The Ruination of Atlantis: A Ballet for Virtual Orchestra

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1 Uiversit o Miami Scholarl Reositor Oe Access Dissertatios Electroic Theses ad Dissertatios The Ruiatio o Atlatis: A allet or Virtual Orchestra ess Hedricks Uiversit o Miami, ollo this ad additioal orks at: htts://scholarlreositormiamiedu/oa_dissertatios Recommeded Citatio Hedricks, ess, "The Ruiatio o Atlatis: A allet or Virtual Orchestra" (2010) Oe Access Dissertatios 02 htts://scholarlreositormiamiedu/oa_dissertatios/02 This Oe access is rought to ou or ree ad oe access the Electroic Theses ad Dissertatios at Scholarl Reositor It has ee acceted or iclusio i Oe Access Dissertatios a authorized admiistrator o Scholarl Reositor or more iormatio, lease cotact

2 UNIVERSITY O MIAMI THE RUINATION O ATLANTIS: A ALLET OR VIRTUAL ORCHESTRA ess Hedricks A DOCTORAL ESSAY Sumitted to the acult o the Uiversit o Miami i artial ulillmet o the requiremets or the degree o Doctor o Musical Arts Coral Gales, lorida Ma 2010

3 2010 ess Hedricks All Rights Reserved

4 UNIVERSITY O MIAMI A doctoral essa sumitted i artial ulillmet o the requiremets or the degree o Doctor o Musical Arts A ALLET OR VIRTUAL ORCHESTRA: THE RUINATION O ATLANTIS ess Hedricks Aroved: Deis Kam, DMA roessor o Music Theor ad Comositio Terri A Scadura, hd Dea o the Graduate School Lasig McLoske, hd Assistat roessor o Music Theor ad Comositio Thomas Sleeer, MM roessor o Istrumetal erormace Raul Murciao, r, DMA roessor o Media Writig roductio

5 HENDRICKS, ESS (DMA, Music Comositio) The Ruiatio o Atlatis: (Ma 2010) A allet or Virtual Orchestra Astract o a doctoral essa at the Uiversit o Miami Doctoral essa suervised roessor Deis Kam No o ages i text (112) The Ruiatio o Atlatis is a origial allet i thirtee movemets comosed or rerecorded media usig samled orchestral ad other istrumets The urose o this essa is to discuss the reasoig ehid comosig a ork or a virtual istead o a actual orchestra olloed a aalsis o the overall structure o the iece, aalses o the use o leitmoti throughout the ork, ad a aalsis o the itch, rhthmic, ad harmoic material o the iece as a hole ad each idividual movemet The coclusio o this aer is a descritio o the cocet o stagig ad erormace o The Ruiatio o Atlatis

6 TALE O CONTENTS age LIST O MUSICAL EXAMLES v LIST O IGURES viii Chater 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 REASONS OR COMOSING OR VIRTUAL ORCHESTRA Real Orchestra Versus Virtual Orchestra rogram Cosideratios 8 roductio o the rerecorded Score 12 3 OVERALL STRUCTURE AND ROGRAM 1 ANALYSES O INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENTS Movemet I Overture 22 Movemet II Da o oseido 27 Movemet III War Dace 29 Movemet IV Noe Retur rom Athes 33 Movemet V Iterlude No 1 35 Movemet VI Requiem or the Lost 37 Movemet VII aare ad the Arrival o oseido 39 iii

7 Movemet VIII The Temle o Cleat ad the Wives o oseido 2 Movemet IX The Three Oracles ad Dark Omes 5 Movemet X The irst Calamit 7 Movemet XI Iterlude No 2 50 Movemet XII Meditatio to oseido 50 Movemet XIII The Ruiatio Scee 53 5 A DIERENT AROACH TO COMOSITION 57 STAGING AND ERORMANCE 59 ILIOGRAHY 0 AENDIX A Score o I Overture 1 AENDIX Score o V Iterlude No 1 82 AENDIX C Score o VI Requiem or the Lost 9 iv

