an article on Neofit Scriban s Catechism, M. Kogalniceanu proposes that the Cyrillic alphabet be replaced with the Latin one. A satirical reference to the Tsarist consul Karl von Kotzebue, made in the article Filosofía visului [Philosophy of Dreams], makes Prince Mihail Sturdza order the magazine s shutdown.

196 Artes. Journal of Musicology Kogălniceanu s and Vasile Alecsandri s collaborative efforts continued with România literară [Literary Romania] Iaşi, 1855 and Steaua Dunării [The Danube Star] , also published in French as L Etoile du Danube, (Drace-Francis, c. 2006, pp ). After the administrative formalities of the Union of the Principalities under the reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza 6 were finalized and Carol of Hohenzollern was appointed the new ruler of the United Principalities, the number of publications began to increase substantially. The most prestigious literary magazine that appeared on the public stage and proposed radical innovations in cultural theory and strategy was Convorbiri literare [Literary Conversations] Published monthly, the magazine was the organ of the Junimea group (founded in 1864), a heterogeneous gathering of intellectuals, boyars, politicians, lawyers, and members of the military with a conservative political agenda, grouped around the new University of Iaşi. Another magazine, in opposition to Convorbiri, was Contemporanul [The Contemporary], founded in Iaşi in 1881 and run by Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea. Of course, the general context was a competition between the two publications: It was in fact to be the socialist paper Contemporanul ( ) and particularly its chief theorist, Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, which constituted Convorbiri s main literary rivals (Drace-Francis, 2006, p. 174). The rising of the Romanian musical critique was mainly supported by the mentors of these general (political-cultural) periodicals, who understood the need that the readers be informed about musical life as well. After 1830, this was reflected by the great density of permanent columns on musical and theatrical works. The first musical journal to be published in Iaşi as a periodical was Almanahul muzical [The Musical Almanach] (Petcu, 2012, p. 91), a magazine that is still a landmark in the history of Romanian writings on music because of the thoroughness and the documented nature of its articles, signed, to a large extent, by Theodor T. Burada a true savant of his time. First published in 1875 and edited till 1877, this publication gathered articles on the evolution and progress of music, medleys, traditional music, scores of folk songs and dances, translations from François Tourte, Achille Dien, or Jean-Jacques 5 The first of these continued the promotion of Alecsandri s collections of Romanian folk poetry: significantly, all provinces were represented in an allusion to the cultural unity of the Romanian people a more modern and more subtle political use to which literature was now being put. At the same time, political articles on the abolition of serfdom were a regular feature. 6 The Union of the Romanian Principalities Moldova and Wallachia was initiated in 1859 and completed in

197 Studies Rousseau. It promoted both local creations and musicological writings from the international specialized literature. In 1875, T.T. Burada provided a general perspective on how art was treated in Moldova at that time: The arts have always been despised here, never encouraged, and this has probably been one of the greatest obstacles to progress and civilization. Humans are not abstract beings, they cannot be controlled as if they were robots, they have senses, and those senses form passions; the science of leading people on the path of progress is no different from the science of shaping their sensitivity, the foundation of human institutions lies in their public and private habits, and the beautiful arts are essentially moral because they make the human being who cultivates them better and happier 7 (Burada, 1875, p. 24). His perspective is based on his unremitting activities of research, notation, and interpretation of everything that means music, from folk music to organology, from historiography to reviews, a dedicated man who became better and happier by cultivating music, as he confessed. He was an optimistic visionary who questioned the issue of the morality of the society in which he lived, saying that a leader of society must, first of all, know how to coordinate the sensitivity of the people, of the masses, because they are not robots!!! On 10 September 1883, the bi-monthly magazine Arta appeared in Iaşi; from no. 9 of 10 January 1884 the publication s header included the mention theatrical and musical magazine and from no. 14 of 25 March 1884 it started to focus only on the musical side ( musical magazine ). Unfortunately, on 15 September 1885, the magazine s publication was interrupted, only to re-emerge after almost a decade on 1 January 1894, continuing until June The general coordinator and editor was Titus Cerne, an appreciated musician, author of numerous reviews and articles. The Arta Iaşi magazine declared officially its support for Romanian music, a credo it translated into ample reviews, occasioned mainly by the performing of lyrical works by Eduard Caudella and Tudor Flondor. Materials that reflected the musical life of Iaşi were also allotted plenty of room, showing that, indeed, the publication encouraged local talents and initiatives. There were also insertions of information about musical events in other parts of the country and information on the evolution of our singers abroad. Another flourishing section encompassed theoretical studies. Gavriil Musicescu was one of the authors who wrote excellent articles for this section, and his study Nationalism or folk songs, generated a substantial discussion, spreading over several numbers, with G. Scheletti, about the integration and the characteristics of Romanian national music, with special focus on modal harmonization. 7 Our translation. 197

198 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 1 Cerne, T. (1883). Arta. Revista Musicală, Year I, No Critical reception of the late 19 th -century Iași-based music. Alexandru Flechtenmacher 3.1. Music, society and the press This research aims to discover new dimensions of the works of Iasi composers, from a chronological point of view, from the first journalistic accounts to current musicology. Thus, we attempt to evaluate their reception in the press, their degree of accessibility as well as the way in which they were viewed by the public or the critics. At a general glance, the articles dealing 198

199 199 Studies with the value of musical performances are quite few, most writings being based on background elements, such as the human and material resources used, management deficiencies, staging details or repertoires. As early as 1851, musicians and music critics were aware of the value of folk music sources, as shown by Gazeta de Moldova (28 November 1851): In Moldova, in a time of foreign influences, national music as well as other legacies from our ancestors have fled to the countryside, where one can still listen to the melodious doina and hora, which, in the absence of deeds, preserve a patriotic feeling among a people accustomed with the oriental customs introduced by the authorities; the Fanar rulers formed our taste for Turkish music. [ ] Today, in the land of Orpheus, harmony produces miracles, and the resulting history is most of all due to the Italian opera, which, through the distinguished composition of its body, reforms favorably the taste of the public and brings the most exquisite pleasures to society (Boţocan, Pascu, 1997, p. 373). This quote is highly relevant because it sketches a picture of midnineteenth century music, in which several influences were intertwined. The differences between these components are immense. There was no proper understanding of peasant music yet. Oriental music had an impact too, and its manifestations influenced urban folklore and early art music compositions. This stage finished by the end of the 19 th century. As far as Italian opera is concerned, we agree that it reformed favorably the taste of the public of that age and became a landmark in the stage compositions that would follow. A few years later, in 1883, musical criticism starts to be interested in the audience as well, focusing mainly on its mentality; more precisely, journalists talked about the recipients expectations from Romanian music, which seemed to reveal their poor education, and their superficial access to universal music. Titus Cerne criticizes Iași audiences in a very sarcastic manner, emphasizing that they are more interested in foreign works and performers than in the productions of native musicians: The audience of Iași have shown once again what they have proven many times, i.e. they are great admirers of music, and that is why they remarked themselves by their absence. In fact, two varieties of musical performances have caught the interest of our audiences: the concerts given by foreigners and the theatrical performances of works such as La Veuve de Malabar, Un lycée de Jeunnes filles, etc. But the events recently announces do not fit any of the situations mentioned above; why should the audience participate? [...] Moreover, from the few who do go to concerts or to musical events to listen to music, when a performance of classical music is publicized, there are some who say I m not going to listen to it because I do not understand it (Cerne, 1883, p. 81). Pragmatism and the lack of musical culture still had a say, even if not for everyone, but a large part of the Iași society judged the recital or concert to be incomprehensible.

200 Artes. Journal of Musicology Theatrical genres and opera enjoyed better audiences. Thus, in the press of 1894, in a brief review of opera groups who attempted to integrate Romanian versions into their repertory, Titus Cerne makes a series of synthetic observations: In Romania, opera companies appeared at the beginning of the century and, naturally, taking into account that there were people who loved the country and the language of the land, it was not long until the first attempts to make operas in Romanian were made. Thus in 1838 we saw in Iaşi a translated Norma staged by the students of the Philharmonic Conservatory. Later on, this also happened at the national theater, where several performances were given. Although if analyzed rigorously, with the exception of Baba Hîrca, they were nothing else but vaudevilles, they were still the first attempts to write music for the theater based on a Romanian text. The closer we get to our own time, the easier it is to find more serious attempts at this; in 75 were staged the first translated French operettas, and later on some comic works such as Olteanca or Fata răzeşului by E. Caudella; in the 80s, a lyrical society was formed in Iaşi with the final goal of forming a Romanian opera, and even if the results were almost non-existent, this does not mean that attempts have not been made (Cerne, 1894, p. 50). The situation of concert criticism was as objective as possible, both as far as the faults of the participating society and the interpretation was concerned, using, all along, an accessible language. Titus Cerne s article, sprinkled with some sociological spice, is a testimony in this respect: In the evening of January 18 th, in the hall of Sidoli Circle, a concert given by Mrs. Valeria X. Xanu, Ms. Aspazia Sion, T.T. Burada, E. Mezzetti, S. Dragomir and the Metropolitan Choir conducted by Mr. G. Muzicescu, in honor and to the benefit of Mr. C.F. Gros, former director of the Music Conservatory of Iasi. [...] Moving on from these ideas, let us see the musical part, which actually interests us the most. Mrs. V. Nanu was, of course, the magnet of this concert; she had not been heard by our audiences for a long time, and this time she sang no less than six pieces. She performed all of them well, but she was most noticeable in the cavatina Linda by Donizetti. One of the songs sung by Mrs. Nanu was În grădină [In the garden] with G. Musicescu s viola accompaniment, which honors our Art [journal], because this piece was brought to light here by Art. [...] Leaving aside the merits of this beautiful piece (referring to Somnoroase păsărele [Sleepy Birds] by Flondor), I found it very proper, because, indeed, sleepy were the birds after having listened to 19 pieces and swayed, at the end, by a Berceuse (with silencer) and a Souvenir de Moscou. (Cerne, 1895, pp ) In the late 19 th century, musical criticism began to be increasingly harsh with the salon music of that time, which was thought to be lacking in originality and compositional value and producing creations that were flooding 200

201 201 Studies publishing houses: The third category of Romanian musical productions which, for lack of suitable term, I called new formation music, includes the numerous musical prints that appear daily on the displays of music editors and shops; they are true mixtum compositum 8, i.e. mostly hybrid works, and therefore apart from some good exceptions 9 are of a very poor musical quality. So, rather than a healthy and visionary genre, they represent the degrading state of our musical activities (Idieru, 1898, pp ). Indeed, the works written during that period have a dose of mannerism that recalls Romanian folk music. In time, this limitation of compositional horizon will be severely criticized. Interwar musicologists who studied the these first creations in order to discover the stages in the configuration of a proper Romanian style, did not understand this stage of accumulations, of tentative efforts that may be said to characterize these 19 th -century miniatures: What they did not bypass, they carved the term is theirs and deformed to fit the pattern of Western diatonism (major or minor). They did this as far as tone was concerned. In what regards rhythm, they subjugated almost the entire rhythmic freedom of the folk song and closed in carrure and bars out of whose tyranny the new music is struggling to escape. As it was not the folk song, but the composition resulting from its artistic processing that was the main point of interest, it is obvious that the collection, the rigorous critical study and the efforts to bring to light the folk song, being seen as secondary and only auxiliary activities, disappeared, little by little, from the preoccupations of the composers in question and was eventually abandoned (Breazul, 1941, pp ). The twentieth century musicology, especially George Breazu, debates in a passionate the attraction exerted on amateur composers, who had no theoretical foundation, by the field of expression of the folk melody, which, back then, was a fashion, a model to follow in order to pursue the ideal of creating a specific music language, a national school according to the Western model: The first to be attracted by the beauty of the folk song were, obviously, the musicians who aspired to become composers. Those who showed the greatest interest in the folk song were not performers, practitioners, theorists, or musicographers. They were composers, creative artists, attracted not so much by the aesthetic value of the folk melody, not by the song for the song s sake, but by the fact that their inability to produce melodic innovations was easy to mask by borrowing melodic parts or even entire songs from the folk music repertoire. The songs were not used as a source of melodic inspiration and the soulful musical atmosphere, in which such characteristic melodic motifs could have been used in order to create polyphony and develop themes, was totally ignored. Having been pulled out of their natural psychological environment, in 8 Latin term transl. mixed musical compositions. 9 Reference to Baba Hîrca by Flechtenmacher.

202 Artes. Journal of Musicology their entirety or partially, the songs were seriously deformed and re-patched in these so-called compositions. Thus, the richness of melodic and rhythmic elements in the songs and dances of the people, being absolutely necessary for the manifestation of their creative will, much of the treasure of the songs known to them, was reinterpreted and mercilessly exploited only to feed, revive, support and justify the compositional aspirations of this group of amateur musicians. The misfortunes of the folk song were aggrieved by the fact that this activity was encouraged by everyone, being considered, then as today, as a national necessity, since these composers have always aspired, openly or not, to lay the foundations of Romanian music, that is a national music school similar to the Italian, German, or French one Romanian cultivated music. (Breazul, 1941, pp ) 3.2. Articles about Alexandru Flechtenmacher The portraits of 19 th -century personalities included in general dictionaries encompassed only short, objective, paragraphs that provided only few details and sometimes even omissions as far as the historical truth was concerned. The earliest account of Iaşi composers in lexicographic articles (left unmentioned by musicologist Viorel Cosma in his lexicon) is the work of historian Dimitrie R. Rosetti Dicționarul contimporanilor [Dictionary of Contemporaries], published in 1897, in which we find some names of interest, including Alexandru Flechtenmacher, Eduard Caudella and Gavriil Musicescu. Flechtenmacher s biographical description is more substantial, probably due to his age (75) at the time when the dictionary was written, but also to his importance in the history of Romanian music until However, there are some omissions and incorrect data: he is mentioned only as a teacher at the Bucharest Conservatory, even if he had also been the director of this institution between 1864 and 1869, and the long period in which he was the conductor of the Bucharest National Theater Orchestra ( ; ) is not mentioned at all. Names such as Pietro or Enrico Mezzetti are not featured in the pages of this historical source, and from the Burada family only Teodor T. Burada is mentioned, as a journalist. His entry cites only some ethnographic titles, even though during this period the musician also worked as violinist both in the country and abroad, and as a violin and music theory professor at the Iaşi Conservatory (Cosma, V., 1989, p. 235). Despite these shortcomings, the above-mentioned bibliographic resource is a pioneering work in lexicographical historiography, as Dicționarul contimporanilor [Dictionary of Contemporaries] refers only to the personalities active during the last decade of the 19 th century. 202

