The Classical Period. World Percussion

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1 The Classical Period World Percussion

2 Classical Music Influence Arguably the most popular period of music, the Classical Period music and composers continue to influence today s pop culture. From heavy metal, to drumming, to popular music and even into cartoons.

3 Mozart s Blue Rondo Alla Turk

4 Classical Period: Even though the Baroque Period is said to have ended with Bach s Death in 1750, the Classical Period began to emerge in Top Classical Era Composers: Gluck, Mozart, Haydn, Schubert.

5 Important Historical Events during the Classical Period First New York Performance of Handel s Messiah Boston Tea Party American Revolutionary War Beginning French Revolution White House Construction begins Paris Conservatory Founded

6 Other Important Events Industrial Revolution begins Watts invents the first steam powered engine Watt's steam engine patented Electric battery invented by Volta Steamboat invented by John Fitch First vaccination Electric motor and generator invented by Faraday

7 Boston Tea Party -A Protest on Taxation! -English Parliament raised taxes with the Tea Act of Samuel Adams and the Sons of Liberty boarded the ships in Boston Harbor and dumped over 342 chest of tea overboard. -This Event would push the Americas and England closer to war. -What did they dress as?

8 The Revolutionary War Also known as the U.S. War of Independence -Skirmish between Lobster Back and Minutemen at Lexington and Concord would be known as The Shot Heard Around the World! The British Surrendered in Yorktown, Virginia 1781, although it wouldn t be until 1783 until the fighting had ended entirely.

9 Paris Conservatory Started in 1795, it was the first formal college of music, dance, and drama in the world. Up until then, music students were taught privately by musicians. Now functions as the gateway to the upper echelons in classical music. Today, only the best of the best in the world attend.

10 Paris Conservatory Stop here

11 Architecture of the Classical Period Often called Neoclassicism - were made of wood, stone, or marble. Revival of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. Most buildings had very exquisite designs carved into them, but unlike Baroque period, was not fake. What distinguishes the classical architecture from any other era is that the designs were very elegant and symmetrical right down to the base. Another difference is the use of plants and animals in the carvings.

12 Architecture of the Classical Period Classical period was in search of truth, so shunned the architecture of the Baroque period. No more Trompe L oeil... Baroque period emphasized illusion and the idea of being untruthful. Classical period was against that. The emergence of Archaeology - an interest in studying the past - lead to a new attitude and interest in past architecture. Modern influences on classical architecture include the United States Capitol Buildings, the Pantheon in Rome, and the Parthenon in Greece.

13 Examples of Classical Architecture Parthenon in Greece Pantheon in Rome US Capitol Building

14 Ionic, Doric and Corinthian Architecture Doric - simplest and most prominent form of architecture. (the male form) Ionic - more slender and appealing, appears to have scrolls. (the female form) Corinthian - leafy and more ornate, also less popular.

15 Doric Architecture Example

16 Ionic Architecture Example

17 Corinthian Architecture Example

18 Classical Art and Music Classical art had the following traits: Sharp Simple Elegant Orderly Calm This style of art also applies to the music of the era. Music was soft, clean, and elegant. An increased use of crescendos, decrescendos and sforzandos.

19 Quiz #1 1) What 2 events in American history happened at the same time as the Classical Period? 2) What was the first school of music? 3) In Architecture, what is this period sometimes called? 4) What are the 3 types of architecture in this period? 5) Classical period Art and Music has what 5 qualities?

20 Classical Period Musical Styles Graceful and detailed elaboration and ornamentation. Melodies became light and flowing, and had shorter, simpler phrases. Accompaniment moved with the melody instead of being behind it. More use of Dance Rhythms. Variety and Contrast became important along with changes of mood. Harpsichord gave way to the new Piano halfway through the period.

21 Classical Period Musical Styles Styles: Gallant and Sentimental French/Italians preferred the Gallant style. A shift to more simple music that could be enjoyed by middle class AND aristocracy. Germans preferred the Sentimental style. This style of music reflected feelings and situations experienced in daily life. Both the Gallant and Sentimental styles favored simpler harmony and clearer tonality.