8 LIST O MUSICAL EXAMLES age EXAMLE Satur ostiato, Overture, mm EXAMLE 22 Istrumets o dieret cultures, Iterlude No 1, mm EXAMLE 31 The oseido leitmoti 18 EXAMLE 32 The Omes leitmoti 19 EXAMLE 33 The ostiato motive i the violis, Overture, mm EXAMLE 3 The War Drum motive, War Dace, mm 1-20 EXAMLE 35 Mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic motive 20 EXAMLE 1 A harmoic aalsis o the oeig o the Overture 23 EXAMLE 2 The Neaolita ad adiatoicism, Overture, mm EXAMLE 3 The sectio, Overture, mm EXAMLE rass ad choir clusters, Overture, mm EXAMLE 5 Use o the oseido leitmoti, Da o oseido, mm EXAMLE The erhu solo, Da o oseido, mm EXAMLE 7 Theme I o War Dace, mm EXAMLE 8 Theme II o War Dace, mm EXAMLE 9 Theme II i the oodids, War Dace, mm EXAMLE 10 Mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic igures, War Dace, mm v

9 EXAMLE 11 Themes II ad I i the cellos, War Dace, mm EXAMLE 12 The oeig sectio, Noe Retur rom Athes, mm 1-3 EXAMLE 13 Descedig chromatic movemet, Noe Retur rom Athes, mm EXAMLE 1 Harmoic motio, Iterlude No 1, mm EXAMLE 15 Root movemet thirds, Requiem or the Lost, mm EXAMLE 1 Imitatio o strig accomaimet rom the Lacrimosa i Mozart s Requiem Mass i D mior, Requiem or the Lost, mm EXAMLE 17 The oseido leitmoti aare ad the Arrival o oseido mm EXAMLE 18 Variatios o the oseido leitmoti, aare ad the Arrival o oseido 1 EXAMLE 19 The Omes leitmoti, aare ad the Arrival o oseido, mm EXAMLE 20 The mai theme ad its resose EXAMLE The mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic motive, The Temle o Cleito ad the Wives o oseido, mm EXAMLE 22 Harmoic motio third, The Three Oracles ad Dark Omes, mm EXAMLE 23 Violi artiicial harmoics, The Three Oracles ad Dark Omes, mm EXAMLE 2 Suect o the ugal sectio, The irst Calamit 8 EXAMLE 25 Exositio o the ugue, The irst Calamit, mm EXAMLE 2 igures ased o the Omes leitmoti, Iterlude No 2, mm EXAMLE 27 Three dieret textural eects, Meditatio to oseido, mm 1-52 vi

10 EXAMLE 28 Oeig rumlig igures ad War Dace theme, The Ruiatio Scee, mm EXAMLE 29 olchords i the rass, The Ruiatio Scee, mm vii

11 LIST O IGURES age IGURE Logic ro s orklo, Iterlude, mm IGURE 22 The la sstem ido ith a 11 violi sectio loaded 15 IGURE 31 Orgaizatio o movemets ithi the larger sectios o the allet 17 IGURE 1 The erimau 3 viii

12 CHATER 1 INTRODUCTION Whe it as decided to comose a allet, it as the origial itetio to rite the ork or small orchestra i a more traditioal maer that ould acilitate the otetial or a live erormace The likelihood, realisticall, o a relativel uko comoser gettig a ork o this ature erormed a allet coma i its origial, ull orchestrated orm is miute ecause o udget restrictios, availailit o erormers, ad other actors Ver e comosers are iterested i comosig a ork that does ot have a chace to e reseted i its iteded orm to a audiece, so the cosideratio o a alterative as decided o earl i the rocess o comositio The evetual solutio as to comose a electroic, ixed media comositio that used samled orchestral istrumets that mimic the real thig as closel as ossile Advaces i the last coule decades regardig orchestral samle liraries ad comuter techolog have give moder comosers access to much more realistic virtual istrumets tha have ee availale i the ast Not ol does this techolog give the comoser access to much larger esemles tha ere realisticall easile ith live, acoustic erormers, it also gives them the ailit to use a earl iiite comiatio o istrumets, oth real ad imagied, rom all over the orld rogrammers, roducers, comosers, ad recordig egieers created samle liraries such as Garrita ersoal 1