203 Studies Going through the articles referring to the musicians based in Iaşi, we find that Alexandru Flechtenmacher was the most comprehended and the most commented upon out of them. But what is Flechtenmacher to us, 21 st -century people? Flechtenmacher is the personality who started the genre that we know today as the operetta, starting from the vaudeville, from scenes based on the alternation between theater and music, from topics that were taboo in his society and had an impressive impact on audiences, which shows that they were accessible, and easy to be literarily and musically assimilated by the 19 th -century Iaşi public. We believe that this genre was so popular because it played the role of a critical mirror to society (Cosma, O. L., 1975, p. 288) and in Romania anything critical, especially with tragic-comic undertones, draws attention like a magnet. A premise also confirmed today, a century and a half later. Flechtenmacher s name is not linked only to the operetta genre, and this is less known today. He was also the first Romanian solo instrument player, as recorded in Albina Românească, no. 5: The year 1842 marks another artistic event in the history of Iaşi music: the appearance of the first Romanian concert player, the young violinist Alexandru Flechtenmaher (28 December), followed by Carol Miculi (1845) and the sons of Mr. Burada, Gheorghe Teodor, Mihai and Constantin, defied the prejudice of that time by stepping on the concert stage (Pascu; Boţocan, 1997, pp ). Flechtenmacher was a true paragon for the musical society that had begun to form in Iaşi. When Franz Liszt visited Iaşi in 1847, Gheorghe Asachi wrote in Albina românească, no. 5 of January 16, 1847: He played an overture by A. Flechtenmacher and was called for an encore. Towards the end, Liszt made some brilliant improvisations on the Moldavian hora and overture (Burada, 1974, p. 310). The fame and appreciation enjoyed by Alexandru Flechtenmaher are also highlighted by the distinguished line-ups of the concerts he signed, which included boyars and intellectuals from Iaşi, who participated for noble, philanthropic purposes: An aristocratic ensemble of Moldavian amateur artists (besides the artist Matei Millo, the singers Maria Cantacuzino, Grigorie and Neculai Cantacuzino, Costache Negruţi (!), and in the choir Catinca Mavrocordat, Alex. Mavrocordat, Elena Cantacuzino, Calimah, Rosetti, Russo and Ioan Cantacuzino) presented, on 3 February and 9 March 1848, the comedy with songs Peatra din casă (!) [The stone in the house] by V. Alexandri (!) on the music signed by Al. Flechtenmacher and Nunta Țărănească [Peasant Wedding] in which the duet Didiţa Mavrocordat and Alex Mavrocordat excelled (Posluşnicu, 1928, p. 154). 203

204 Artes. Journal of Musicology It is worth noting that the poet Vasile Alecsandri and Costache Neguzzi 10 were active participants in these stage performances, probably also as actors, and not only as the authors of most the texts, or supporters and managers of the theater movement in Iaşi. The premiere of the vaudeville Baba Hîrca (December 1848), based on the libretto of Matei Millo, a matchless artist of the Romanian theater, drew the attention of the Moldavian press (Albina românească, No. 102): On the 26 th of the same month the national [theatre] company played the first Romanian operetta written by Matei Millo, Baba Hîrca, a national witchcraft opera in two acts and three scenes, whose original music was composed by A. Flechtenmacher based on true Romanian musical motifs (Burada, 1922, p. 33). An issue that suscitated a host of debates was the operetta s subject, namely the gypsies presence in society and the way in which they expressed themselves freely, without any prejudice (Albina românească, no. 8, 1849): Who does not know that one of the gypsies favorite occupations is the art of fortune-telling, highly praised by those who are in love or desperate. It is from this gypsy feature that Mr. Millo, Director of the National Theater, drew inspiration for the play Hîrca, staged to a great success. The play is remarkable not so much for its plot, but for its picturesque scenes that imitate nature, for its national, and even gypsy, costumes. The fact that Baba Hîrca is played by the Author himself was a non plus ultra for this piece, both by the naturalness of his character and by his magical, very rapid, transformation from a character into another. [ ] The music arranged by D. Flechtenmacher was national and well chosen, there were nice decorations, and in the costumes we would have liked that a more esthetic type be preserved (Burada, 1922, pp ). This fragment is undoubtedly a collection page, having a local flavor colored by many Romanian archaisms. From this conglomerate, it is not easy to distinguish how the music was received ( the music arranged by D. Flechtenmacher was national and well chosen ), but let us not forget that this happened in 1849, when the first articles that were more elaborate than informative notices started to appear. Baba Hîrca generated a true trend, stimulating the publication of several reviews in most of the newspapers of that time. In an 1861 article, Nicolae Filimon is keen to appreciate the music of the operetta, because it has unusual traits which could and should be valued by other Romanian composers as well: The music of this operetta is simple and very beautiful. Its author drew inspiration only from the pains and joys of the Romanian people. This music has very beautiful arias, which, besides the many beauties they encompass, have the additional merit of being treated in a theatrical 10 Constantin Negruzzi, politician and writer, as well as director of the theater, supporter of progress and liberal ideas. 204

205 Studies manner. And it would not be bad for the Romanian composers who wish to transform our music into dramatic music to study these arias from the viewpoint of their aesthetics, because they are the first Romanian tunes which can be very useful in the creation of Romanian drama music (Filimon, 1957, p. 341). In the opinion of this pioneer of Romanian musical journalism, the main merit of the operetta s melodies was the way in which they had been theatrically processed, the fact that they were endowed with theatrical plasticity and the power to communicate by music. The popularity enjoyed by the operetta Baba Hîrca survived in time, and proof in this respect is Titus Cerne s report from 1894: It has become a tradition to stage, on New Year s Eve, the operetta Baba Hîrca. [ ] A national Moldavian operetta, as its authors, Matei Millo for the text and Alexandru Flechtenmacher for the music, title it, was staged for the first time on 26 Decembre 1848 in Iași, and it was not long before it became truly popular. Leaving aside whether its musical or literary merits are true or not, the mere fact that it is liked by all the classes of society and that it is the first Romanian operetta 11 makes it interesting for all of us (Cerne, 1894, No. 2, pp ). Why was it so interesting? Cerne does not emphasize the piece s musical or theatrical attributes, mentioning only that it was popular in the society of Iaşi, and that it was is the first Romanian operetta, which made it catch people s attention and become interesting. Its qualitative essence was its very popularity, its impact on the public. Teodor T. Burada bears testimony to the perennial nature of Baba Hîrca, 70 years after its premiere, in 1922: The representation of the operetta Baba Hîrca, a play in two acts by M. Millo, was a great success, and it may justly be called the first Romanian operetta. The staging was done with the utmost care so that it matched the topic of the work. [...] The music by Al. Flechtenmacher, the kapellmaister of the Moldavian Theater orchestra, is truly charming and Romanian indeed. From the many national plays performed on the stage of the National Theater, none impressed the audience more than this operetta, both by its originality and by the beauty of its true national songs, so it will always remain the first attempt to create a Romanian operetta. This play has been staged until today and listened to with great joy by audiences coming from all over the country to see it (Burada, 1922, p. 35). Becoming a permanent item in the repertoires of cultural institutions, the staging of the operetta Baba Hîrca represented a transition to a new stage in Romanian composition. The appreciation of the Iaşi musicologists George Pascu and Melania Boţocan reinforces the reception of this work across the ages: Staged for years at the National Theater in Iaşi, especially during the Christmas and Easter holidays, the operetta Baba Hîrca has kept awake in the 11 Operetta with the meaning of diminutive opera, not at all in the modern sense (original note). 205

206 Artes. Journal of Musicology conscience of the people from Iaşi not only the figure of Flechtenmacher, but also the stylistic ambiance of a music from a distant age, as if it were a perpetual impulse for the continuation, on new coordinates, of a culture whose foundation had been laid since the first half of the 19 th century (Pascu & Boţocan, 1997, p. 59). The negative criticisms of Romanian interwar musicology was later reviewed from an objective historical perspective: The very harsh objections to the music of this operetta as well as to many other compositions from the age in which our national creation began to crystallize must be expressed with a certain restraint, since the artistic level of many works was negatively influenced by the poor development of our music, and by the limited interpretative possibilities of the performers, who featured in double roles, both as actors and lyrical soloists (Cosma, 1975, p. 305). Although many articles were written about Baba Hîrca, the perception of Flechtenmacher s compositional creation in his own time was rather limited. It is certain that in 1861 Nicolae Filimon considered him one of the first musicians to have stylized the Romanian folk music treasure: Filimon sees Flechtenmacher as the founder of national music, the first composer who used the folk music treasures in cultivated compositions. It is not surprising that his music, especially Baba Hîrca, is given as an example to the composers who wanted to cultivate the dramatic genre and intended to be useful to the people by producing a music impregnated with folk resonances. Filimon did not hesitate to compare Flechtenmacher to Ion Wachmann in the chronicle Prăpăstiele Bucureștilor [Teachings of Bucharest]: Romanians found in their compatriot Flechtenmacher the national composer who, feeling as a Romanian, could compose authentic Romanian music (Cosma, 1976, p. 216). The same Nicholas Filimon reinforces the above-mentioned assertions with some short pseudo-musical remarks about the exuberance and the national spirit characterizing Flechtenmacher s composition, referring to other works of the composer (Țăranul român [Romanian Peasant], 1, No. 8, 1861, December 31) as well: The music in Cârlanilor [Yearlings] is composed by Mr. Flechtenmacher in the unique style he had the chance to create in Romania in the simple, sweet, and very national style that has the merit of going straight to the heart of the Romanian and awaken in him the most suave and enjoyable feelings (Cosma, 1976, p. 215). In the same manner, in 1862, he wrote about the music of Coana Chiriţa (Țăranul român, București, 1, No. 15, 1862, February 18): The music of this play is written by Alexandru Flechtenmacher, the famous composer of the orchestra (music) from Hîrca and the first to set the basis of a Romanian music. It is graceful, spirited and lacks pedantry, which makes it enjoyable to the Romanian people (Cosma, 1976, p. 215). 206

207 Studies Very resonant was the opera Fata de la Cozia [Cozia Girl], composed in , which, at the time, was considered to be a landmark in the shaping of the opera genre. In this regard, the 1885 press (Familia [The Family] newspaper, 21, No 23, 9/21, 1885, Oradea Mare) reports: Among the pieces performed, a novelty was Să tremure dușmanii [May the enemies tremble] from Flechtenmacher s work Fata de la Cozia [Cozia Girl], unfinished due to the death of his only son. The misfortune that deprived a parent of his one and only consolation also deprived the Romanian music of the only monument it could have had until today. For, judging by the fragments left, scattered here and there, where the misfortune spread them, Fata de la Cozia [Cozia Girl], the first Romanian opera, was a real masterpiece and the aria sung by Mr. Herescu, a bass of colossal power, did nothing but prove its value and deepen our regret that we do not own the whole work (Roşca, 1987, pp ). The later impact, in the 20 th -century musicology, is contradictory; discussing whether the lyrical drama Fata de la Cozia [Cozia Girl] by Al. Flechtenmacher was completed or not, Octavian Lazar Cosma said: After a long accumulation in the theatrical musical style, Alexandru Flechtenmacher realizes his dream, composing around 1880 the lyrical drama Fata de la Cozia [Cozia Girl], in three acts, based on a libretto signed by Eugeniu Carada, having as a source of inspiration D. Bolintineanu s ballad with the same name. [...] Called in some biographical articles the first creator of Romanian dramatic music, it is said that this work was finished, but the musicologist George Breazul claims the opposite (Cosma, 1976, p. 511). Unfortunately, the truth cannot be found because the manuscript stored in the composer s house in Mătău (Cîmpulung-Muscel) 13 was destroyed by a fire. 4. Conclusions We believe that the questions raised by this research are open-ended, because late 19 th -century music criticism captured only a few details on the composition techniques, the structural organization, the rhythmic-melodic or vocal and stage interpretation of various performances. The press shed light on these pieces only at an informative level, mentioning titles, composers, and interpreters and even omitting some details due to, on the one hand, the authorities indifference to the musical phenomenon and, on the other hand, the editors sheer ignorance of particular stylistic or musical language features. However, the attempts made by the personalities active in the cultural and artistic life were real and unrelenting, their results being guided by the desire to promote music with specific national traits. 12 Unfinished due to the major emotional impact caused by the death of the composer s only son. 13 Details on the arias Să tremure dușmanii, Trâmbița răsună and Balada Fetei de la Cozia may be found in: Cosma, 1976, pp

208 Artes. Journal of Musicology This research aimed to discover new dimensions of Iași-based music, placing special emphasis on the critical reception of the composer Alexandru Flechtenmacher. We have followed its reflection in the Romanian press, starting from the first accounts in this respect, and ending with the subsequent assessments formulated in 20 th -century musicology. Although the texts that tackle musical issues are quite few and social aspects prevail in the commentators list of interests, by combining the information provided by general literary, historical, social sources with the details included in specialized articles we can create a new perspective on late 19 th -century Iașibased compositions. References Bărcănescu, G. (1884). Prospectu [Review]. Doina, 1, 22 ianuarie. Bucureşti: s.e. Breazul, G. (1973). D. G. Kiriac. Bucureşti: Editura Muzicală. Breazul, G. (1941). Patrium Carmen. Contribuții la studiul muzicii românești [Patrium Carmen. Contributions to the study of Romanian music]. Melos. Culegere de studii musicale scoasă de G. Breazul [Melos. Collection of musical studies edited by G. Breazul]. Craiova: Editura Scrisul Românesc. Burada, T. Th. (1875). Conservatorul de Musica din Iasi [Music Conservatoy from Iași]. Almanahu musicalu [Musical Almanach], Year I, Iași: s.e.. Burada, T. Th. (1915). Istoria teatrului în Moldova [History of Theater in Moldova], 1. București: Institutul de Arte Grafice N.V. Ștefaniu. Burada, T. Th. (1922). Istoria teatrului în Moldova [History of Theater in Moldova], 2. Iași: Tipografia H. Goldner. Cerne, T. (1883). Cătră cetitori [To the readers]. Arta. Revista Musicală, Year I, 1. Iași: s.e. Cerne, T. (1883). Revistă musicală [Musical Overview]. Arta. Revista Musicală, Year I, 5. Iași: s.e. Cerne, T. (1884). Operă italiană sau operă romînă [Italian or Romanian Opera]. Arta. Revista Musicală, Year III, 4. Iași: s.e. Cerne, T. (1894). Vorbe și Fapte [Talks and Facts]. Arta. Revista Musicală, Year III, 2. Iași: s.e. Cerne, T. (1894). Concert [Concert]. Arta. Revista Musicală, Year III, 3, Iași: s.e. Cerne, T. (1895). Concerte [Concerts]. Arta. Revista Musicală, Year IV, 1. Iași: s.e. Cosma, O. L. (1975). Hronicul muzicii românești [Chronicles of Romanian Music], III: Preromantismul [Pre-Romanticism]: București: Editura Muzicală. Cosma, O. L. (1976). Hronicul muzicii românești [Chronicles of Romanian Music], IV: Romantismul [Romanticism] ( ). București: EdituraMuzicală. 208

209 Studies Cosma, V. (1958). Bibliografia materialului musical românesc din periodicele muzicale ale veacului al XIX-lea [Bibliography of Romanian musical materials in 19 th - century musical periodicals], I-II. Bucureşti: typed. Bibl. Uniunii Compozitorilor. Cosma, V. (1989). Muzicieni din România: Lexicon biobibliografic [Romanian musicians. Bio-bibliographic lexicon], I (A-C). București: Editura Muzicală. Cosma, V. (2000). Muzicieni din România: Lexicon biobibliografic [Romanian musicians. Bio-bibliographic lexicon], III (F-G). București: Editura Muzicală. Drace-Francis, A. (c. 2006). The Making of Modern Romanian Culture: Literacy and the Development of National Identity, e-book. London-New York: Tauris Academic Studies. Filimon, N. (1957). Opere [Works] II ( Baba Hîrca ). București: Editura pentru Literatură și Artă. Filimon, N. (1861). Cârlanii [Yearlings] by C. Negruzzi. Țăranul român, 31 decembrie, 1, 8, București, apud Cosma O. L. (1976). Hronicul muzicii românești [Chronicles of Romanian Music], IV: Romantismul [Romanticism]( ). București: Editura Muzicală. Filimon, N. (1862). Cocoana Chirița în Iași [Madam Chiriţa in Iaşi]. Țăranul român, 18 februarie, 1, 15, București, apud Cosma, O. L. (1976). Hronicul muzicii românești [Chronicles of Romanian Music], IV: Romantismul [Romanticism] ( ). București: Editura Muzicală. Idieru, N. E. (1898). Istoria artelor frumoase (Arhitectura, Sculptură, Pictură, Musică, din tóte timpurile și din tóte țerile, inclusive Rumînia) [History of Fine Arts (Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Music, from our ages and all the countries, including Rumania]. Bucuresci: Tipografia Gutenberg. Retrieved from (Digitalized in the collections of the Bucharest Digital Library) Pascu, G. & Boțocan, M. (1997). Hronicul muzicii ieșene [Chronicles of Iaşi Music]. Iași: Editura Nőel. Petcu, M. (2012). Istoria jurnalismului din România. Enciclopedie cronologică [History of journalism in Romania. A chronological encyclopedia]. Iași: Editura Polirom. Poslușnicu, M. Gr. (1928). Istoria muzicei la români [History of Music in Romania]. București: Cartea Românească. Rosetti, D. R. (1897). Dicționarul contimporanilor [Dictionary of Contemporaries], edition I. București: Editura Lito-Tipografiei Populara (Digitalized in the collections of the Bucharest Digital Library). s.a. (1885). Monotonie. Note deosebite [Monotony. Special notes]. Familia, 9/21 iunie, 21, 23, Oradea Mare, apud Roșca, Iuliu I. (1987). De prin Bucuresci: Muzica la sfârșit și început de secol [From Bucharest and around: Music at the end and the beginning of a century ]. București: Editura Muzicală. 209