22 Classical Period Musical Forms Opera - Comic Opera was the style preferred in the Classical period, also known as Light Opera. It tackles less delicate subject matters, and has a happy ending. In this style, the dialogue is often spoken, not sung (like a musical).

23 Classical Period Musical Forms Other Musical Forms- Overture - Has three sections, a fast intro, a slow middle section and a fast ending. Played as an intro to the rest of the concert. Symphony - Has 3-4 movements. The beginning is moderately fast, next section is slow with a minuet and then a very fast conclusion. Sonata allegro - this is one of the most important music forms of this period. This type of music is written for a solo instrument or a solo instrument with accompaniment; having three or four movements, each complete in itself.

24 Franz Joseph Haydn

25 Franz Joseph Haydn Voice was so impressive, he was recruited at age 5 to sing in St. Stephen s Cathedral in Vienna. Choir director wanted him to be a castrato, but his father said NO, so was cut from the choir when his voice changed. After that, taught violin and keyboard. And started an apprenticeship with Nicola Porpora. Appointed Court musician for the influential Esterházy family. Popularity grew within the family and outside in the world.

26 Franz Joseph Haydn Very isolated, and so was forced to become very original. Was finally let go after 30 years of service, to go to London. Heard and loved the British National Anthem, so composed one for Germany and Austria.

27 Franz Joseph Haydn Influenced Mozart and was Beethoven s teacher. Loved playing practical jokes and even wrote a string quartet with fake endings to psych out the audience! Later in life, went back to work part time with the Esterházy family. Was a public figure now, so when wasn t composing, was out in the public eye.

28 Franz Joseph Haydn His brother, Michael, was the wellbehaved child, and was the one that the family thought would be successful - Franz was the practical joker. While in London, it is said that he made as much money as in 20 years with the Esterhazy family.

29 Franz Joseph Haydn When Napoleon invaded Vienna, he respected the composer so much, he put 2 sentries to guard a frail Haydn so he wouldn t be harmed. Mozart and Haydn had a great mutual respect, and often invited each other to their concerts. Haydn loved Mozart s music so much that he used Mozart s Requiem Mass at his funeral.

30 Haydn - Symphony 94 Surprise

31 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

32 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Born January 27, 1756 Born in Salzburg but spent most of his time living in Vienna, Austria Mozart showed prestigious ability early in life At the age of five he began composing music and performing for European royalty. At 17, he was engaged as a court musician for the Archbishop in Salzburg.

33 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart He later left Salzburg in search of better opportunities, choosing to stay in Vienna, where his most famous writings were written. Mozart s father was a well known and respected violin teacher, and also composed a little.

34 Mozart s Father - Leopold His father, Leopold ( ), was from Augsburg and was deputy Kapellmeister to the court orchestra of the Archbishop of Salzburg, a minor composer, and an experienced teacher. In the year of Mozart's birth, his father published a violin textbook, Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule, which achieved success.

35 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart The Magic Flute was Mozart s last opera, premiering about 3 months before his death on Sept. 30, Mozart conducted it, and the Librettist was a lead character. Mozart s Requiem Mass was left unfinished in 1791 at the time of his death. He wrote it with the belief that it was for himself. It was commissioned by an anonymous nobleman, who intended to pass off the work as his own. The Amadeus movie portrays this as Salieri.

36 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Mozart had an incredible ability to remember music. At the age of 14, he travelled to Rome and heard Allegri s Miserere and wrote it all down from memory that night. There is a statue of Mozart in Vienna that is over 150 years old. It was unveiled in front of Mozart s sons.