13 2 Orchestra, EastWest/Quatum Lea Orchestral Lirar, ad the Viea Smhoic Lirar largel ith commercial, ilm, ad televisio comosers i mid 1 Ma o the most amous allets ever comosed emloed massive orchestral orces ad strogl ilueced moder ilm comosers as ell Igor Stravisk s origial versio o The Rite o Srig used a huge orchestra ith; or examle, eight hors (hors 7 ad 8 doule Wager tuas), oodids i ours, ad a much larger strig sectio tha as ote used durig that time Maurice Ravel s allet, Dahis et Chloe, also makes use o a huge orchestra ad it eve icludes a o stage choir The rolem ith comosig or massive orchestral orces such as those emloed Stravisk ad Ravel is that most moder allet orchestras do ot have these orces at their disosal Whe it as decided to comose this allet as a ixed media iece, it oeed the door to the ossiilit o ritig or massive orchestral orces ad uusual istrumets ot usuall associated ith the Wester orchestral traditio The Ruiatio o Atlatis as created ith the assistace o moder techolog icludig Logic ro sotare o a Macitosh comuter ad soud liraries icludig EastWest s damic orchestral lirar The ial recordig ca e made availale or a dace coma, allet, moder dace, or other erormig arts orgaizatio i its origial orm, elimiatig the eed to cotract ad rehearse istrumetalists, ut still eoig a reasoal realistic-soudig orchestral accomaimet 1 Iormatio o idividual samle liraries ca e oud o their esites: Garrita ersoal Orchestra: htt://garritacom/ EastWest/Quatum Lea Smhoic Orchestra: htt://soudsoliecom/ Viea Smhoic Lirar: htt://vslcoat/

14 3 Ater committig to the idea o ritig hat, i essece, is a electroic iece it as decided to alter the usual method o comosig or to rimar reasos The EastWest orchestral lirar is ar too large ad requires a huge amout o comuter sstem resources (memor, rocessor seed, hard disk sace) to ork ell ith a otatio rogram such as iale Music created irst i the iale otatio rogram as diicult to covert ito a good rederig Rederig is a term used to rereset takig a acoustic iece o music ad recreatig it usig MIDI or samled istrumets The other reaso is that a rited score is o little imortace ecause this music is meat to e reseted o ixed media such as a comact disc or rom a comuter hard drive ecause o these reasos, the etire allet as comosed ith little actual otatio ritig at the keoard ad iuttig the music directl ito Logic ro, hich is a sequecig ad recordig sotare I this aer the reasos that the ixed media virtual orchestra is a viale solutio or this comositio are discussed The limitatios o the techolog, the rocess o roducig the recordig, ad the eect orkig ith samle liraries had o the actual comositio o the music are discussed i Chater 2 Chater 3 rovides a structural aalsis o the ork as a hole Chater resets a aalsis o the itch, rhthm, ad harmoic material i each idividual movemet, icludig the use o leitmoti ad other motivic develomet Chater 5 is a exlaatio o ho the comositio o this ork as aroached dieretl tha other orks this comoser Chater details the cocet o ho choreograhers ca iterret ad erorm The Ruiatio o Atlatis

15 CHATER 2 REASONS OR COMOSING OR VIRTUAL ORCHESTRA Real Orchestra Versus Virtual Orchestra This comositio is ot iteded to oster the elie that real orchestras ca e sulated ith those created artiiciall The rimar reaso the samled orchestra as used is that the ork as comosed or earl imossile to assemle, massive istrumetal orces mostl see i Hollood studio orchestras The ixed media recordig reserves the erormace as origiall iteded, thus recludig the eed or a rearragemet o the music or a smaller esemle Whe develoig a cocet or a allet usig earl ulimited orchestral orces, the ossiilit o emloig a uusual esemle o orld istrumets such as erhu (Chiese iddle), asuri lute, taiko drum esemle, satur (ersia dulcimer-te istrumet), ad massive ercussio sectios ecome easile The ercussio comilatios are oud i a lirar commol used ilm comosers called Stormdrum 2 that is also mauactured EastWest, ad the istrumets rom other cultures are oud i EastWest s Ra lirar To oted allets rovide a model or the traditioal Wester orchestral orces i The Ruiatio o Atlatis: Maurice Ravel s Dahis ad Chloe ad Igor Stravisk s The Rite o Srig Like Dahis ad Chloe, the allet is divided structurall ito three arts ad makes some use o a choir Ravel s allet also icororated a large orchestra ith