210 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology Romanian National Anthems. Historical, Stylistic and Aesthetic Considerations CARMEN CHELARU George Enescu National University of Arts Iași ROMANIA I express my gratitude towards my American friend, Lady Cello Bennett, for her substantial help in supervising this English version of my essay. Abstract: This text represents an abridgement of an extensive research paper, recently completed, and titled The Song-Symbol, History and Content. About the National Anthems. It has not been long since I wrote about a sensitive subject: that of prejudices in considering and reconsidering history, those which could manipulate (in fact do manipulate!) consciences positively or negatively, and sometimes generate extremist ideas and attitudes (Chelaru, 2017). Following the course of history, a dilemma arose regarding the national anthem, particularly regarding its origins, the circumstances under which a particular anthem was chosen, and above all, comparisons of one anthem to another. From a general point of view, the first observation is that the anthem, especially as it is perceived nowadays in Europe, involves historical meaning, symbols of human communities and nations. As a result, I want to suggest certain improvements towards the current configuration of this musical genre. First I will summarize the history of the Romanian national anthems, beginning with the very first one, adopted during the reign of Alexandru Ioan Cuza, continuing with the monarchic period, then the anthems of communist Romania, and finally the present one, Deșteaptă-te, române! which is in fact the oldest of all. The main reason I chose this issue does not concern purely academic curiosity; it pursues my entirely subjective interest in the circumstances that prompted Romanians to adopt, over the last century and a half, just these hymns and not others. Keywords: anthem, national, Romanian, Mureșanu, Porumbescu. 1. Introduction Throughout the 18th century, European civilizations especially Western ones have accelerated the pace of evolution. The historian Lucian Boia, in his book Două secole de mitologie națională / Two Centuries of National Mythology, observes about the concepts of nation and national: The history of humanity actually involves two histories / / During the first (ed. historic period), people lived closely grouped in small communities. Even the great empires, monstrous conglomerates, were composed of local 210

211 Studies ethnic groups. / / Then, an open world arose, one in which developments occurred faster and faster. This is the modern age. At the middle of the 18th century, these processes accelerated more and more, generation after generation, up until the present day. The traditional structures have cracked and collapsed. 1 (Boia, 2012, p. 7) Beginning with the period of Enlightenment, Europeans entered the modern age, choosing civilization to primitivism, collaboration to confrontation, exchange of ideas and argumentation to violence... Meanwhile, as a result of the re-drawing of the borders of the various empires, and above all the respective rulers' impositions of forced assimilation of various kinds, people became more conscious of ethnic and cultural affiliations. Thus the spirit of nationalism was born, with all of its consequences. The philosophers of the 18th century Enlightenment, anticipating the modern age, defined concepts and ideas such as: liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional rule, separation of church and state. To the Christian phrase, Believe and do not doubt, they replied with sapere aude Dare to find out (Gay, 1996). The Enlightenment period generated the intellectual and cultural advancement of the 19th century, including liberalism and neoclassicism. Step by step, new ideas and influences penetrated Central and Eastern European social communities as well. In Transylvania, for instance, most of the inhabitants were Romanians. In 1701, a remarkable event took place, with major consequences for the Romanian population: the Greek-Catholic Church was founded. Through this new religious institution, Romanian people were given new opportunities, especially access to education (Chelaru, 2016, p. 33). While the 18th century had been marked by innovative ideas, the following century saw Europe s territorial, political, and cultural structures radically altered by historic events. People became aware of their ethnic affiliations. As a result, social and national anxiety and conflicts increased throughout the 19th century. Concepts such as homeland, love of country, and patriotism took on increasingly greater importance in the sphere of common life. This empowerment of nationalism, with its attendant growing number of conflicts, led to, among other things, the adoption of national symbols: flags, emblems, seals, slogans, national colours, and national anthems. In time, importance was also placed on other symbols: national animals and plants, 1 Istoria omenirii reunește în fapt două istorii / / În cea dintâi, oamenii au trăit strâns grupați, în comunități restrânse. Chiar marile imperii, conglomerate monstruoase, nu făceau decât să acopere structuri de viață predominant locale. / / Apoi, lucrurile încep să evolueze spre o lume deschisă, și să se miște din ce în ce mai repede. Aceasta este modernitatea. Proces intrat pe la mijlocul secolului al XVIII-lea într-o fază de accelerare, amplificată până astăzi, generație după generație. Structurile tradiționale s-au fisurat, apoi s-au năruit. 211

212 Artes. Journal of Musicology founding personalities, costumes and objects (including musical instruments like Russian balalaika and gusla, or the Scottish bagpipe), dances (Hungarian czardas, Italian tarantella or saltarello, Romanian hora) etc. All these symbols carry specific meanings, historical background and sentimental content, even when the ascribed attributes are not always entirely rational or realistic. In the 19th century, people had acquired the habit of expressing their joy, as well as their dissatisfaction, by gathering in crowds that grew increasingly large over the years. Under these circumstances music became more and more important, and a special repertoire appeared for cheering, stimulating courage and initiative, popular support, war songs, etc. When such music was associated with a historical event favouring the life of a particular community, it became a patriotic song. Nation, Spirit of nationalism, National Specific the circumstances these concepts emerged in Europe Renaissance centuries 13th 17th/1 Enlightenment centuries 17th/2 18th Romanticism 19th century Humanistic Philosophy, Arts, Literature Science, Technique, Economy Revolution, Nationalism, Liberalism As the above frame shows, a series of stages in the evolution of Western European civilization, from Renaissance to Romanticism, created favourable conditions for the emergence of spirit of nationalism and the accompanying national symbols. 2. Short History of Romanian National Anthems The first national anthems in the world were adopted in Europe, and some national anthems from other continents have European origins as well. Romanians quickly took up the idea from other nations regarding patriotic repertoire, primarily as a result of the historical events of the 19th century 2 : 1821: The Wallachian Uprising (Southern Romania) against Ottoman rule, led by Tudor Vladimirescu. He issued his first proclamation (January 23), which included references to Enlightenment principles, expressed his 2 In the Romanian version of this essay I did not include the following enumeration of historical events, considering it to be known. For foreign readers, however, I consider it necessary in order to better understand the Romanian historical context in close connection with the European one. 212

213 Studies commitment to peace with the Ottomans, and banishment of the Phanariote Princes : Democratic Revolution in Moldavia and Wallachia, against medieval structures. 1859: Union between Moldavia and Wallachia, under Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. 1866: Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza abdicated. Principatele Unite (United Principalities) became The United Principalities of Romania, under Prince Carol of Romania (Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen) : Romania was proclaimed independent of the Ottoman suzerainty. 1881: The Romanian principality was raised to a kingdom and on March 26, Prince Carol became King Carol I of Romania. 1918: At the end of World War I, Transylvania and Bessarabia united with the Romanian Kingdom. 1920: The union of Transylvania, Maramureș, Crișana and Banat with the Kingdom of Romania was ratified by the Treaty of Trianon. Consequently, the second half of the 19th century through the beginning of the twentieth represents the most prolific period regarding Romanian patriotic music, written by Romanian musicians Alexandru Flechtenmacher, Ciprian Porumbescu, Gavriil Musicescu, Gheorghe Dima, Ion Vidu, Dumnitru Georgescu-Kiriac and others. An interesting source of information regarding this issue is Major Marin Sîlea s book Istoria muzicilor militare (History of Military Music), a detailed analysis of the military music phenomenon in the Carpathian-Danubian territory. Regarding Romanian patriotic songs of the mid-19th century, the author observes: The authorship of revolutionary songs has always been questioned; poets and the composers tried to hide their identity for reasons of safety and security, and sometimes even out of modesty and solidarity with the people engaged in combat. Also, when a certain song had to circulate «under cover», it was written using Byzantine neume notation, known only to professionals. These were the circumstances surrounding Anton Pann s song Deșteaptă-te, române! (Awaken, Romanian!) which was born around the time of the 3 Phanariotes = members of prominent Greek families in Phanar, the main Greek quarter of Constantinople. Between 1710s and 1821, in Moldavia and Wallachia thirty-one princes, from eleven Greek families of Phanar, ruled the two principalities during the Phanariote period. 4 Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was elected Ruling Prince (Domnitor) of the Romanian United Principalities on 20th April 1866, after the overthrow of Alexandru Ioan Cuza by a palace coup d'état. After 1878, when Romania became independent, his title was Royal Highness. On March 26th, 1881 he was proclaimed King of Romania. 213

214 Artes. Journal of Musicology revolution of After a century and a half this song became the Romanian national anthem. (Sîlea, 2006, p. 35) 2.1. The Hymn Awaken, Romanian! (Deșteaptă-te, române!) I want to begin with this song so well-known to Romanians, since it is the current anthem, and at the same time the oldest one among the seven Romanian national anthems, beginning with Fig. 1 Anton Pann s romance From my Mother s Breast (Pann, 2009, pp ) This song is related to three names: the poet Andrei Mureșanu (or Mureșianu, ), the author of the lyrics, and the musicians Anton Pann (1790?-1854) and Grigore Ucenescu ( ), each of whom made a contribution to the music. Grigore Ucenescu, psalter 5, teacher, and composer, comments on this song as follows: The furious year 1848 arriving, the poet [Andrei Mureșanu, o.n.] was looking for a melody that fit with a sonnet / / for a soirée. I was singing several songs from which to choose, and when I arrived at «From my Mother s Breast» (Din sânul maicii mele), the poet remained at this one. / / On Sunday / / Mr. Andrei Mureșanu gave me the lyrics to Awaken, Romanian! I tried it first and the music fit perfectly, so I sang it with my young, loud voice (all the 5 psalter = cantor of Byzantine/Or th odox Christian music 214

215 Studies way) to the end. / / Since then, the song has become known and familiar, and I have been invited to perform it all over / / and to teach other young singers to sing it correctly. (Sîlea, 2006, p. 35) 6 Thus, the story of this hymn is as follows: Anton Pann composed a religious romance (Fig. 1). In 1848, with or without his knowledge, his apprentice Grigore Ucenescu, at the request of Andrei Mureșanu the poet, adapted the melody to the lyrics. Fig. 2 The patriotic hymn Awaken, Romanian! Grigore Ucenescu s version, lyrics by Andrei Mureșanu (Ștefănescu, 1974, p. 79) Anton Pann died in 1854 without claiming the paternity of this music. It is hard to believe that he was not familiar with the hymn, because Ucenescu declared that the song had been widely circulated after The only plausible explanation is that Anton Pann did not want his name being associated with this song. In fact, a century later (in the 1950 s and 1960 s) the 6 Sosind furiosul an 1848, poetul [Andrei Mureșanu, n.n.] căuta o melodie după care să compue un sonet care să se cânte /.../ pentru petrecere de seară, /.../. Am cântat multe cântece de probă, iar sosind la următorul cânt, «Din sânul maicii mele» şi cântându-l, a rămas poetul pe lângă această melodie, /.../. În Duminica hotărâtă, /.../ îmi dete Domnul Andrei Mureșanu poezia făcută «Deșteaptă-te Române», îi probăm puține rânduri şi văzând în tot melosul este o minune potrivit, l-am cântat cu vocea mea tânără şi puternică până la fine. /.../ Din ziua aceia cântul «Deșteaptă-te Române» s-au făcut cel mai plăcut şi familiar, iar eu eram poftit în toate părțile /.../ să învăț tinerimea a-l cânta mai bine şi regulat. 215

216 Artes. Journal of Musicology song was perceived to be so subversive that merely humming the tune brought years of imprisonment to those who dared to do it. The same attitude prevailed in the 1980 s, when Ceaușescu s propaganda took on paranoid proportions. Let us look at a few stylistic features of this music. Its structure includes three melodic-rhythmic sections, a, b, b, each of them ten bars: Fig. 3 The song Awaken, Romanian! Section a Fig. 4 The song Awaken, Romanian! Section b Section a includes three moments: I. Introduction (bars 1-2). II. Contents & Climax (bars 3-6), III. Relaxation/Ending (bars 7-10); therefore, the bar-plan is In figures 3 and 4 the unitary melodic structure, with several variants of the rhythmic motif, is marked: 216

217 Studies Section b includes three moments as well: I. Climax (bars 11-12), II. Climax emphasis (bars 13-16), III. Epilogue (bars 17-20) the same structure of bars; then section b repeats identically. Regarding the relationship between the music and the lyrics, it must be mentioned that they have never been separated since the music was fit to the lyrics. First section includes the first stanza and contains an appeal to action. Section b and the second stanza urge the listeners on to victory: animation & mobilization urge to victory urge to victory We are therefore presented with a coherent and symmetric musical construction, where the music merges with the lyrics. So then why minor?! Would it be an oriental allusion to the Phanariot atmosphere of Romanian society at that time? Or could it be the romance style? 7 Or perhaps the subversive, conspiratorial tone of the protester s song? The first assumption is hard to prove, so it belongs in the category of speculation. As for the second one, we must observe that, despite the binary meter, Anton Pann s song has ternary rhythm (Fig. 1). This, together with the minor key, seem to be, we dare say, more appropriate to the pathetic and tearful style of the 19th century romance. Gh. Ucenescu kept for his version the same rhythm (Fig. 2). But Andrei Mureşanu's lyrics are bleak, provocative, even aggressive. We quote below the sixth and seventh stanzas: A widowed mother from the time of Michael the Great Claims from her sons today a helping hand, And with tears in her eyes curses whomsoever, In such great peril, a traitor would become. Of thunder and of brimstone should they perish Anyone who would flee the glorious place When our land or our mother, with a sorrowful heart, Will ask us to cross through swords and blazing fire. 8 7 The term romance has the following meanings: a short instrumental piece with the lyrical character of a vocal romance. (Dolmetsch) and an emotional attraction or aura belonging to an especially heroic era, adventure, or activity (Merriam-Webster Dictionary). 8 Translated version from 217