37 Mozart s Style and Influence Johann Hummel was Mozart s greatest influence because of his overall style. Mozart appreciated Hummel s style and adopted it for his own. Mozart altered Hummel s pattern and was later adopted by Ludwig Van Beethoven. Mozart s overall style had the form of being clear, balanced, and transparent

38 Mozart s Style and Influence 4 Famous writings were: 1) The Magic Flute 2) Ein Kline Nachtmusik 3) Don Giovanni 4) Requiem

39 Queen of the Night aria from the Magic Flute

40 Eine Kleine Nachtmusik

41 Catalogue aria from Don Giovanni After Donna Elvira confronts Don Giovanni, who had betrayed her, Leporello (bass) tells her that she should forget him, and then produces a book of the Don's feminine conquests: 640 in Italy, 231 in Germany, 100 in France, 91 in Turkey, and 1003 in Spain.

42 Dies Irae from the Requiem

43 Childhood in music... The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart. He wrote his first concerto at age 4 He wrote his first symphony at age 7. He wrote his first full scale opera at age 12. Generally called himself Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Amadeus translates to the Love of God.

44 Timpani Used more in this era than in Baroque. Added Bass sound to the treble of the Trumpets and violins of the orchestra. Since orchestras were small in the Baroque period with players at most, a little timpani providing bass tones worked well.

45 Haydn and Mozart Made use of a few idiophones (such as bells, rattles, and snare drums) in their works. An Idiophone is an instrument in which the main part of the instrument is what is producing sound. Stop here

46 Quiz #2 1) What are the 4 main musical forms of the Classical Period? 2) Which composer loved practical jokes and used musical jokes to fake out his audiences? 3) Napoleon put guards outside of which composer s residence so he would not be harmed in the assault? 4) What composition did Mozart believe he was writing for his own death? 5) What percussion instrument was used to add bass sound to trumpets?

47 Ludwig van Beethoven

48 Classical Music Meme.

49 Beethoven - Hard Rock of the 19th Century

50 Beethoven - Hard Rock of the 19th Century

51 Ludwig van Beethoven He reinvented the symphony, reshaped string quartets, and redefined piano sonatas - but there's much more to learn about Ludwig van Beethoven: the man who changed music forever.

52 Beethoven Born in Bonn, Germany. Baptized on Dec. 17, Probably born the day before. Mozart was 14. Pictured: Haus Museum birthplace. Beethoven- - his

53 Beethoven Father told him he was born in to make his child prodigy seem younger, and make his story more fantastic. Learned violin. Would rather improvise than read music. Improvise means to make up music as it s played. Beethoven s first composition (age 12) was in C minor (not used at that time) and was incredibly difficult.

54 Beethoven Kept a diary when he moved to Vienna in shortly after Mozart s death - giving insight into his personality. Studied music with Haydn and others (including Salieri). 1793, began to play in the salons of nobility, establishing himself as a piano virtuoso.

55 Beethoven 1796, age 25 began to notice he was going deaf. Began to communicate by conversation books - asked friends to write down what they wanted to say, so he could respond.

56 Beethoven - Symphony # first symphony performed at Burgtheater in Vienna (pictured). Symphonies before him were lighthearted. Symphony #1 intro took a step further - considered a joke - because the first chords aren t in the right key!

57 Beethoven Symphony #1 - Intro It doesn t get to the right key until about 1:45 into the symphony...

58 Beethoven - Heiligenstadt Testament Despite his increasing deafness, by 1802 Beethoven was almost at breaking point. On a retreat to Heiligenstadt, just outside Vienna, he wrote: I would have ended my life it was only my art that held me back. Ah, it seemed to me impossible to leave the world until I had brought forth all that I felt was within me. It s known as the Heiligenstadt Testament, and was published in 1828.

59 Beethoven - Three Compositional Periods Music was written in 3 stylistic periods: Early Period st 2 symphonies, 6 string quartets, Piano Concerto 1 & 2, and about 12 Piano Sonatas - Including the famous Pathétique Sonata.

60 Beethoven - Three Compositional Periods Heroic Middle Period - music is more emotional after his personal crisis. ( ) Moonlight Sonata from Immortal Beloved Symphony #3, the last 3 Piano Concertos, 5 string quartets, his only opera Fidelio, piano sonatas including - Moonlight, Waldstein, and Appassionata.

