Why should we care about the elements of music?

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1 Module 1: The Elements of Music Pitch Why should we care about the elements of music? Rhythm It is composed of both the strong, accented pulses as well as the weaker, unaccented pulses. The pattern of these pulses comprises rhythm. Some of the earliest music consisted almost entirely of rhythm, in the form of drumming or clapping. a. Beat - the basic time unit within a piece of music. c. In other words, syncopation involves disrupting or interrupting the expected or normal rhythm of music. d. It is one way that musicians and composers can help maintain a consistent pace in the music. e Adagio: Slow 3. Moderato: Moderate tempo 4. Allegro: Fast 5. Presto: Very fast (These are general terms they are dependent on how an individual decides to interpret them. A fast tempo for one individual may be slightly faster or slower than a fast tempo for another, even with the same piece of music.) Rhythmic Notation a. Half note: a stem (vertical line) is added to the donut. The stem can go up or down receives 2 beats in 4/4 time c. Quarter note: the whole note is filled in to make it solid and the stem is kept receives 1 beat in 4/4 time d. Eighth note: a flag is added to the stem receives ½ beat in 4/4 time

2 Dynamics Timbre Melody Form e. Sixteenth note: two flags are added to the stem receives ¼ beat in 4/4 time a. Fortissimo (ff): Forte (f): played loudly c. Mezzo forte (mf): played moderately loud d. Piano (p): played softly e. Pianissimo (pp): played very softly f. Subito forzando: (usually written as sforzando) g. Crescendo (or cres.): h. Decrescendo (or decres.): music that gradually decreases in volume or gets quieter (also sometimes referred to as color or tone quality.) Human voices also differ from one another. You ve probably noticed this as well in listening to singers. We can separate some of the timber differences of humans into four different categories: a. Soprano: a high female voice c. Tenor: a high male voice d. Bass: a low male voice a. Scale - a group of notes in ascending and descending pitch. (Do, Re, Me, Fa, So (or Sol), La, Ti, Do.) Melodic phrases - groups or sets of notes that make sense together, express a musical idea, and, when combined, create the melody. c. Harmony - having more than one pitch within the music at the same time. We often think of harmony as a complement to melody. The framework that a composer uses to create a piece of music and is the combination of the other musical elements, including pitch, tempo, and dynamics. Notable types of form: a. 12-bar blues a chord progression that is common in many popular forms of music common meter - consists of four lines of a particular number of beats that end in the rhyming pattern of a-b-a-b

3 Module 2: Pop Music Popular Music c. concerto - d. sonata - a musical composition for a solo instrument (often piano or other keyboard instrument). e. symphony - a musical piece that has been scored for a full orchestra; it is often an extended composition. Any music since industrialization in the mid-1800s that is in line with the tastes and preferences of the middle class. Pop Music Pop music often involves technological innovations, and it is typically oriented towards youth within the culture. a. The music appeals to a broad audience, rather than to a niche group or to a particular ideology. The music tends to reflect trends in society rather than producing the trends. c. Pop music is often intended to encourage dancing or movement. d. In the past, more emphasis was placed on recording and producing the music than on live performances. Common forms in Pop Music: a. Verse-chorus structure: alternates verses with a repeating chorus. Some famous examples of this structure include: Buddy Holly s "That ll Be the Day" Ritchie Valens "La Bamba." Thirty-two bar or AABA form: a series of verses is interrupted by a bridge. Some famous examples of this structure include: The Beach Boys "Surfer Girl" Jerry Lee Lewis "Great Balls of Fire" The Beatles "I Want to Hold Your Hand" Technological a. Microphone technology

4 Advancements Rock and Roll Radio c. Mass-produced music in the form of 45 rpm records (and later with 8-track tapes, cassette tapes, and CDs) also put more music into the hands of individuals. d. Television and the advent of portable transistor radios were also influencing the development of pop music e. Changes to instruments electric guitar and new style of drumming Others argue that the beginnings of rock and roll happened as white teenagers began to listen and dance to rhythm and blues types of music, which had previously been popular among black teenagers. a. Included artists like Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Fats Domino and Roy Brown c. Origin of Music charts - during the 1940s and 1950s, individual songs (or singles) were tracked according to their sales, the number of times they were played on the radio, and their jukebox plays. In November 1955, Billboard published "The Top 100" for the first time. This chart was later renamed "The Hot 100" and it provided a way for not only the music industry, but also individuals to see what music was popular each week s a. Social protest music - many song lyrics during the 1960s reflected the social and political issues. Some songs were explicit protest songs against war, racial discrimination, and political corruption s British invasion - some of the British bands ( ) of the time were modeled on the successful American bands, particularly in the areas of producing recordings and touring to promote the recordings. Disco - mixing "soaring" vocals with a beat that encouraged dancing, became the dance music of the decade. 100 to 130 beats per minute (a relatively fast tempo) The pulse of the rhythm was often emphasized. Popular artists and groups include:

5 1980 s Musical instruments such as the synthesizer and drum machines became more common s and into the 21 st Century Intellectual Property a. featured between three and six young adult males typically sang, but did not play instruments. c. were often created by record companies or talent agencies, and they often had a commercial orientation. The trend of pop ballads continued to be popular and the general themes of love, romance, broken hearts, and relationships continued to dominate the music. Any idea, invention, or process created by the human mind. a. Patent - a government permit issued to an inventor that excludes others from profiting from an invention for a specific period of time. Trademark - any word, name, or symbol that distinguishes one brand of products or services from another brand. Many musicians name is now considered advertising, which has led to the trademark of their names or likenesses. c. Copyright - protects the authorship of a creative work as well as legal ownership to reproduce, distribute, and adapt the created music. The copyright can protect and address the record producer and the performers while preventing others from copying the recording. d. Creative Commons - a licensing process in which a copyright holder designates a licensing structure that allows others to use his or her work as long as they agree to conditions defined by Creative Commons. e. Public Domain - materials that are copyright free so that anyone can use them without seeking permission. Just about anything produced by a government agency with taxpayer money is in the public domain.

6 Module 3: Ancient Music Prehistoric music a. Also known as music. Includes all music created in and the first types of music ever created or played. c. We know much less about the early music produced than we do about later music and there was not a written record d. Archaeomusicology - the use of archaeological techniques in the study of music a. uncovers and analyzes evidence related to music. try to trace early forms of music to see how they have influenced later forms of music. Pech Merle - a French cave that has red dots on the ceiling and walls to note these special acoustic spots in the cave. a. It may be that prehistoric people used their voices or other items in these spots to fill the cave with sound. Divje Babe flute - a. found in Slovenia appears to date to about 50,000 years ago. Ancient Music Music produced by early societies. a. ancient music belongs to those societies that lived at or after 4000 BCE (when written language was developed) c. as prehistoric music evolved to ancient music, music became more standardized. d. featured deliberate patterns as well as the repetition of these patterns within a piece of music. Egypt Ancient Egyptians, like many other societies at that time, believed that music was a gift to humans from the gods. a. Music was often played in the temples as part of religious life. c. Lutes and string harps were played as early as 4000 BCE. d. Later developed lyres, clarinets, tambourines, trumpets, and guitars. e. Mesopotamia Evidence found of music scales and different musical instruments.

7 India Ancient Greece Medieval Music Several excavations in different parts of Mesopotamia lend credence to the idea that the ancient world had a form of music notation or the ability to write a song or musical piece down so that it could be played again in the same way Hurrian songs -a set of fragmentary relics as well as a nearly complete example of notated music from around 1400 BCE. a. songs or hymns (the most complete example is identified as a hymn) written in cuneiform writing on clay tablets. Archaeologists have found evidence of both music and instruments. a. Excavations from the Indus Valley civilizations have produced both stringed instruments and sevenholed flutes. Samaveda: c. Natya Shastra is a written discourse on the performing arts, including music, dance, stage performances and is believed to have been written sometime between 200 BCE and 200 CE. It gives detailed information on the types of instruments that were used at the time and the forms of music that were popular. Just as classical art has its foundations in ancient Greece, so too do the foundations of classical music rest in ancient Greece. a. Greeks believed that music came from the gods, particularly the god Apollo. They also believed that music could influence the thoughts and behaviors of humans. c. Had a strong interest in studying and explaining the world around them. d. e. f. g. The music was monophonic, or having a single melody with no accompaniment (using one voice). h. Researchers have also found about thirty different melodies from the ancient Greeks. i. Lyric poetry included poems that were accompanied by instrumental music, often from a lyre. j. Around 30 different melodies from Ancient Greece have been uncovered. Music that was produced in medieval Europe. a. This period of time is thought to begin with the fall of the Roman Empire and ended with the rise of the Renaissance period in Europe.