218 Artes. Journal of Musicology It was, therefore, necessary to change the character of music, at least rhythmically, from waltz to march 9. When and who made this change, I did not have the resources and the time to find out. The third assumption, regarding the conspiratorial tone of this song seems justified if we consider the fate of this symbolic song from its appearance in the mid-19th century to the present. We know less about what happened with this song during the end of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th. However, our parents and grandparents, in fact the recent war generations, were tragically confronted with the choice of singing this hymn. Soon after the communist takeover, it became forbidden de facto, especially during Soviet control of Romania ( ). Then, between 1970 and 1980, a period of release took place. After that, the hymn once again became an undeclared taboo. Proof of this fact lies in the choice of this particular song during the people s protests of the winter of 1989, as well as last winter (January-February 2017), when the hymn was once again sung as a protest and exhortation against corruption, lying, and thievery. The hymn Awaken, Romanian! is music intertwined with Romanian national history, laden with strong emotional content. It is music related to initiative, to sudden, dynamic action in troubled times of threats and insecurity. It is less suitable in a socio-political society that wants stability, balance, genuine democracy. To this I shall add another opinion that of a non-musician but not an ordinary one: the Romanian philosopher Andrei Pleșu. In his article The National Anthem Psychology [Psihologia imnului național] he comments on the lyrics as a symbol of contemporary Romania. I don t pretend that such hymns with strong tragic content do not exist in other countries as well. La Marseillaise itself is not at all an idyllic song. The Italian anthem speaks about awakening too, but it is an awakening already consummated, not a histrionic wake-up for a cataleptic population. From the hymns I have been browsing, one alone, that of Slovakia, demands a providential bolt of lightning to awaken the sleeping people. For the rest, we are dealing mainly with tonic, confident lyrics that respect the original sense of the word «hymn»: a song of praise. / / Among all of these, our anthem is one of the darkest and most discouraging. It is a lament, complaining about victimization, lamentation and general adversity and this in a country that has so recently joined the European Union, whose anthem is the Ode to Joy. (Pleșu, 2011, p. 48) 10 9 I confess that I've tried the song in major key and the result was at least... hilarious! 10 Nu pretind că asemenea imnuri, cu un pronunțat conținut de obidă națională, nu există şi în alte țări. Marseieza nu e nici ea o melodie campestră. Despre «trezire» se vorbește şi în imnul Italiei, dar despre o trezire deja consumată, nu despre o trezire dorită patetic pentru o populație cataleptică. Din imnurile pe care le-am frunzărit, unul singur, cel al Slovaciei, cere un fulger providențial care să trezească poporul adormit. În rest, avem de-a face, preponderent, cu texte 218

219 Studies Despite the controversial reactions sparked by these sincere and honest confessions, I entirely agree with the statements of the remarkable philosopher, presented as usual in beautiful Romanian language, which shows (if such a thing was necessary!) a genuine patriotic feeling. The composer Cornel Țăranu made a very interesting discovery, which he presented in George Enescu Symposium, on September 3rd, 2017, in Bucharest: In 1896, Enescu conceived a few versions for a Romanian Suite, mentioned by the musicologist Clemansa Firca in her catalogue. A group of sketches are written in G minor, and a second one in B minor. The first group contains the orchestration of the hymn Awaken, Romanian!. The last version is signed [by the teenaged Enescu, 15 years old at that time, o.n.] and dated Paris, December 1896, which means the author considered it has been finished. I completed it with two variations from the previous version, before the section da capo. An episodic theme in Romanian folk-dance style is inserted, announcing the future Rhapsodies. It seems that Enescu intended to include the hymn Awaken, Romanian! at the end of the Romanian Poem 11, but finally, at the suggestion of Princess Bibescu, he has chosen the Romanian Royal Anthem. (Țăranu, 2017, p. 12) The composer Cornel Țăranu ( has therefore reconstituted and completed the orchestral score of Awaken, Romanian! included by teenager George Enescu in the sketches at the Romanian Suite. The work thus completed consists of a short and excellent orchestrated poem (about 8 min.). The first audition took place in Cluj, performed by the students symphonic orchestra of Gh. Dima Academy of Music, conducted by Cristian Sandu (Pascu, 2015). I had the opportunity to listen this music as a recording posted on December 2nd, 2017, by professor Ruxandra Cesereanu on her blog ( The music exposes martial, solemn features (on binary rhythm). The main theme is elaborated by orchestration; to the end, the episodic dance theme comes, the one mentioned by the composer Cornel Ţăranu. It is interesting that one of the variations (played by violas, cellos and double-basses) is accompanied by the violins I&II in ternary rhythm. Was it a compositional effect or did the child Enescu hear Ucenescu's version of the song (the ternary one)? We cannot know. However, it can be deduced from this that the change of character (from waltz to march) took place during 19th century. tonice, încrezătoare, care respectă sensul originar al termenului imn: cîntec de laudă. ( ) Una peste alta, imnul nostru este, prin comparație, dintre cele mai întunecate şi descurajante. Mizează, plîngăcios, pe victimizare, lamentație şi adversitate generală. Asta într-o țară preluată de curînd în Uniunea Europeană, al cărei imn e o odă închinată bucuriei. 11 Poème Roumain / Poema Română, symphonic suite for orchestra, op. 1 (1897) is considered the first genuine work composed by George Enescu in

220 Artes. Journal of Musicology It should be added here Cornel Ţăranu s note regarding this charming music: It is strange that so far none of our orchestras have scheduled it! (Țăranu, 2017, p. 12) 2.2. The First National Anthem in Romanian History The first musical work, without lyrics, which became our national anthem was Solemn March at the National Flag and His Excellency Prince Ruler (Marș triumfal și primirea steagului și a Măriei Sale Prințul Domnitor). Nowadays, the piece is performed as the official music at Romanian military ceremonies and for the visits of high-ranking foreign dignitaries. In 1861, the Romanian Government organized an audition to choose the national anthem. Several musical works were submitted to a special jury. I had the honor to win the prize and shortly thereafter the Romanian Army adopted this winning hymn by official order, on January 22nd, The orchestral score was published at government expense. To avoid plagiarism or incorrect versions, I took the liberty of including this text as the foreword of my composition, which now has become (the) national (anthem). Signed, Bucharest, November 1862, Eduard A. Hübsch. (Sîlea, 2006, p. 40) 12 A few researchers of the history of Romanian music (Poslușnicu, 1928, p. 565; O.L. Cosma, 1976, p. 333; V. Cosma, 1984, pp ; Sîlea, 2006 pp ), claim that the music of the Solemn March composed by Eduard Hübsch in 1862, for the above-mentioned contest, is essentially the same as the Romanian Royal Anthem op. 68, signed by Ed. Hübsch, with text by Vasile Alecsandri and officially adopted in Fig. 5 The Solemn March at the Romanian military ceremonies and at the visits of high ranking foreign personalities 12 În anul 1861, Guvernul român orânduise un concurs pentru compunerea unui hymn național. Mai multe compozițiuni fură presintate înaintea unei comisiuni speciale. Între toți concurenții, eu am avut onoarea de a obține premiul și puțin timp după aceasta, armata română a adoptat acest hymn premiat de către comisiune, printr-un ordin de zi, cu data de 22 ianuarie 1862 și partițiunea de orchestră a fost publicată pe comptul Guvernului. Spre a evita plagiatul sau reproducțiuni neexacte, îmi iau libertatea de a pune aceste rânduri în capul operei mele ce acum a devenit națională. București, Noiembrie 1872, semnat Eduard A. Hübsch. 220

221 Studies I enclose below the short description of the Romanian Royal Anthem, published in an anthology of anthems by the prestigious American publisher G. Schirmer, Inc., in 1917: Fig. 6 The Anthem Anthology published by G. Schirmer 221

222 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 7 The Romanian Royal Anthem by Ed. Hübsch (Schirmer, 1922) This anthem, officially adopted in 1884, was in use until 1947, when the monarchy was abolished in Romania. Comparing these two hymns (Figs. 5, 7) I am constantly puzzled by claims of their so-called similarity. Neither of them has the same approach neither melodic, rhythmic, tempo, nor stylistic nature: one is in the style of a March, alert in rhythm and dynamic in character; whereas the other is solemn, slow, and static. Since 1861, when Ed. Hübsch was chief lieutenant at the military band of regiment 2, he did compose the Solemn March to be performed in honor of the Prince Ruler and the Flag. In 1884, when this March was transformed into 222

223 Studies the Royal Anthem, with lyrics by Vasile Alecsandri, its tempo became much slower, as hymn tempo. (Poslușnicu, 1928, p. 565) 13 What common features the above-mentioned authors had in mind when they purported the kinship between these two musical works remain to be discovered! The following hymns mark the main periods in the Communist history of Romania The Anthems of the Communist History of Romania The first Romanian Communist anthem was Broken Handcuffs (Zdrobite cătușe), music by Matei Socor, with lyrics by Aurel Baranga. It was adopted between 1948 and 1953 (J.V. Stalin s death). The only musical mark to be mentioned is the minor tonality (key) at the beginning. Fig. 8 The very first Romanian communist anthem (excerpt); music by Matei Socor, lyrics by Aurel Baranga 13 Încă de pe la 1861, de pe când Ed. Hübsch era încă sublocotenent șef al muzicei regim. 2 de linie, compune «Marșul triumfal», care se executa în tempo de marș de musicile militare, ca Onor la domnitor și steag. Aceasta, până în anul 1884, când, în lipsa unui imn național, acest marș a fost transformat în Imn Regal, la care adaptându-i-se versurile lui Vasile Alecsandri, a luat numirea de «Imn Regal», executându-se pe un tempo mult mai rar, tempo de imn. 223

224 Artes. Journal of Musicology Regarding the authors, I include here a quotation from the website Romania s first anthem as a communist republic was introduced January 4, 1948, a few days after the deposition of the monarchy. The anthem was written by Aurel Baranga, a poet and playwright who was widely seen as sympathetic to the communist regime and a collaborator with the government. 14 The next anthem functioned between 1953 and (1975?) 1977: We praise you, Romania (Te slăvim, Românie) music by the same Matei Socor, lyrics by Dan Deșliu. Fig. 9 The song We praise you, Romania (Te slăvim, Românie) music by the same Matei Socor For those who did not live at that time, I quote a single stanza, the one which was eliminated after the 1960 s, when diplomatic relations between the USSR and Romania cooled: May our nation be always fraternal/ With the Soviet people, our liberators./ Leninism is our guiding light, our strength and our enthusiasm,/ We follow with faith the unvanquished party,/ We are creating socialism on our Country s soil. 15 ( 77.htm) 14 Retrieved from the website 15 Ibidem. 224

225 225 Studies 2.4. Ciprian Porumbescu s Hymns In 1975 the Romanian national anthem was changed again. Ceaușescu wanted another hymn, less Stalinist. So Romanians began to sing Ciprian Porumbescu s On our Flag Union is Written (Pe-al nostru steag e scris Unire) or Anthem of the Union (Imnul Unirii) 16. Afterwards, at the suggestion of the poet Victor Eftimiu, of Albanian origin, the melody became the Albanian national anthem. 17 First, historical sources state that the Albanian national anthem was officially adopted in 1912, not in 1977, as the quoted television report mentions. The musicologist Viorel Cosma offers further information: Scînteia journal No , from January 4th, 1975, published the adapted lyrics of Ciprian Porumbescu s On our Flag Union is written (V. Cosma, 1984, p. 302) No source mentions the official change of the Romanian anthem. Even though there is no certainty, I considered it appropriate to include this hymn among the historical Romanian anthems for its music of undeniably expressive value to my thinking more valuable than other hymns that have been historically confirmed! Ciprian Porumbescu s Anthem of the Union was included in a collection of songs published in Vienna. In February 1880, The Collection of social songs for Romanian students, composed and dedicated to Romanian academic youth by Ciprian Golembiovschi-Porumbescu student at Vienna Conservatory was published. (Cionca, 1974, p. 86) The songs are simple wrote the composer, the airs are melodic and the lyrics too; they are not difficult to learn for anyone, even if not professional that was my goal. The melodies are written for one voice only; one rehearsal and some musical talent could ensure the accompaniment of that voice. / / Hoping that my little opus will be happily received by Romanian young people, I think I have contributed a little to the development of social spirit among Romanian students. 18 (Cionca, 1974, p. 87) 16 The first title was The Romanian Youth Hymn; it was probably composed in 1879 (Cionca, 1974, pp ). 17 În anul 1975, imnul național al României a fost din nou schimbat. Ceaușescu și-a dorit o altă melodie, mai puțin stalinistă. Așa au ajuns românii să cânte Pe-al nostru steag e scris Unire, pe muzica lui Ciprian Porumbescu. Melodia a devenit ulterior imnul național al Albaniei, la propunerea poetului Victor Eftimiu, de origine albanez. Quotation from the TV Show The Anthem Story. Romania had six national anthems. How appropriate is Deșteaptăte, române!? (POVESTEA IMNULUI. România a avut șase imnuri de stat. Cât de reprezentativ este Deșteaptă-te, române?) of TV Chanel DIGI Cântecele sunt simple, ariile sunt melodice și, ca și poeziile, fără multă măiestrie și artă, pentru ca fiecare, fie și neexpert în muzică, să și le poată ușor însuși, e este chiar scopul meu. Melodiile sunt acomodate numai pentru o voce; însă o singură repetare presupunând și puțin auz muzical, poate asigura acompanierea acelei voci. / / Sperând că micul meu op. va avea o călduroasă îmbrățișare în sânul junimii române, cred a contribui cât de puțin la înaintarea și

226 Artes. Journal of Musicology The author's modest hope, expressed in the preface of the collection, has long been achieved, as the hymn became a symbol not only for the historical moment to which it was dedicated, but also for the Romanian spirit itself, typical in the romantic atmosphere of the 19th century. More than that: the music with Albanian lyrics became the national anthem of Albania in Finally, between 1975 and 1977, this song was the anthem of communist Romania as well. The song has a simple, bright melody, in March style, in a major key. The beginning of the second part, in piano, anticipates and increases the climax. It is an example of music in which expressivity and spontaneity are accomplished by means of simplicity, logic, and naturalness of construction. This explains the success that this hymn has earned since it first appeared. Fig. 10 Ciprian Porumbescu s Anthem of the Union prosperarea spiritului social între studenții români. Excerpt from the foreword signed by the composer at the Collection of social songs. 226

227 Studies Fig. 11 National Anthem of Albania The last anthem of communist Romania (unjustly blamed after 1989) 19 is Three Colors, music and lyrics by Ciprian Porumbescu. As with the Anthem of Unity, Three Colors is included in The Collection of Social Songs for Romanian students, Composed and Dedicated to Romanian Academic Youth, published by Ciprian Porumbescu in 1880 in Vienna. The musician created the lyrics as well. In 1977, Nicolae Ceaușescu signed the decree designating Ciprian Porumbescu s music as the national anthem. As a result of paranoia, the dictator of Socialist Romania decided to change the text, for the National Anthem of the Socialist Republic of Romania has to include the idea of protecting the homeland, also that of the Romanian people s foreign policy for peace and friendship. (Decret / Decree nr. 420, 1977) 19 It's about Romanian people s post-revolutionary attitude of blaming all communist symbols, including language spelling and national anthem. 227

228 Artes. Journal of Musicology Fig. 12 National Anthem of communist Romania, between 1977 and 1989, music by Ciprian Porumbescu, lyrics changed 228

229 Studies Not to mention the lack of correspondence between the musical and the phonetic accents of the new stanzas: Wrong: În lup-tă triumfător Wrong: Stră-bu-nii noștri eroi Correct: În lup-tă triumfător Correct: Stră-bu-nii noștri eroi The genuine version of the hymn, with poetic and historical value, was thus replaced by another one full of slogans, fictitious and histrionic. Unfortunately, after 1989, many Romanian people let loose some of their anger on the most unexpected things and ideas: agricultural irrigation pipes in the fields, books, vocabulary and among the first, the communist anthem! At that time, we took revenge on form in fact we agreed on formal changes, without noticing how many insidious traits and ideas remained perpetuated in the background! In those days of rage, who was able to think of how the true verses of Ciprian Porumbescu's song sounded: true romantic pathos, conceived with all conviction and feeling?! Who then dared to claim that this music of indisputable purity, clarity and accessibility was just as appropriate to the genre of the symbol-song as the best national anthems in the world. We therefore sacrificed the music for some lyrics and we felt freer! 3. Conclusions Why did I start this investigation? The answer is short and definite: I wanted to express my opinion regarding our national anthem Awaken, Romanian! Almost every live performance awakens (!) in me peculiar sensations, in any case not the most favorable. The Enlightenment penetrated (deeper or more superficially, faster or slower) into all European cultural areas, from East to West. In the 18th century, it planted and fed all over Europe the seeds of spirit of nationalism that invaded and dominated the 19th century. This is how I basically explained to myself the time and place of the emergence of the spirit of nationalism in the history of Europe. Among the features that gave birth to nationalism, along with folklore, language, cultural-geographic space, there are the national symbols including patriotic songs, most of them designated together with the creation of the concept of nationhood, during the 19th century. The history of the last two hundred years now shows that a national anthem could be assigned in many but not unlimited circumstances; of primary importance should be the music. Judging from many examples, it becomes clear that anthems usually consist of specific musical features. I found that in most cases the music is tonal, major key, mostly consonant, with short, simple melodies, so that most people can sing it. etc. 229