16 5 extesive ercussio, a ull rass ad ids sectio, ad a large eough strig sectio to hadle the ma divisi assages throughout the ork 2 I terms o orchestral size, e allets comare to The Rite o Srig Igor Stravisk (other tha Dahis ad Chloe) The Ruiatio o Atlatis as homage to this allet i ma as icludig the sheer size o the esemle Stravisk s orchestra icludes a ull id ad rass sectio eaturig our assoos ad cotraassoo, our trumets ad iccolo trumet, ad eight hors i 3 usig samled orchestral souds recorded Hollood studio musicias, a ork is created that emlos a massive esemle like the oes used Stravisk ad Ravel, ithout havig to orr aout the exese ad logistics o assemlig so ma musicias or a erormace or recordig The idea o usig a at least artiall sthetic orchestra is othig e roada musicals ote use sthesizers he tourig i lieu o the larger orchestral orces reset i their origial roductios The Los Ageles allet oeed its iaugural seaso i 200 erormig Tchaikovsk s Nutcracker usig 22 live musicias mixed ith souds rom the Garrita ersoal Orchestra to roud out the ull orchestratio ecause o limitatios o the size o the it The iece ould ormall require 55 musicias, so the other 33 ere rereseted virtuall hile the live erormers laed alog I oe as to comose a allet requirig a orchestra o the scale used i Rite o Srig or Dahis ad Chloe, the otetial or erormace ould e limited to ol the 2 Maurice Ravel, Dahis ad Chloe (Mieola, NY: Dover, 1989), 1 3 Igor Stravisk, The Rite o Srig, (Mieola, NY: Dover, 1989), xiii Mixoliecom, LA allet Oes Iaugural Seaso With Garrita ersoal Orchestra, Mix, htt:// mixoliecom/mixlie_live/garrita-allet-190/ (accessed March 1, 2010)

17 largest o allet comaies i a small umer o veues that have a orchestra it large eough to hold the esemle With a virtual orchestra o ixed media, The Ruiatio o Atlatis ca e reseted to a dace or allet coma vastl roadeig the ossiilit o erormaces o the origial, uedited ork Some elemets o the music ca easil e tailored to idividual choreograhers eeds I the request alteratios o some o the temos, or examle, it is a simle rocess to roduce a custom recordig that meets their eeds The material ca also e rovided i a media ormat that the require or the music ca e seamlessl itegrated ito video i requested Although it is still extremel imortat to cosider the caailities ad alace o actual orchestral istrumets, comosig or comuter geerated istrumets i a studiolike set u (Logic ro), oes u the otetial o realizig ideas that ould e ver diicult to achieve i a actual orchestra Oe does ot have to orr aout, or examle, usig uusual istrumets like the Erhu, Satur, ad Taiko drums, hich ould e diicult to emlo ecause the laers ticall do ot read Wester otatio ecause some level o realism is a goal o this comositio, ackoledgig the limitatios ad idioscrasies o seciic istrumets is essetial i achievig a good realizatio Whe comosig this iece, a alace etee total realism ad the reedom associated ith orkig i a rerecorded eviromet had to e addressed Whe recordig ilm music, comosers ca ed some rules o orchestratio ased o the act that idividual istrumets or sectios ca e made more romiet uttig microhoes o them ad raisig their volume I this a, or examle, a lute laig i the loer register

18 7 ca e rought out over thick orchestratio, hereas i a live erormace it ould e droed out the orchestra I a ideal situatio, a roessioal orchestra ould record all the relevat arts, usig samles ol i lace o the more uusual istrumets that ould have troule ledig ith the Wester musical laguage Uortuatel, the cost to cotract a orchestra ad the erormace rights ivolved ith recordig live erormers make this earl imossile or most idividuals ho do ot have a large udget Whe orchestratig a large-scale iece o music, a comoser eeds to cosider the logistics ivolved ith live erormace It ould e illogical, as a examle, to have the cotraassoo la ol eight ars i oe movemet ad ohere else ithi a 5 miute ork I the comoser did at to accomlish this, the cotraassoo ould likel e laed the secod or third assooist ho ould e doulig This ould still e icoveiet or the erormer to rig a large, uield istrumet to la a e secods o music It is commo i musical theatre to use such douligs, hoever, as a solutio or limited orces i the orchestra Aother rolem ith comosig or live musicias, that is ot as revalet he comosig or ixed media, is cosideratio or diicult This does ot mea oe ca rite imossile musical lies as that ould hurt the realism o the recordig, ol that the reedom to comose diicult assages ithout ear o ad erormaces exists Comosig a iece or samled orchestral istrumets allos the iece to e comosed as i it ere goig to e laed oe o the to roessioal orchestras i the orld Some techiques that are diicult o real istrumets ca e created ith relative ease