61 Moonlight Sonata It s one of Beethoven s great piano works, but he never knew the piece as the Moonlight Sonata. He simply called it Piano Sonata No. 14, and it wasn t given its poetic nickname until 1832, five years after Beethoven s death. German poet Ludwig Rellstab said the first movement sounded like moonlight shining upon Lake Lucerne, and the name stuck.

62 Eroica Symphony - tidbit Beethoven admired the ideals of the French Revolution, so he dedicated his third symphony to Napoleon Bonaparte until Napoleon declared himself emperor. Beethoven then sprung into a rage, scrubbed out Napoleon s name from the front page of the manuscript. Some modern reproductions of the original title page have scrubbed out Napoleon s name to create a hole for authenticity s sake!

63 Symphony Eroica (No. 3)

64 Quiz #3 1) Why is Beethoven called the Man who changed music forever? 1) What does improvise mean? 1) Who was Beethoven s main teacher? 1) Of the 2 periods of Beethoven s career we studied today (early and middle), which was more emotional? 1) To what historical figure did Beethoven originally dedicate his 3rd symphony?

65 Beethoven s Late Period From 1815 to his death in Biggest characteristic of his late period is that he takes a theme and uses it to its full potential. That means he morphs and changes it as much as possible. He was also the ultimate fusion composer, as he fused Baroque and Classical ideas together.

66 Beethoven s 5th Beethoven s impressive piano writing and ambitious symphonies made quick splashes, and by the time he was onto his Fifth Symphony in 1808, heads of state at peace accords in Vienna would schedule their meetings around Beethoven performances so as to not miss them.

67 Beethoven s 5th

68 Fidelio - his ONLY Opera If a job s worth doing, it s worth doing properly. He may have only composed one opera, but Beethoven poured blood, sweat, and tears into revising and improving it. He reworked the whole opera over a ten year period, giving us the two act version performed today the older version is sometimes known as Leonore.

69 Beethoven - Three Compositional Periods Late Period - While the onset of his deafness may have launched Beethoven s more emotional Middle Period, the re-discovery of Bach s music by Mendelssohn ended up leading to the masterworks of Beethoven s Late Period. Needless to say, Bach s music had a big influence on Beethoven. By the end of his brilliant career (he died in 1827), Beethoven had become the ultimate fusion composer, taking the best of the classical and Baroque eras and sending it to new dynamic, instrumental, and emotional extremes that would define the Romantic era of music in the 19th Century.

70 Beethoven s 9th The Ninth symphony is BIG in many ways. When Mozart and Haydn were composing their symphonies, symphonies generally ran about fifteen minutes long. Mozart and Haydn's late symphonies generally run less than thirty minutes long. Beginning with his Third Symphony, Beethoven began to extend the size and the form of the symphony, the Third taking about forty to forty-five minutes, an unheard of length at that time, and one that created resistance. The Ninth is about an hour and ten minutes or longer than the Third. It's a complete concert, meaning, there's no room for second works on the program.

71 Beethoven s 9th - the suspense! Music with orchestra and choir was nothing new at that time, but the way it was used was different. First of all, there is no singing until the very last minute. Now I want you to pause and imagine this for a moment, because, as we know, this is a very long symphony, with three very long movements, totally instrumental, before we get to the finale. For the first forty-five minutes of any live performance you attend, you'll see all these people in robes standing in the back, behind the orchestra... And standing... and standing... Doing nothing. Not a peep! If you get to attend a live performance, judge for yourself how this adds to the suspense.

72 Beethoven s 9th This Symphony is the kind of aggressive Beethoven we are familiar with from the Fifth Symphony, but it is more grown-up, more subtle, with far more detail. The first movement alone runs about fifteen minutes, compared to his Fifth's first movement of about six. It's in a minor key, D minor, making this and the Fifth Symphony the only two minor-key symphonies by Beethoven. They are both begin predominantly dark in character, but they end triumphantly.