230 Artes. Journal of Musicology Other circumstances are provided by history: when, where, through whose contribution the anthem was chosen sometimes these circumstances become more important than the music itself. Now it is inconceivable that anyone would ask for Deșteaptă-te, române! / Awaken, Romanian! to be removed from the national repertoire. The song carries profound historical and emotional meaning for Romanians, along with genuine musical value. Nevertheless, the Romanian patriotic repertoire is so vast, with enough historical and musical values, that it would not be difficult to choose a hymn appropriate both to our history and to our times. Such a song could be Pui de lei / Young Lions, composed by Ionel Brătianu 20, in 1902, lyrics by Ioan Nenițescu. Fig. 13 The song Pui de lei (Young Lions) by Ionel Brătianu and Ioan Nenițescu This song has the necessary features of such a destination: tune easy to sing, major key, dotting rhythm (generating dynamism), and climax to the end, which gathers the whole force of the musical discourse. Furthermore, following Andrei Pleșu statement, the lyrics are bright, optimistic, without death, curse, 20 Ionel Brătianu, , born in Bucharest, composer and conductor, son of the musician Gheorghe Brătianu. He studied first with his father, then at Bucharest Conservatory, with Dumitru Georgescu-Kiriac (music theory), Eduard Wachmann (harmony), Robert Klenck (violin). Works: opera, symphonic, chamber and choral music (V. Cosma, 1989, pp ). 230

231 Studies blood, and torment lyrics that sum up both the past, the present and the future of Romanians. They were heroes, they're still heroes, And they are in the Romanian nation! Cause they're broken like of a hard rock, Romanians are growing up everywhere. Our nation is made By two people with strong arms And with strong volition With smart minds, big hearts. One is the industrious Decebal And the other the smart Trajan. Eh, for their hearth, bitter They fought with many enemies. And of good parents Every time heroes will be born. What for their mother nation Will always be winners. They were heroes, and they will be, What will bring down the bad enemies. From the Dacia's and Rome's coast Every time young lions will be born. Therefore, I wonder: why is this song not the national anthem of contemporary Romania loaded with historical significance, authentic musical inspiration and appropriate lyrics? References Boia, L. (2012). Două secole de mitologie națională [Two Centuries of National Mythology]. București: Humanitas. Chelaru, C. (2017). Required Dichotomies in the Romanian (Music) History. Saarbrücken: Lambert Academic Publishing. Chelaru, C. (2017). Cântecul-simbol, istorie și conținut. Despre imnurile naționale [The Song-Symbol, History and Content. About the National Anthems]. București: Editura Muzicală. Cionca, N. (1974). Ciprian Porumbescu. București: Editura Muzicală. Cosma, O. L. (1976). Hronicul muzicii românești [Romanian Music Chronicle], IV. București: Editura Muzicală. Cosma, V. (1984). Exegeze muzicologice [Musicological Exegesis]. București: Editura Muzicală. Cosma, V. (1989). Muzicieni din România. Lexicon [Musicians from Romania. Lexicon], I. București: Editura Muzicală. Gay P. (1996). The Enlightenment: An Interpretation. W. W. Norton & Company. Retrieved from Pann, A. (2009). Spitalul amorului sau Cîntătorul dorului [The Hospital of Love or the Singer of Longing]. București: Editura Compania. 231

232 Artes. Journal of Musicology Pascu, Cr. (2015). Lucrări enesciene în primă audiție absolută pe scena clujeană [Works by Enescu on international premiere at Academia de Muzică from Cluj]. Făclia, independent Journal. Cluj, November 25 Pleșu, A. (2011). Psihologia imnului national [The National Anthem s Psychology]. Dilema Veche, 397, September. Poslușnicu, M. Gr. (1928). Istoria muzicei la români [Romanian History of Music]. București: Editura Cartea Românească. Sîlea, M. (2006). Istoria muzicilor militare [History of Military Music]. București: Editura Militară. Ștefănescu, M. (1974). Cîntecul revoluționar și patriotic românesc [The Revolutionary and Patriotic Romanian Song]. București: Editura Muzicală. Țăranu, C. (2017). Enescu, nouvelles restitutions. Proceedings of the George Enescu International Musicology Symposium: George Enescu, from Knowledge to recognition, Bucharest, Romania, September 3-4, București: Editura Muzicală. *** Decret nr. 420 din 17 noiembrie 1977, privind completarea Legii nr. 33/1977 [Decree No. 420 from November 17, 1977, on completing the Law No. 33/1977] in Buletinul Oficial [The Official Bulletin], 120, 18 noiembrie *** (c1917), The National anthems of the Allies: United States, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Russia, Japan, Serbia, Italy, Rumania, Portugal. New York: G. Schirmer. *** *** *** *** 232

233 DOI number: /ajm Studies Ioan Pavalache Polyptic Coordinates of a Musicianʼs Life CONSUELA RADU-ȚAGA George Enescu National University of Arts Iași ROMANIA Abstract: Ten years have passed from the death of conductor and professor Ioan Pavalache. Born in Chișinău, Ioan Pavalache went through the difficulties of the 1944 refuge. He finished his studies at Bucharest, choosing to practice in the field of music. His great passion was conducting, that is why he preferred to leave the capital and to come to Iași for conducting the Gavriil Musicescu Choir of Moldavian Philharmonic and at the same time the Romanian Operaʼs Choir. He linked his destiny to the activity of the Philharmonicʼs Choir wich he led for 32 years, raising the ensemble to a high artistic level. He did not decline the involvement in organizational activities, which is why he managed the Romanian Opera from Iași as an artistic director. The enthusiasm and the professional skills turned him toward the academic career and at The Conservatory formed plenty of young conductors, who pursue today their activity in residential institutions. A continuator of the choral tradition, Ioan Pavalache founded Camerata Choir, which had a rich activity at national and international levels. The coordinates of a life dedicated to music deserve to be known at present and not only then Keywords: conductor, Gavriil Musicescu Choir, Camerata Chorale, professor, Conservatory. 1. Introduction On November 5 th 2017, 10 years have passed since one of the most prominent personalities of the musical life of Iași and of the choral movement of Romania, the master who conducted the Gavriil Musicescu Choir for over 32 years, the conductor and the professor Ioan Pavalache 1, who contributed to the affirmation of the modern school for choir conductors within the Conservatory of Iași. This writing presents the coordinates of the musicianʼs life, based on his confessions from one evening of September 2007 (shortly before his passing), in a meeting with Mr. Cristian Cașcaval, a teacher of Romanian Literature and Language Studies, member of the Camerata Chorale. Bessarabian by origin, Ioan Pavalache was born in Chișinău, on a beautiful midsummer s day, on June 24 th 1927 the Nativity of John the 1 His real name is Ioan, not Ion, as per various articles. 233

234 Artes. Journal of Musicology Baptist and at the same time the Roumanian feast called Sânziene 2 or Drăgaica. In 1944, he was in the 5 th grade at the Theological Seminary Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni 3. Due to historical hardships, in March 1944, his family took refuge in Oltenia. Young Ioan Pavalache continued his education at the Carol College in Craiova, and afterwards, at the Central Seminary in Bucharest. Thirsty for more and more culture and passionate about music, he enrolled in the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory, from which he graduated in 1952 with a certificate of merit 4. This was the first certificate of this sort ever, granted to a student by the Conservatory of Bucharest 6 years after the education reform adopted in Immediately after graduation, he was coopted within the Department of Music History, and starting with September 19 th, he was hired as a musical referee at the George Enescu Philharmonic, being recommended by Constantin Silvestri, his professor of orchestra conducting. He worked in Bucharest for 6 years, living in an uptown dwelling, which allowed him to make a good thing out of the cultural activities of the capital city. Always sent with all types of events organized by the Ministry of Culture such as the one in 1953, in order to select performers for the International Youth Festival, Ioan Pavalache reached the town of Iași. In August 1953, he got familiar with the town s music business, being in contact with huge personalities such as Achim Stoia, George Pascu, Ella Urmă, Alexandru Garabet, Lucia Burada, Dumitru Chiriac. The following encounters in Bucharest with Achim Stoia were a delight, leading to a special bond between the two. Meanwhile, the Minstry of Culture proposed to him two other positions: one as a musical secretary at ARIA and a similar position at the Opera of Bucharest. Researching in detail through the Romanian Academic Library original documents, a monography came into fruition the one entitled Eduard Caudella. His professional activity in Bucharest was intense, but his utmost passion was still conducting. In order to discover the real problems of choral singing and to observe closely the conducting gestures, between the years Ioan Pavalache was hired within the George Enescu Philharmonic Choir, directed at that time by Dumitru D. Botez, his professor, the founder of the Romanian Academic School of Choral Conducting. Throughout time, the relationship between the disciple and the maestro turned out to be really beautiful, completed by a close human connection. 2 Goldenrod. 3 Education Institution founded by metropolitan Gavriil Bănulescu-Bodoni in The certificate of merit is the old version of the Magna cum Laudae honor. 234

235 235 Studies 2. Iași, Here I Am One day, Dumitru D. Botez invited Ioan Pavalache to dinner at the Athenee Palace 5. They started talking about the latest news, and shortly afterwards, Achim Stoia and George Pascu showed up, being invited to sit down. And suddenly, Achim Stoia addressed young Ioan, telling him that he set his eyes on him ever since 1953, when he travelled to Iași, adding that Dumitru D. Botez spoke eulogistically about him. Stoia and Pavalache met at the Carmen Chorale 6, conducted by Ioan D. Chirescu. Stoia and Pascu came to Bucharest to invite Pavalache to conduct the Gavriil Musicescu Choir, which was conducted by Pascu at the time, but who actually wanted to retire. Moreover, Mr. Ion Goia, manager of the Opera from Iași, also wanted to hire Ioan Pavalache as a conductor of the Opera Choir. Two positions as a conductor at once! Again, not very suitable for a scientific article Ioan Pavalache was only 30 years old, out of which 15 were spent in Bucharest. His teenage years, studies and six years of professional experience were connected to the capital city. In addition, he had decided to start a family. Even so, in 24 hours he gave an affirmative answer to Stoia s proposal. At the end of May 1958, out of three contestants, he obtained the position of conductor. On June 1 st 1958, he started as a professional conductor for two important culture institutions of Iași: the Gavriil Musicescu Choir and the Romanian Opera Choir. His presence as a front-man of these choirs was due to his professional education with the most valuable conductors: Dumitru D. Botez, Ion Vicol, Ioan Dumitru Chirescu, Nicolae Lungu, Gheorghe Kulibin, Gheorghe Danga, Costel Rădulescu, Marin Constantin. During the rehearsals and concerts within the Philharmonic of Bucharest, he was connected to the reference interpretations of George Georgescu, Constantin Silvestri, Theodor Rogalski, Alfred Alessandrescu, Egizio Massini, Antonin Ciolan, Dinu Niculescu, Jean Bobescu or Constantin Bobescu. As a musical secretary, he had to listen to all the orchestra s concerts, listening live to some of the most important artists of those times: Igor Marchevici, Sir John Barbirolli, Georges Prêtre, Carlo Zecchi, Lázló Somogyi, or the pianist Aldo Ciccolini. If this accumulation period brought him a huge knowledge into the repertoire lay-out, meeting the invited conductors inspired him new ways of improving the musical expression and of the conducting art. Upon the arrival of Ioan Pavalache, the choir had been active for 5 years, under the careful guidance of the professor and musicologist George Pascu, who managed to raise the choral group he founded and led it until 1958, at a professional level corresponding to the status of an academic choir (Cozmei, 1992, p. 60). Under the leadership of the first conductor, Gavriil Musicescu 5 This was not the first time it happened. 6 This ensemble sent Achim Stoia at the Schola Cantorum (Paris).

236 Artes. Journal of Musicology held a concert in Bucharest, on the stage of the Romanian Athenaeum, a concert listened with much interest by Ioan Pavalache, without even knowing that he was soon to become the leader of the Philharmonicʼs Choir from Iași. Ioan Pavalache discovered the Moldova Philharmonic to be a smaller institution, quieter than the institutions of Bucharest which he had served. On the other hand, the Romanian Opera was an almost complete institution (with orchestra, choir, soloists, ballet, production area) performing for the second season ever. A vulcanian enthusiasm ensured the quality of the performances; endeavor, chill and determination were spelled on the face of artistic personnel, who had specialized studies in 75% of the cases. The two institutions functioned only by means of helping each other, both within the orchestra and the choir. Aproximately 15 instrumentalists, the best there were at the Philharmonic, collaborated at the Opera and something like 10 male, very good voices from the Opera, were also singing in the Gavriil Musicescu Choir. Both institutions started to progress once the Conservatory was re-founded in It was a fresh start for all departments. With all the difficulties inherent in those years, the Moldova Philharmonic was going through a period of transformations and searches, intense work and renewal, unfolding its activity in a creative atmosphere, largely due to Achim Stoia, with his double quality as director and conductor of the symphonic orchestra. Starting with June 1st 1958, the Gavriil Musicescu Choir had two conductors: George Pascu and Ioan Pavalache. Step-by-step, until the end of the season, George Pascu left the conducting position to his much younger colleague, retiring for good within the Musical History Department, to contribute to a wider and better knowledge of the musical phenomenon and, at the same time to increase the taste for music, highlighting with a keen critical spirit, but also with unlimited admiration, the valuable achievements (Cozmei, 1992, p. 61). Thus the destiny of the Philharmonic Choir of Iași was fulfilled under the protective wing of its only conductor: Ioan Pavalache, who tryed his conducting skills in the early years, proving to be an appreciated conducter formed by the master D. D. Botez (Boțocan & Pascu, 1997, p. 306). 3. Moldavian Debut The choral tradition had been maintained in Iași through church choirs, and Gavriil Musicescu was the founder of a true musical school, a school of creation and liturgical singing, where composers and choir conductors have been formed. The Metropolitan Choir and the one from the Church Saint Spyridon often reunited under the baton of the famous Antonin Ciolan, who Sergiu Celibidache considered to be a great conductor (Cozmei, 1992, p. 30). The choral practice from Iași intensified with the establishment of the Gavriil Musicescu Choir in 1953, and the personality of the conductor Ioan Pavalache was reflected in the activity of this ensemble, promoting thoroughly the utmost 236