8 c. Early medieval music was often connected with spiritual and religious activities and beliefs. Chants - are a type of monophonic sacred music a. Had a strong influence in the chants or singing of songs in both the Jewish and early Christian traditions. c. Were commonly sung by monks during religious services, and the melodies were simple Gregorian chants - a. Like the music in previous time periods, medieval music was often based on modes. Musical Notation Module 4: Renaissance Music Effects of Music in Modes - "a series of pitches in predefined order, with specific intervals between each pitch." Seven different modes were used to compose and play music: Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian. a. Each of these modes starts on a different step of a major scale and continues on the associated major scale. Dorian mode in C begins on, the second step of the C scale, and moves upward from there c. Phrygian mode in C begins on E, the third step of the C scale, and moves up the major scale to also end in E. d. Polyphonic music uses two or more independent melodies. Gradually, musicians and singers began to add harmonies to the chants. Organum: a. Hildegard von Bingen Ars Nova, a musical form that became popular in the late medieval period, featured multiple voices with a complex rhythm Religious music was important during the medieval time period, but secular music was also played. a. As time passed, more secular music began to enter the Middle Ages and its culture. Troubadours were traveling poet-musicians who traveled from place to place, singing and performing for the nobility. Neumes - signs written above the chant words to indicate where the voices should rise and fall in tone. The Renaissance period in general was considered: Invention and use of the printing press.

9 Society Instruments a. Created the ability for individuals and companies to produce copies of music. could now produce multiple copies of music more easily instead of by hand. c. d. this allowed music to spread throughout a society and into others faster and more efficiently. e. Also initiated the printing of music for commercial purposes. f. Ottaviano Petrucci: Canon Music came to occupy a greater position in society during the Renaissance period. a. A result of the growing number of people who had more time for leisure activities. increased not only the time that people had to listen to music, but also the time that they could invest in learning to play instruments and music. c. d. many Renaissance individuals enjoyed dancing, and it was an important part of many social events. e. Another change in the role of music was the combining of music with written texts. Catholic Church's influence was lessened during the Renaissance. a. The Church continued to influence music and composers continued to write music for use within religious institutions. More people began to look outside of the Catholic Church for inspiration and answers to life's questions. c. Protestant Reformation in 1517 created another outlet for religious music. d. Some composers also embraced inspiration in the secular world, producing music for purposes outside of religion or religious institutions. The music of the early Renaissance was a reaction to the music of the late medieval period. a. Musical forms like the ars nova were complex, early Renaissance music was often simpler and smoother. Change was a gradual one; as the transition occurred from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance, music began to shift as well. Another change was a growing recognition of the instruments used in music. a. consort -

10 Genres of Renaissance Music Important Composers of the Renaissance c. mouth harp (also known as Jew's harp, English trump, or guimbarde, among other names) developed long before the Renaissance, produces different tones depending on the vibration produced. d. sagbut, a type of trombone, was used in churches with sacred music pieces. e. Shawms - woodwinds that were about twelve inches long with seven finger holes and was perhaps the most popular double reed instrument of the Renaissance. f. Viols - g. Hurdy-gurdy - Motets - "pieces of music in several parts with words" and they involve varied choral compositions. In Latin, the term describes: German Chorales a. are still used in protestant churches today. the printing press allowed for the publishing of hymnbooks which increased popularity of these chorales. Madrigals - voice compositions that employ a number of voices (often from three to six) but are unaccompanied by instruments. Madrigal Proper a. word-painting The Ballet a. lighter in style than the madrigal proper was often danced to as well as sung. c. Is strophic - has at least two verses set to the same music. The Ayre a. performed with or without accompaniment. Accompaniment - the instrument used also varied, from lutes to viols to other instruments of the period. c. When printed, often placed on the two pages of an open book, with the music on the left and the lyrics on the right page. Guillaume Dufay a. lived from 1397 to Franco-Flemish, born in Brussels

11 c. prolific composer and one of the most influential of the fifteenth century. d. wrote music in almost every musical form available at the time, including chants, motets, chorales, and Masses. His music was printed and distributed across Europe, and about 150 pieces of his work survive today. e. also influenced many of the composers that came after him. f. Josquin des Prez a. had a great impact on the music of this time period. born around 1450 c. d. one of the first composers to use the imitation or repetition of melodies within his music. e. wrote in many of the different musical forms of the time period. f. much of his music was written for the courts of the nobility g. lived and worked in not only in the court of King Rene of Anjou but also in the choirs of two different popes. h. greatest talent was in the creation of melodies, both simple and complex. Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina - his work had a large impact on sacred music and on polyphonic music. a. music often follows a few guidelines including a dynamic flow of music and a melody that has small leaps between the notes. c. produced hundreds of works, with much of the music being sacred music for use in religious services. William Byrd - composed over 470 pieces of music in a range of music forms, including motets and church songs. many of his compositions were published in My Ladye Nevells Bookand Parenthia. consort compositions include a large scale piece, Browning, which is a collection of twenty variations on a melody inspired by the ripening of nuts during the fall season. Giovanni Gabrielli - one composer who worked during this time period and his work reflects these transitions. composed in a variety of forms, but he preferred sacred and instrumental music. Used antiphon:

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