73 Beethoven s 9th - 1st Movement The Ninth symphony begins sounding as if it was an orchestra still tuning up! The sound is deliberately non-committal -- we don't have a key for the music for the first minute because we only have two notes being played. No chords. Just a very soft, quivering sense of expectation, with neither the darkness of a minor key, nor the brightness of a major key. It is purposefully incomplete. And it is out of this chaos that the music swells to a crescendo, FINALLY establishing on a key (D minor), with a shattering statement of the first theme. It is truly an expression of cruelty.

74 Beethoven s 9th - 1st movement

75 Beethoven s 9th - 2nd Movement There are a number of issues at play in this symphony. Politically, He dissed the royal family in public, and it wasn't the first time, either. Yet Beethoven was able to get away with saying things like, "The Emperor should be hanged!" at a time when other people were disappearing into dungeons for saying the same thing. He really did say that, and on the record. In fact, it's believed the Ode to Joy was originally meant to be an Ode to Freedom.

76 Beethoven s 9th - 2nd Movement The personal angle deals with Beethoven s madness. He was seen by the public as the crazy, genius composer-guy and being recognized as such gave him more leeway to be inappropriate. In truth, Beethoven always makes it to the top of lists of "Famous Bipolar Celebrities of History." If you go to Google and type ripe for the madhouse, Beethoven s name comes up...

77 Beethoven s 9th - 2nd Movement Franz Haydn - also a well known Classical composer, and teacher of Beethoven had this to say about him:

78 Beethoven s 9th - 2nd Movement The 2nd movement is linked backwards to the first, by continuing to use the opening motive, but it is also linked forward, into the next movements as well. Thinking about it s form, it is a Scherzo form, but also has elements of the Sonata-Allegro form in it. This movement is also very fugal (uses a fugue style borrowed from the Baroque Period).

79 Beethoven s 9th - 2nd Movement The beginning continues the cruelty from the first movement. The middle showcases a glimpse of what s to come in the angelic Trio section. The ending brings back the recurring theme from the beginning of the 2nd movement.

80 Beethoven s 9th - 2nd Movement

81 Beethoven s 9th - Choral Finale Symphony No. 9 is often nicknamed the choral symphony, but it s only the finale that features a choir. Using singers in a symphony was a wild idea at the time, but it seems to have paid off Beethoven s Ninth Symphony changed the face of classical music forever, and continues to inspire listeners and composers to this day!

82 Beethoven - facts He is the first composer to make a living only composing. Mozart tried, but was unsuccessful (spent too much!) Just like Beethoven s birth, the words at the time of his death are also a bit of a mystery. It s often thought his last words were applaud friends, the comedy is ended (in Latin!) but his parting gift to the world was far less cerebral. After a publisher bought Beethoven 12 bottles of wine as a gift, the dying composer s final words were: Pity, pity, too late!

83 Pictured - Beethoven s Grave in Vienna, Austria It is very large, depicting how much people loved his music even then. Beethoven - facts

84 Beethoven - Influence on Classical FUN FACT: Beethoven is credited with fully embracing the expanding range of the piano in his sonatas and concertos, and for inadvertently popularizing steel-framed keyboards, as he would often leave a stream of broken wooden pianos on stages wherever he performed. The emotional depth, expanded orchestration, and immense length of his works (for his time) were all hallmarks of what would come to be known as the Romantic era, yet all of Beethoven s works were rooted in a Classical era aesthetic of clear form and function just through a much more emotional (and unpredictable) filter.

85 Quiz #4 1) Why was the Ode to Joy originally supposed to have been Ode to Freedom? 1) What is the name of Beethoven s only Opera? 1) Why was Beethoven allowed to get away with saying things against the government when no one else could? 1) What is the main characteristic of his Late Period? 1) Why is Beethoven s 9th considered the choral symphony?

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