237 237 Studies values of the past, present, and encouraging future endeavours and shaping the taste for choral music. At its difficult beginnings, Gavriil Musicescu Choir had only 16 members, with a very heterogeneous composition, on the one hand due to the members ages and on the other hand due to differences in the general culture and especially in the musical education. The choir had teenagers, young, adults and old people altogether; at first, the choir was constituted on a voluntary basis. So the choir was composed from different people from all life s categories: some had graduated only primary school, others had one or two Bachelor degrees, and only three members had musical higher education, due to the activity at the Conservatory which had stopped for about 10 years. This context did not offer the best conditions for the development of the choir; furthermore, a rapid change risked to be too aggressive, disrupting the psychological and artistic balance. The management of the philharmonic opted for a step-by-step makeover, which was achieved in time, with very good results. In 1958 the Gavriil Musicescu Choir, one of the first choral ensembles of a philharmonic in Romania and his conductor Ioan Pavalache were in a process of training. The professional diversity and the difference of age between the choristers required some sort of unification, a homogenization followed by continuous education, starting from the individual and continuing with the collective work. Under the close supervision of Ioan Pavalache, the members of the Gavriil Musicescu Choir evolved more and more, in musical, vocal, psychological, artistic and stylistic preparation; they started making new connections of general culture, broadened their repertoire and acquired new complex skills, integrated into a unitary artistic conception. Through the homogenization and welding of the collective, a characteristic choral sound was obtained, a sonorous paste remarkable through softness and gradation of the tone, influenced by the good acoustics of the beautiful concert hall from the buiding on Cuza Vodă no. 29. The process of maturing and affirmation of the choir was achieved through approaching a repertoire escribed in a large stylistic perimeter. On the first place was the a cappella genre with all its complexity, exploring different spaces from the pre-classical to the modern style, from the promenade music to the philosophical depth, balancing the universal music with the Romanian one and the miniature genre with extensive choral poems. The concert programs were edifying, stylistic options directed towards the Romanian classics, with emphasis on Moldavian composers: Gavriil Musicescu, Alexandru Flechtenmacher, Eduard Caudella, Titus Cerne, Enrico Mezetti, Gheorghe Scheletti and after Alexandru Zirra, Ciprian Porumbescu, Eusebie Mandicevschi, Dumitru D. Botez, Constantin Baciu, Gavriil Galinescu, Radu Paladi, Ion Borgovan, Ioan Bohociu, Vasile Popovici, Constantin

238 Artes. Journal of Musicology Constantinescu, Achim Stoia, Dumitru Georgescu Kiriac, Vasile Ionescu- Pașcani, Sorin Vânătoru, Elise Popovici and those of the new movement: Vasile Spătărelu, Anton Zeman, Sabin Păutza, Viorel Munteanu, Cristian Misievici, Teodor Caciora and many more. The phenomenon of Romanian choral creation was approached in all its complexity, starting from classics and reaching the contemporary composers. This repertoire was brought to a pretentious audience with very hard work and consistency, within memorable concerts supported by a young and malleable collective. Parallelled with a cappella genre, Ioan Pavalache also turned to the vocal-symphonic repertoire, this being the basic purpose of a philharmonic choir. The repertory extension included the Baroque creations, passing through the great J. S. Bach choral school, from chorales, cantatas, Magnificat to the passions and Hohe Messe [The Grand Mass in B minor], followed by G. Fr. Händel, from Jubilate for the Peace, Alexander s Feast, Samson, Judas Maccabeus 7 up to Messiah. In the vocal-symphonic field, the music of the classical period occupied the main place, with concert recorded as reference points: J. Haydn Die Jahreszeiten [The Four Seasons] and Die Schöpfung [The Creation], M.-A. Charpentier Messe de minuit pour Noël, W. A. Mozart Requiem, 4 messas, operas in concerts. There was also the romantic repertoire, from which the great masterpieces were approached: L. van Beethoven Die Ruinen von Athen [The Ruins of Athens], Fantasy for Piano, Choir and orchestra, Missa Solemnis, H. Berlioz Romeo and Juliette, Schubert Messa no. 6 in E-flat major, R. Wagner operaʼs fragments, G. Verdi Requiem, operaʼs fragments, Fr. Liszt Faust, Z. Kodály Psalmus Hungaricus, B. Bartók Cantata Profana, J. Brahms Liebeslieder Walzer and Neue Liebeslieder Walzer, G. Fauré Requiem, J. Strauss famous waltzes and many other titles. At the Philharmonic of Iași there were performed difficult vocal-symphonic works such as Carmina Burana by C. Orff, the dramatic oratory Jeanne dʼarc au bûcher and the symphonic psalm Le Roi David both by A. Honegger, as well as Academic Cantata by B. Britten. The celebration of a quarter of a century of choirʼs existence was marked by a concert in Bucharest. The success was recorded in glorious chronicles signed by Doru Popovici and Constantin Palade, noting the intonation accuracy, homogeneity and artistic mastery (Cozmei, 1992, p. 82). The high-qualities of the Philharmonic Choir recommended it to work with the Bucharest Radio Orchestra and with international artists, to perform the opera Orphaeus by C. Monteverdi, conducted by Ludovic Bacs. Moreover, the Gavriil Musicescu Choir was invited within the George Enescu International Festival, the 5th edition, in 1981, as a partner of the Radio-TV 7 Because of censorship, this piece was presented as The Maccabaeus Hero. 238

239 239 Studies ensembles, to perform Cantata Profana by B. Bartók, conducted by Iosif Conta. As a matter of fact, the collaborations with the Radio Orchestra conducted by Iosif Conta led to a wide range of vocal-symphonic interpretations, presented in Moldova and Bucharest. Also, in August 1981, Ioan Pavalache prepared the Gavriil Musicescu Choir to perform in Italy the opera Medeea by L. Cherubini, directed by Aldo Trionfo (from Scala of Milan) and conducted by Rino Marrone, starring many prestigious international performers. 4. Artistic Maturity by conducting the Gavriil Musicescu Choir One of the most important successes of Moldova Philharmonicʼs Choir was its participation in the International Sacred Music Festival in Bydgoszcz (Poland), on September This event was dedicated to the Eastern Europe and the Near East, with a focus on psaltic music. The Moldova Philharmonic was represented by a male choir. The reputed musicologist Titus Moisescu, eulogized the performance of the choir in the Muzica review, in November 1985, giving the impression that a whole programe of early religious music was an extreme act of bravery. The concert with Winter Songs from us and everywhere was equally courageous. Caroling in the true sense of the word, but with modified lyrics, for the fear of censorship, the choristers were announcing the joy of Christmas, the belief in God and the hope in the light. The thematic concerts appeared from Ioan Pavalache s absorbed and unceasing preoccupations about conducting, highly profitable on different levels: organizational, musical, stylistic and conceptional, highly profitable for the members of the choir, too, and highly satisfactional for the audience. The suggested programs were coherent and systematically configured, they were culturally rich and contributed to the development of the taste for music.the themes were varied, and were shaped in content gradually: Spring voices, Songs of love, Ancient Music Concert, The Baroque in Choral Music, The Nationsʼ Music, The Folk Music in cultivated creation, The longing in Choral Music, Soloists in Choral Creation, Humor in Choral Creation, National Schools in Choral Creation, Heroes of humanity in Choral Creation, Romances, Waltzes, etc. Lesson concerts with appropriate programs for children of all ages and for adults from different social categories were part of the musical tasteforming activity and spreading of the cultural values. The manifestations were sistematically organized, on the basis of a good understanding of the psychology of the listeners. The audience became highly interested in concerts with invited actors, which continued the idea of the main themes, rendering the lyrical universe of our renowned poets: Mihai Eminescu, George Coșbuc, Nichita Stănescu, Adrian Păunescu, Mariana Dumitrescu, Tudor Arghezi. The choral ensemble

240 Artes. Journal of Musicology and its soloists envisaged a complete show that combined some choral pages extracted from the great Romanian tradition with lyrics recited by the actors: Ion Caramitru, Ovidiu Iuliu Moldovan, Teofil Vâlcu, Dan Nasta, Radu Duda, Adina Popa, Costel Popa, Olga Tudorache, Leopoldina Bălănuță. Ioan Pavalache has always sought the way toward diversity, reaching out for social resonance, long-awaited by the choral singing, and reflected in the public affluence at the concerts in Iaşi and nationwide. Throughout the activity of the Gavriil Musicescu Choir, Ioan Pavalache initiated the concerts with guest conductors, a fresh concept within choires. Just as within orchestras, professional choires must and should evolve under the close attention of other conductors as well. Throughout time, 15 conductors were invited as guests, freshening up the choir repertoire, proposing other working methods, launching new concepts and distinct interpretations, using other expressions of conducting gestures, and the choir benefitted and progressed in this manner. Thus choral concerts led by prominent conductors took place, such as: Dumitru D. Botez, Ioan Vicol, Ion Românu, Vasile Pântea, Voicu Enăchescu, Mircea Hoinic, Diodor Nicoară and many others; within the vocal-symphonic concerts of Iași, almost all Romanian conductors and many foreigner conductors participated. Both sides appreciated the choir for its vocal and musical qualities, but most of all, for its flexibility and creative spirit of their performance. As a consequence, some of the conductors returned to the Philharmonic of Iași on various occasions. The artistic achievements and the experience gained have transformed the choir into a true school of singing and conducting art (Cozmei, 1992, p. 80), as the members of the choir have risen important voices of the lyrical theatre, as Viorica Cortez, Maria Slătinaru-Nistor, Mariana Cioromila, Lucia Țibuleac, Mioara David-Cortez, but also conductors who shaped the sonorities according to their will Diodor Nicoară, Anton Bișoc, Victor Dumănescu, Valeriu Gâdei. These musicians were encouraged and promoted by Ioan Pavalache, receiving advice and directions for their professional development. The permanent broadening of the activity and the rise of the representationsʼ artistic level placed the choir from Iași on the top of the professional ensembles throughout the country. Completing the artistic manifestations of the institution, the formula of the opera in concert was introduced: Fidelio, Oedip, Cosi fan tutte, Cavalleria rusticana, through the collaboration of the two ensembles of Moldova Philharmonic, the orchestra and the choir. Having a comprehensive repertoire, the Gavriil Musicescu Choir was invited within various cultural centers nationwide, among which were the famous representations on the verses of Eminescu. In Piatra Neamț, Ioan Pavalache conducted no less than 11 concerts with works on Eminescu s lyrics. The repertoire included the most valued compositions, starting from the 240

241 241 Studies classics, to the contemporary composers: D. G. Kiriac, G. Dima, E. Mandicevski, T. Flondor, than P. Constantinescu, Gh. Dumitrescu, L. Profeta, Al. Pașcanu, and of course the composers from Iași: A. Stoia, C. Constantinescu, V. Popovici, V. Spătărelu, S. Păutza, V. Munteanu, Cr. Misievici, L. Dumitriu, Al. Hrubaru. Ioan Pavalache was especially keen on our autochthonous creation, based on our national poet s verses, considering it a sacred duty. Why were some of the most inspired compositions based on the work of Eminescu born here? Let us remember: Ce-ți doresc eu ție, dulce Românie? [What I Wish for You, Sweet Romania?] by Achim Stoia, Sara pe deal [Evening on the hill] by Vasile Popovici, Floare albastră [Blue Flower] by Vasile Spătărelu, Lacul [The Lake] by Sabin Păutza, or Lacul [The Lake] of Leonard Dumitriu. Ioan Pavalache took the choir on art-like national tours, because the foreign ones were very rare at that time. With a cappella programs or vocalsymphonic collaborations, the audiences in Botoșani, Suceava, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Gura Humorului, Dorohoi, Pașcani, Stupca Ciprian Porumbescu, Ipotești, Liveni, Tescani, Roman, Piatra-Neamț, Bacău, Onești, Bârlad, Galați, Tecuci, Vaslui, Buzău, Ploiești, Constanța, Brașov, Sibiu, Lugoj, Timișoara and many other towns were enthralled by the interpretations of the Gavriil Musicescu Choir. At the beginning of the season a groundbreaking event took place, reconstructing the path of the Metropolitan Choir of Gavriil Musicescu, from the towns of Galați to Timișoara. The tour was nicely welcomed, being appreciated, applauded and praised. For several seasons Ioan Pavalache conducted the concerts of Bucharest and Timișoara choirs. A few times he conducted the symphonic orchestra of Iași, enjoying the collaboration with world-famous soloists: Valentin Gheorghiu, Sofia Cosma, Ștefan Ruha, Daniel Podlovschi, as well as other local soloists, presenting the vocal-symphonic repertoire in a unitary conception. At the music stand of Gavriil Musicescu Choir he had the chance to perform along his daughter, the pianist Alina Pavalache, living his life to the fullest, as a conductor and as a father. The continuous and tireless work of the choristers and the conductor Ioan Pavalache lead them to record a few vinyls with Electrecord: Cantata Profana by Béla Bartók, Vox Maris by George Enescu, Chorus on popular lyrics by Gavriil Musicescu, Vocal-Symphonic Poem by C. Palade. The idea of organizing a choral competition festival at Iași belonged to the conductor Ioan Pavalache, who managed to celebrate the personality of Gavriil Musicescu and of the choir that bears his name through a beautiful enterprise. On the occasion of 35 years of choirʼs activity (in 1988), the first and unique edition of the Choral Reunion Gavriil Musicescu took place in Iași, with 15 choirs from different parts of the country taking part in the competition.

242 Artes. Journal of Musicology Maintaining the conquered prestige was impossible because of the selffinancing policy of the cultural institutions, because the important issues of everyday activities focused on the ensuring of wages. After 1971, for almost 20 years, the national policy aimed at destroying the art institutions; all vacancies were made unavailable for good. Through retirements and movements, the choir suffered a decrease in personnel, from 86 singers to 38, taking the dimensions of a chamber choir. It was already a succes that they could maintain the choir in activity at a high level of performance. After 1990 it was turned over Doru Morariu, the successor of Ioan Pavalache. 5. The Activity within the Romanian Opera For 6 years, Ioan Pavalache conducted the Romanian Opera Choir, afterwards opting for the position of an associate for over 35 years. Besides the human material I found in Iași, I found an institution of enthusiasm like Iʼve never met. Every human had an aspiration But it was important that this enthusiasm was a collective one [Stoiciu-Frunză, 2015, p. 77]. Between , he was the manager of the Opera of Iași. Both his profession and his wife s profession were connected to this institution, his wife being a soprano, Aneta Pavalache 8. Under his leadership the following premieres took place: My Fair Lady, Don Carlos and Nabucco, Lʼelisir dʼamore, Romeo and Juliette, ensuring the opportunity to replay some titles such as: Faust, Rigoletto, Boema or Le Nozze di Figaro. Under his supervision the two choirs, the Philharmonic Choir and the Romanian Opera Choir were able to perfom in super-productions with 140 choristers on stage. Thus, the audiences of Iași and Bucharest could listen to the Symphony No.9 by Beethoven, to Verdi s Requiem, or could see the large productions of the Romanian Opera: Der fliegende Holländer [The Flying Dutchman], Aida, Boris Godunov, Il ballo in maschera [A Masked Ball], Stejarul din Borzești [The Oak from Borzești] and Oedip. The two choirs brought together represented a powerful ensemble, able to make stunning scenes, supporting the dramatic action in the grand-opera manner. For the enescian masterpiece, the Gavriil Musicescu Choir had the honour and satisfaction to record the soundtrack for the homonymous movie, directed by Olimpia Arghir at the Romanian National TV. The orchestra of the Moldova Philharmonic was conducted by Ion Baciu and during the mass scenes, the choir singers proved themselves to be actors, too. 8 The soprano Aneta Pavalache graduated from the Ciprian Porumbescu Conservatory, making her debut in 1958, at the Romanian Opera of Iași, as Mimi from Boema by G. Puccini. Between the years she was prim-soloist at the Opera of Iași, and retired in 1983, with a memorable performace in Faust by Ch. Gounod. She moved to France, in 1986, sharing her experience with the students from the National Superior Conservatory of Paris and from the Russian Conservatory Sergey Rachmaninov. 242

243 Studies 6. Ioan Pavalache as a Professor The second greatest passion of Ioan Pavalache, into which he invested knowledge, experience and spirit, was to lead the Conducting Choir class. The choir ensemble imposed itself since the beginning of the reconstructed Conservatory, but the joy of the students and audience was at its greatest level when the works Jubilate for the Peace by G. Fr. Handel, Academic Cantata by B. Britten, Requiem by G. Fauré, Craiul Munților [The Philanderer of the Mountains] by Timotei Popovici (orchestrated by Achim Stoia), Three Carols from Hunedoara by Nicolae Boboc were presented. Initially, Ioan Pavalache conducted the concerts, and starting with the second year, the students were promoted, as well. This practice has intensified when the new class, the Academic Choir Conducting speciality was created.this was the place for the new and young conductors to be formed. Ioan Pavalache strived to teach his students the theory of conducting, helping them discover their own means of expression, without imposing gestures or cliches 9. Between the years , I was honoured to be his student within the specialized class for young conductors, thanks to his surveillance, mastership and experience. He enriched my spectrum of knowledge and built the guiding principles of the interpretative phenomenon, always encouraging me to be keen on studying, to discover the finest and most subtle details. I remember his word even today: to have equal chances as your male colleagues, you have to be at least twice as good as they are! Many of the conductors who were or are active within specialized institutions graduated from the George Enescu National University of Arts, in Iași, being taught by Ioan Pavalache. Among these we must name the following: Anton Bișoc (the Romanian Opera of Iași), Nicolae Gâscă ( George Enescu National University of Arts in Iași) 10, Diodor Nicoară ( Banatul Philharmonic Timișoara), Gheorghe Victor Dumănescu (the Romanian Opera of Iași, the Romanian Opera of Cluj-Napoca and Gheorghe Dima Music Academy Cluj-Napoca), Nicolae Bica (the Music Academy Brașov and Oradea), Ovidiu Giulvezan (the Philharmonic of Timișoara), Carmen Capato (the Lyric Theatre of Galați), Lucian Dumitriu (the Opera of Constanța), George Dumitriu ( George Enescu National University of Arts in Iași), Consuela Radu-Țaga ( George Enescu National University of Arts in Iași), etc. Others worked with amateur ensembles and had musical achievements and professional satisfactions with less complex, but more diverse repertoires. 9 Somewhere around 50 years of age, Ioan Pavalache got ill with Parkinson, which affected him both physically and psychologically. 10 George Enescu National University of Arts is the current name of the Conservatory of Iași. 243

244 Artes. Journal of Musicology 7. Member of the Romanian Composers and Musicologists Society The musician Ioan Pavalache was attracted to the field of composition, too, composing over 50 pieces, among which: Sara pe deal [Evening on the hill], O, rămâi [Oh, Stay], Cântec de leagăn [Lullaby], Axion, Colind păstorilor [Carol to the shepherds], The Creed, Lord s Prayer, Four lieds. He was particularly concerned with the transcription and choral arrangements, or the adaptations required by various program structures. His endeavour was recognized by being accepted in the Romanian Composers and Musicologists Society. His artistics achievements were recognized by means of the First Class Cultural Prize, The Romanian Republic Star, and for his internationally recognized activity he was also awarded an honorary position as member of the Société musicale française George Enesco. He was also an honorary member of the ville of Villereal (France). 8. Founder of the Camerata Chorale While activating within the Philharmonic, Opera and Conservatory, Ioan Pavalache founded in 1970 the Camerata Chorale. Mostly constituted of music teachers his former students, he had the merit of creating an ensemble with a unitary sound and with a notorious stylistic and colorful pliancy from the modest voices of these teachers (Boțocan & Pascu, 1997, p. 306). The desire to make music was the basis of the ensemble s conduct, which was, over time, among the best choirs of the country, competing in terms of repertoire and artistic level with professional ensembles. Starting with the year 1970, Camerata took part in national festivals, with important achievements. Enjoying a remarkable prestige, the Camerata was invited to the most important choral reunions from the cultural centers of the country, participating in radio and television recordings in Romania and later abroad. Internationally, the Camerata Chorale received important awards at the Bela Bartok Festival (Debreczin Hungary), Seghizzi Festival in Gorizia, Guido dʼarezzo Festival. Due to its successes, the Camerata was invited as a guest in Italy within the Choral Festivals of Volterra, Sevigliano, Aosta, then in Vitoria Setubal (Portugal) and Catalunya (Spain). The vast repertoire of the Camerata encompasses various works, starting from pre-classical composers and reaching to the exponents of the modern musical language. Complex Romanian creations from the second half of the 20th century were promoted thoroughly, such as: Bocete străbune [Ancient Wails] by Alexandru Pașcanu, Ritual pentru setea pământului [Ritual for the Thirst of the Earth] by Myriam Marbe, Scene nocturne [Nocturnal Scenes] by Anatol Vieru, Leu și june [Lion and Youngster] by Liviu Glodeanu, 4 Madrigale [Four Madrigals] by Tiberiu Olah, Două imnuri bizantine [Two Byzantine Hymns] by Doru Popovici, Moisei by Liviu Borlan, 244

245 Studies 1907 by Anton Zeman, Ciuleandra by Vasile Spătărelu, 4 Colinde [Four Carols] by Sabin Păutza. The ensemble recorded some first Romanian and international performances. After 1981 the gates to foreign countries closed, because the politruks claimed that the chorale serves imperialism by promoting religious works. Even so, the Camerata did not cease its activity, supporting concerts and continuing to participate to important festivals around the country. Right after the year 1989, it was invited as a guest to The Grand Sacred Music Festival in Kyiv, and on this occasion in Caucasus, Tbilisi and Yerevan, Camerata traveled many times to Western Europe, aiming to discove charming places: Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany. Its success was pictured in admirable reviews, with synthetic expressions: marvellous Eastern voices, the uncommon Camerata. 9. Conclusions Ioan Pavalache was a high-cultured musician, who promoted the path to understanding the meanings of the musical discourse and vibrating emotion. A positive action man, he worked with passion and competence to ensure Iașiʼs musical life renditions of the highest artistic level. He imposed a musical vision based on stylistic diversification of the repertoire, on respect for the approached scores and on understanding of the performance as a creative process. The care for sonorous detail, filled with subtlety, the preoccupation for colour and signification, the balance between the strict musical structures and their resonant materialization, the discovery of that mystery of relationships between the vocal parties, the education of vocality have characterized his style of work, which left deep traces in the artistic practice of Gavriil Musicescu Choir, being partly adopted by his disciples, too. His rehearsals were accompanied by rich explanations and many exemplifications and he was not constrained by time, because Ioan Pavalache was making music at leisure, with the disposal of the musician who wants to discover every detail expressed more or less directly. The sober gesture, permanently controlled, imposed a certain artistic dignity, which sometimes betrayed the emotional tone impregnated by a romantic blow. The rhytmic precision, the agogic accents, the articulation and diction were the parameters which Ioan Pavalache was preoccupied with. He worked very much to solve these technical problems, observing and deepening the practise of orchestra conductors, the principles of sound emission, specific to each instrument, and the way in which the organic connection between the technics and the expression is done, thus involving stylistic accuracy. He did the tracing of this complex problem by means of the specific choral principle, namely active articulation. This principle, applied with consistency, offered 245

246 Artes. Journal of Musicology him solidity for the choral constructions and at the same time, imposed slenderness and flexibility, all interpretative aspects relying on positiveness. Stemming from his thirst for beauty and knowledge, a new sound was born, balanced and dosed in perfect harmony with the poetic content, intonational calibrated choral constructions, clear and expressive phrases, a diverse dynamic pallete disposed on the vocal-choral color keying. In his performances or recordings, or in the seminaries about Choral Ensemble Conducting, Ioan Pavalache persuades by means of the interpretative conceit, and by means of an admirable knowledge to give meaning to the poeticmusical structures of the scores (Cozmei, 2017, p. 327). After a long suffering period, caused by a widespread cancer, Maestro Ioan Pavalache passed away in the morning of October 5th 2007, being buried on the Saints Michael and Gabriel s Sacred Day, at the Eternitatea Cemetery of Iași. References Boțocan, M. & Pascu, G. (1997). Hronicul muzicii ieșene [The chronicle of the music from Iași]. Iași: Editura Noël. Chelaru, C. & Ciobanu, A. & Matei, S. et al. (2002). Filarmonica ieșeană la 60 de ani [Philharmonic from Iași at 60th anniversary]. Iași: Editura Filarmonica Moldova. Chelaru, C. (2009). Filarmonica Moldova la 65 de ani [ Moldova Philharmonic at 65 th anniversary]. Iași: Editura Fundației Academice AXIS. Cosma, V. (2004). Muzicieni din România. Lexicon [Musicians from Romania. Lexicon], VII. București: Editura Muzicală. Cozmei, M. (1992). Filarmonica Moldova Iași 50 [ Moldova Iași Philharmonic 50]. Iași: Editura Filarmonica Moldova. Cozmei, M. (2017). Ioan Pavalache. In Cozmei, M. (Ed.), Cuvinte despre muzică și muzicieni [Words about music and musicians] (pp ). Iași: Editura Artes. Stoiciu-Frunză, V. (2015). Opera Națională Română Iași. Viziune cultural-istorică [National Romanian Opera from Iași. Cultural-historic vision]. București: Editura Universității Naționale de Muzică. Ion Pavalache 246



249 DOI number: /ajm Book Reviews Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu A Philocalic History of Music Review 1 LUMINIȚA DUȚICĂ George Enescu National University of the Arts Iași ROMÂNIA 1. Introduction A philocalic history of music, professed with so much sensitivity by the author of this volume, Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu, is another proof that nothing can ever be made and endure without faith, and that art made through this feeling may ease the way to beatitude and salvation. The author s inspired idea to combine the scientific endeavour with the spiritual one, to link the significations of music to the orthodox religion, did not come from a momentary, solitary thought, but from true spiritual and mental doggedness. The explanation is quite simple: Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu s faith. This was to become, in fact, the God-given drive that made it possible for the volume to be published and become known in this form. It addresses both the wide public and professional musicians. 2. To step on a flowery meadow without touching a single flower... (Măniuţ-Coroiu, 2016, p. 1) A musicologist and aesthetician, a university professor and PhD supervisor at the Faculty of Music from Transilvania University of Braşov, Petruţa Măniuţ- Coroiu received a solid education that also included religion ever since her childhood, as she was born in a family of great intellectuals. Her love for the Church and the understanding of the Scripture and the books of the Great Holy Fathers was especially nurtured by the gifted orthodox priests from Braşov and also by her involvement in numerous charitable and cultural events organized with the Church. 1 Petruța Măniuț (2016). O istorie filocalică a muzicii [A Philocalic History of Music]. Craiova: Universitaria

250 Artes. Journal of Musicology Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu s writings, be they poems, essays or strictly musicological studies, attract us by their inspired subject matters, which show her particularly sensitive side, matched only by her literary talent, that of a redoubtable philologist. This book is devoted to her mother, Maria, with gratitude for the philocalic beauty of her soul (2016, p. 7), being prefaced by a moving poem about her. The book s central idea is spiritual fulfilment through faith, seen from the perspective of its relationship with music, starting from the morals of the 30 steps described in the Ladder of the Divine Ascent from the Philokalia signed by Saint John Climacus (6 th -7 th century). A monk at a monastery on Mount Sinai and holder of an impressive repository of knowledge, John Climacus created for his brothers a guide with spiritual rules to be followed and put into practice throughout their entire life, preparing them for the Afterlife. In this volume, the author presents, step by step, the 30 words of wisdom without straying from the original text, using direct quotes from Saint John Climacus work, which approaches topics such as the renunciation of the world, repentance, obedience, humility, etc. The steps, representing the ladder of spiritual fulfilment, should be climbed so as to leave a mark on the souls of those who ascend, as Saint John Climacus himself stresses: Cei ce se supun cu simplitate în Domnul străbat drumul cel bun, necunoscând în ei prin iscodire amănunţită viclenia dracilor (Scărarul, 1959, p.12). It is worth remembering than once a step is reached the others should not be forgotten, but furthered for the rest of one s life. Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu presents to us, in an essay, subjective form, a different history of philocaly. The author structures the book s contents based on the faith-music binomial, taking over the titles of each chapter from the Ladder, wherein she places the musical data under the absolute ascendancy of the spiritual imperatives prescribed as steps to fulfilment (Măniuț-Coroiu, 2016, p. 5). The musical masterpieces selected for this volume are prefaced by brief introductions about the stylistic age and the composer who created them. The author seems to have aimed to create a spiritual guide for the music-loving reader. The musical opuses discussed were carefully selected, in accordance with the teachings retrieved from the 30 steps in Saint John Climacus book. Each chapter is preceded by quotes from the Old and the New Testament, or from the writings of great representatives of the orthodox faith (Saint John Chrysostom, Maximus the Confessor, Stăniloae). Here are the book s contents: 1. Lepădarea de viaţa deşartă şi retragerea [On renunciation of the world] is juxtaposed to a piece by composer Samuel Barber Adagio for string orchestra 2. Despătimirea [On detachment]: J. S. Bach Orchestral Suite no. 3 in D major (Aria) 250

251 Book Reviews 3. Înstrăinarea [On exile or pilgrimage]: F. Chopin Prelude in E minor 4. Fericita şi pururea pomenita ascultare [On blessed and ever-memorable obedience]: V. Timaru Symphony 3 Miorița 5. Pocăinţa cea făcută cu grijă şi deplin arătată [On painstaking and true repentance]: J. S. Bach The Passion of Saint Matthew (Air of Peter s penitence) 6. Pomenirea morţii [On remembrance of death]: R. Wagner the opera Tristan and Isolde 7. Plânsul de-bucurie-făcător [On joy-making mourning]: J. S. Bach Prelude in B flat minor 8. Nemânierea şi blândeţea [On freedom from anger and on meekness]: A. Bruckner Te Deum 9. Ţinerea de minte a răului [On remembrance of wrongs]: G. Verdi the opera La Traviata 10. Clevetirea [On slander or calumny]: S. Rachmaninov Concerto no. 2 for piano and orchestra 11. Multa vorbire şi tăcerea [On talkativeness and silence]: F. Chopin Concerto no. 1 for piano and orchestra 12. Minciuna [On lying]: A. Vivaldi Spring, concerto for violin and orchestra 13. Lenea sufletească [On despondency]: L. van Beethoven Symphony no Pântecele atotlăudat şi tiran [On that clamorous mistress, the stomach]: Fr. Liszt Dante Symphony 15. Curăţia şi neprihănirea nestricăcioasă, agonisită de cei stricăcioşi prin osteneli şi sudori [On incorruptible purity and chastity, to which the corruptible attain by toil and sweat]: J. Massenet the opera Thais (Meditation) 16. Iubirea de arginţi şi neagonisirea [On love of money, or avarice]: A. Stroe Melodramas on the Book of Jov 17. Nesimţirea, moartea sufletului înainte de moartea trupului [On insensibility, that is, deadening of the soul and the death of the mind before the death of the body]: P. I. Ceaikovski Symphony no. 6 (Pathetique) 18. Somnul, rugăciunea şi cântarea în obşte [On sleep, prayer, and psalmody with the brotherhood]: D. Lipatti Concertino in the classical style for piano and chamber orchestra 19. Privegherea trupească [On bodily vigil]: G. Fr. Handel the oratorio Messiah 20. Frica laşă, nebărbătească [On unmanly and puerile cowardice]: J. S. Bach Toccata and fugue for organ in D minor 21. Slava deşartă [On the many forms of vainglory]: F. Liszt Faust Symphony 22. Mândria cea fără minte şi fără stăpânire [On mad pride]: C. Orff Carmina Burana 251

252 Artes. Journal of Musicology 23. Gândurile negrăite ale hulei [On unclean blasphemous thoughts]: H. Berlioz Fantastic symphony 24. Blândeţea, simplitatea şi nerăutatea agonisite prin sârguinţa înţeleaptă, viclenia [On meekness, simplicity, and guilelessness]: G. Enescu Prelude in unison (Suite I for orchestra) 25. Preaînalta smerită-cugetare [On the destroyer of the passions, most sublime humility]: C. Porumbescu Ballad for violin and orchestra 26. Deosebirea gândurilor, patimilor şi virtuţilor. Dreapta socoteală bine deosebitoare [On discernment of thoughts, passions and virtues. On expert discernment]: J. Brahms Symphony no Sfinţita liniştire a trupului şi a sufletului [On holy stillness of body and soul]: The music of the Triodion 28. Fericita rugăciune, sfinţita maică a tuturor virtuţilor [On holy and blessed prayer, the mother of virtues]: W. A. Mozart Requiem (Lacrimosa) 29. Nepătimirea, cerul pământesc; desăvârşirea şi învierea sufletului [Concerning Heaven on earth, or Godlike dispassion and perfection, and the resurrection of the soul]: L. van Beethoven Concerto no. 4 for piano and orchestra 30. Legătura treimii virtuţilor: dragostea, nădejdea, credinţa [Concerning the linking together of the supreme trinity among the virtues: love, hope, faith]: J. S. Bach Missa in B minor (Credo: Crucifixus) In this volume, Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu stresses the need for emotion and feeling in the performance of artistic acts. Thus, the depth of the musical art reveals the soul that created it; that is why music is just a sign of that which cannot be seen the heart (Măniuț-Coroiu, 2016, p. 45). Discussing Valentin Timaru s work, the author mentions the Maestro s reflections on faith, humility, generosity, wisdom, etc. detailed in his writings. His portrait is completed by quotes from his own aphorisms (Timaru, 2008): Gratitude is the virtue of the chosen. Few are honest enough to acknowledge how much they are indebted to their peers (Timaru, 2007). A very special moment is step 16, On love of money or avarice, which quotes the words of Saint John Climacus: Iată altă luptă. Cel ce a câştigat-o călătoreşte în chip nematerial la cer. Cel ce a biruit-o a agonisit dragostea sau a tăiat grija (Măniuț-Coroiu, 2016, p. 102). In this chapter, Petruţa Măniuţ- Coroiu finds it appropriate to propose a comparison with the work Melodramas, interludes and symphonies for the Book of Job by the Maestro Aurel Stroe. Composed during his student years, in the communist period, without benefiting from a much deserved audition due to its forbidden topic, this opus is a mimodrama on music that belongs to the spiritual-cultural framework of the Antim monastery, where ( ) he had been called to write this work that initially had no text (Măniuţ-Coroiu, 2016, p. 109). 252

253 Book Reviews Unfortunately, after the composer s death only the first 63 manuscript pages were found, says Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu, the author who took it upon herself to analyse Aurel Stroe s entire creation. 3. Conclusion By the volume titled O istorie filocalică a muzicii [A philocalic history of music] the musicologist Petruţa Măniuţ-Coroiu brings a valuable contribution both to the musical-theological field and to other related areas. The originality consists in identification of the most representative religious texts and their matching musical pieces, as this fusion produces numerous opportunities to acquire apophatic knowledge and intense spiritual experiences. References Măniuț, P. (2016). O istorie filocalică a muzicii [A philocalic history of music]. Craiova: Universitaria. Scărarul, I. (1959). The Ladder of the Divine Ascent, translated by Archimandrite Lazarus Moore. New York: Harper & Brothers. Timaru, V. (2008). Muzica noastră cea spre fiinţă [Our music into being]. Târgu- Lăpuş: Galaxia Gutenberg. Timaru,V. (2007). Aforisme [Aphorisms]. Târgu-Lăpuş: Galaxia Gutenberg. 253

254 DOI number: /ajm Artes. Journal of Musicology Four Centuries of Lied with Grigore Constantinescu Review 1 LOREDANA IAȚEȘEN George Enescu National University of Arts Iași ROMÂNIA Vocal music research in all its aspects has been a constant concern of Grigore Constantinescu. He is a passionate musicologist with an impressive career who published hundreds of pages of various genres: encyclopedias, music history books, monographs, critical reviews. An overview of the titles of some of his books reveals the vocation of the monographer Grigore Constantinescu. A meticulous author, who has listened to numerous recordings, has been constantly informed, has read enormously, has systematized documents to write ample works that capture the personality of certain composers 2, performing artists 3 or even genres. We refer more precisely to certain publications of encyclopedic dimensions and consistency: Patru secole de operă Istorie şi stiluri, Personalităţi creatoare, Capodopere, Repertorii [Four Centuries of Opera, History and Styles, Creative Personalities, Masterpieces, Repertoires] (Editura Națională a Operei, București, 2014) and Patru secole de lied Miniatura vocală acompaniată Genul liedului și variantele sale [Four Centuries of Lied, Vocal 1 Grigore Constantinescu (2016). Patru secole de lied. Miniatura vocală acompaniată. Genul liedului și variantele sale [Four Centuries of Lied. Vocal Miniature with Accompaniment. The Lied Genre and its Variants]. București: Editura Muzicală. 2 Giuseppe Verdi, Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 2009; Gaetano Donizetti, Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București, Margareta Metaxa, o voce a Operei Române [Margareta Metaxa, a Voice of the Romanian Opera], Editura Muzicală, București, 1987; Dorin Teodorescu Imaginile unui destin (Dorin Teodorescu The Images of a Destiny), Editura Uniunii Criticilor Muzicali, București, 2003; Iulia Buciuceanu, un portret liric în dialog [Iulia Buciuceanu, a Lyrical Portrait in Dialog], Fundația George Constantin, București, 2011; Emilia Petrescu, Regina cântului vocalconcertant [Emilia Petrescu, the Queen of Singing and Concerto], Editura Muzicală, București,

255 255 Book Reviews Miniature with Accompaniment, The Lied Genre and its Variants] (Editura Muzicală, București, 2016). The reading of these volumes plunges the reader into an intense scientific and cultural approach, due to the diversity of literary, aesthetic-philosophical and musical issues, on the lengthy evolution of genres of the utmost importance in the history of musical art. When referring to the last book, Four Centuries of Lied (2016), it is impossible not to ask ourselves: what world literature models did Grigore Constantinescu rely on for the completion of a musical approach of such magnitude? When browsing through some important books belonging to the international bibliography 4, one is surprised to discover that the work of the Romanian musicologist, of encyclopedic stature and value, is a single author s creation, not a collective project or an anthology of texts. Moreover, Grigore Constantinescu has conducted research that goes beyond the traditional approach of the genre in encyclopedias, materialized in the definition of the historical background, the general classification of the style, the enumeration of some significant representatives and opera. The book has twelve chapters: Prologue, Definition and Evolution of the Lied in the 17 th -18 th Centuries, Great Classics, Lied Autonomy in the 19 th Century, Great Romantics, The 20 th Century. The Modern Age. Perspectives and Accomplishments in the Austrian-German Lied, Perspectives and Accomplishments in Italian Romantic and Modern Vocal Miniature, Young National Cultures, Russian Romantic and Modern Vocal Miniature, French Romantic and Modern Melody, American Trends and Tendencies, Romanian Vocal Chamber Music, to which Epilogue by Ruxandra Donose, Selective Name Index and Selective References are added. Throughout these chapters, the researcher thoroughly deals with the issues of the genre, from the diversity of the Volksong / Kunstlied concepts in the sequence of the first historical stages, to the particular aspects of the text-music correspondences in different cultures of the Western European academic tradition, to the innovative concepts in dealing with the genre of the 20 th -21 st centuries. As the author points out from the beginning, the book was published within the Ialomița always and forever project, on the occasion of the 25 th anniversary of the Ionel Perlea National Lied Festival and Contest in A prestigious contest in the organization of which he undertook the role of mentor. A significant and motivating detail for musicologist Grigore Constantinescu, who responds to the emotional challenge, resulting in a 517 page-long research. One of the basic arguments supporting the analysis of the lied genre was the detailed comment on the poetic sources. I refer here not only to the 4 The Cambridge Companion to the Lied edited by James Parsons, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2004; Hélène Cao et Hélène Boisson. Anthologie du lied, édition bilingue, Paris, Éditions Buchet/Chastel, coll. «Musique», 2010.

256 Artes. Journal of Musicology vastness of the themes and topics in relation to various musics but also and especially to the identification of the author with the cultural, philosophical and literary environment of the analyzed epochs. Whereas in the previous monographs devoted to the composers interested in this genre the authors remarks were particularly focused on the importance of sound, often at the expense of the poetic source, in this case, the problematization of the phenomenon follows the reverse route. Direct or symbolic message reception from potential readers is deep, consistent with the whole conceptual content of the ideas deduced from the content of the reference texts. Moreover, the analytical, aesthetic-philosophical and psychological comments on the literary sources of some recently evaluated musical cultures (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Belgium) is unprecedented. The text reveals the author s ability to systematize many pages of documentary value, mostly unknown to Romanian readers, the musical correspondences of which he also outlines. Thus, by emphasizing the importance of poetic meanings, the lied as a genre exceeds the mundane concept. It is dealt with and understood as a living phenomenon, with a history based on arguments related to fascinating collaborations between poets and composers, regardless of chronological classifications, ideology or other circumstances. In his sound-related comments, Grigore Constantinescu s musicological vision is revealed from the very beginning, in the prologue: From the point of view of the genre, the notion and the structure of the lied itself corresponds as a poetic and musical style to certain successive compositional changes and accumulations of the periods in the history of music (Constantinescu, 2016, p. 9). Thus, from the concept of lied as a minnesang, to the vocal-instrumental miniature of the 21 st century, the author sheds light on certain features of operas created by first-hand or lesser-known composers. He focuses on the perception of the peculiarities of various musics from several viewpoints: the relationship between the composers and the styles of their time, the reception of the composers in the reference periods, the place and role of the lied in the musicians composition work, the relevance of some biographical aspects of the composers. Also, the close relationships between the composers and literati of the time influenced individual creative choices and lead to various miniature approaches. An approach that was materialized in the general or the in-depth analysis (stylistic, semantic, hermeneutic) of numerous music scores. Moreover, the researcher devotes true musicological studies to a series of valuable musicians (Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Johannes Brahms, Hugo Wolf, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Modest Mussorgsky, Gabriel Fauré, Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Francis Poulenc, George Enescu, Nicolae Coman). These are done in detail, in relation to the composers various conceptions of 256

257 257 Book Reviews building their own sound thinking systems, which they explain differently, depending on the relevance of some musical and extra-musical elements. The result is the detection and understanding of subtleties in the psychology of each act of creation. Grigore Constantinescu is equally serious when he draws attention to the personality of partly known artists, who have made their views known in the musical literature of the genre: Johann Friedrich Reichardt, Carl Friedrich Zelter, Louis Spohr, Carl Loewe, Heinrich Marschner, Otto Nicolai are some of the composers grouped in the subchapter entitled Weber and the Austro-German Generation at the Beginning of Romanticism. Representatives of the young national cultures (Constantinescu, 2016, p. 241) are also referred to here, being appreciated rather and especially for their contribution to the symphonic and concerto genres, than for their accomplishments in the miniature genre. We refer here to Johann Peter Emilius Hartmann, Niels Gade (Denmark); Jan Sibelius (Finland); Franz Berwald, Ture Rangström, Carl Wilhelm Eugen Stenhammar (Sweden); Ludvig Mathias Lindeman (Norway); Bedřich Smetana, Zdenĕk Fibich, Antonin Dvořák, Leoš Janáček, Bohuslav Martinu, Erich Wolfgang Korngold (the Czech Republic); Frederic Chopin, Stanislav Moniuszko, Karol Szymanowski, Witold Lutoslawski, Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki (Poland); Ferenc Erkel, Ernȍ Dorhnányi, Béla Bartók, Zoltán Kodály, László Lajtha, Joseph Kosma (Hungary); André Modest Grétry, César Franck, Guillaume Lekeu (Belgium); Felipe Pedrell, Isaac Albéniz, Enrique Granados, Joaquín Nin, Manuel de Falla, Jesús Guridi Bidaola, Federico Mompou, Roberto Gerhard, Xavier Montsalvatge (Spain). They contributed through the musical-poetic value of some of their opuses to the maturation of the style of some prestigious composers or to the identification of general language and expression traits. The author analyzes them with the same passion, whether their music was successful at their time or not. The researcher believes that critical reception is necessary given the problematization in the contemporary world of creative values or attempts of the past centuries, so that the reader is given the opportunity to gather information and shape his/her own opinions, selections, systematizations concerning the relevance of certain styles, creative attitudes, opuses. Here may be mentioned, for example, the succinct manner of characterizing the style of the 20 th century Hungarian composer Joseph Kosma, an author of French melodies with a delicate expression, whose pieces have been rarely performed or analyzed. The fluidity of form, the sense of unity of meaning gives a quality unmatched in the music of the time, with a certain parallelism with Poulenc s melodies, echoes from the works of previous composers who cultivated the same beauty ideal, which influenced him indirectly, through the creations of Gounod, Massenet, Fauré or Ravel (Constantinescu, 2016, p. 271). In the construction of the texts, Grigore Constantinescu is not a radical author. He does not point to singular interpretations of meanings, to deformed

258 Artes. Journal of Musicology receptions. Thus each fragment, word or phrase, due to its richness of cultural and musical meanings, becomes an invitation addressed to the reader, to meditate and to open him/herself to other possible areas of research. The achievement of a complete picture of the four-centuries-old vocalinstrumental miniature is due to the exquisite musician and impressive man of culture Grigore Constantinescu, who was careful about the organization and systematization of data, sensitive to their beautiful, coherent and accessible disclosure, and balanced in the objective evaluation of the historical, cultural and artistic realities and, above all, recognized by the uniqueness of his elevated approach on the specialty issue, a perfect blend of musicology and literature. These are features disclosed not only by the book reviewed here. Regardless of the musical genre in which he expresses himself (monograph, dictionary or reviews), Grigore Constantinescu has a unique value in the Romanian musical journalism, a warm yet firm musical pen, a unitary and recognizable style, by surprising the audience continuously through novelty argued with nobility. And if today s young musicologists often ask themselves: are there consistent, high quality books that contain information with immediate reference to the famous triad of history-style-language, they only have to have the time and patience to read and especially to understand the fascinating trajectory of certain genres, revealed by Grigore Constantinescu so close to each of our souls, in the books Four Centuries of Opera and Four Centuries of Lied. 258

259 DOI number: /ajm Book Reviews Luminița Duțică An Exceptional Collection of Musical Studies Review 1 PETRUȚA MARIA COROIU Transilvania University Brașov ROMÂNIA The musicologist and professor Luminița Duțică signed, in 2017, an exceptional volume of musicological studies entitled Prin labirintul muzicii contemporane [Through the labyrinth of contemporary music]. The prestigious publishing house Artes, from the capital of Moldova, offered the general public a work which encompasses studies written by the author starting from her student years, going through all the professional and teaching stages of her musical career as a teacher at secondary and tertiary level, until she became Professor at George Enescu National University of Arts Iași. The author has had an exceptional career as a publicist, producing impressive volumes in the musicological field of Romanian art, but also in music theory: Filiere neomodale și organizări sintaxice în componistica românească a secolului XX [Neomodal perspectives and syntactic organizations in 20 th century Romanian compositions], Colindul românesc în viziunea compozitorilor Sigismund Toduță și Sabin Drăgoi [The Romanian Carol from the perspective of composers Sigismund Toduță and Sabin Drăgoi], Concertul pentru orchestră în creația compozitorilor români [The concert for orchestra in the creations of Romanian composers] (two consistent volumes), Conceptul ritmic și tehnica variațională. O viziune asupra Barocului și Clasicismului muzical [The concept of rhythm and the variational technique. An overview of the musical Baroque and Classicism]. 1 Luminița Duțică (2017). Prin labirintul muzicii contemporane [Through the labyrinth of contemporary music]. Iași: Editura Artes. 259

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