19 8 usig virtual istrumets such as: the uer rage o rass istrumets, quick chages o tuig i the timai, ad comlex or agile rhthmic igures that ould e less recise i erormed semiroessioal or amateur musicias Care as take ith this comositio, hoever, to still rite idiomaticall or the Wester orchestral istrumetal sectios to achieve the amout o realism desired or examle, hile a comoser is ale to comose divisi sectios or the violis ad divide them ito our arts ithout a dimiishmet o qualit, the should e aare that too much o this techique ma revet the recordig rom soudig like a real orchestra rogram Cosideratios The rogram o The Ruiatio o Atlatis as devised ased o lato s accout o the destructio o the civilizatio o Atlatis as descried i the dialogues, Timaeus ad Critias: I the ormer, lato descries ho Egtia riests, i coversatio ith the Atheia lagiver Solo, descried Atlatis as a islad larger tha Asia Mior ad Lia comied, ad situated ust eod the illars o Hercules (the Straits o Giraltar) Aout 9,000 ears eore the irth o Solo, the riests said, Atlatis as a rich islad hose oerul rices coquered ma o the lads o the Mediterraea util the ere iall deeated the Atheias ad the latter's allies The Atlatias evetuall ecame icked ad imious, ad their islad as salloed u the sea as a result o earthquakes I the Critias, lato sulied a histor o the ideal commoealth o the Atlatias 5 5 Eccloædia ritaica Olie, sv Atlatis, htt://searchecom/e/article (accessed eruar 1, 2010)

20 9 With this i mid, some o the ideals o the mthological Atlatis ere emodied trig to achieve a uiversal asect to the music I the samled, rerecorded eviromet, comiig uusual istrumets ith a ull orchestra is ol limited the caailities o the sotare ad comuter sstem choosig a mthological settig ad striig these istrumets o their cultural imlicatios, the music as reed to use a comiatio o istrumets ithout orrig aout ho the ould imact the rogrammatic cotiuit I the allet as set i a real lace ad time, some listeers might exect to hear music related to that atioalit Erhu, the Chiese iddle, ould e iaroriate i a allet set i Irelad, or examle Whe comosig or the more exotic istrumetatio, it is ossile ad ecessar to make some excetios to havig a rigid adherece to seciicall idiomatic ritig Whe mixig traditioall Wester istrumets that use a equall temered tuig ith istrumets rom other cultures that have dieret tuig sstems, excetios to idiomatic ritig ere made It as also imortat to avoid stereotical realizatios o actual istrumets to avoid a clichés that could e oesive to other cultures, or the imlicatio that arts o the music ere meat to rereset oe articular culture Whe the more uusual istrumets ere imlemeted together ith the orchestra, the ere Westerized stlisticall ad adated to the allet s musical vocaular so that the leded etter ith the orchestra The Wester istrumets ere orchestrated as realisticall as ossile, ut the other istrumets ere used as a kid o ictioal Although Greece (seciicall Athes) igures romietl i the stor o Atlatis, this allet takes lace etirel o the islad i its last da o existece

21 10 istrumet to rereset the lost culture o Atlatis that, had it existed, ould have had its o musical istrumets that o loger exist A examle o the use o exotic (to Wester music) istrumetatio occurs i movemets I, VII, ad VIII, here the satur is romietl emloed The satur is a hammered dulcimer that is used i the Middle East, Egt, ad arts o Asia ad Southeaster Euroe, although it is redomiatl a ersia istrumet 7 The music comosed i this allet is ot idiomatic o actual ersia satur erormace ractices The satur has moveale ridges so that dieret modes ca e created, ad i the hads o a seasoed erormer, could ossil erorm most o the arts i the allet There as ot, hoever, a attemt to comose a stlistic assages that ould give the listeer the imressio that the are hearig traditioal satur music The urose o the satur is to add a oreig, exotic elemet to the Wester orchestra The satur i the irst movemet mirrors the strig ostiato, las a accomaig igure i the seveth movemet, ad takes a more romiet melodic role i the eighth movemet The satur ostiato igure rom the irst movemet is sho i Examle 7 ea Durig, et al, Satur, Grove Music Olie, htt://oxordmusicoliecom/suscrier/article/ grove/music/51800 (accessed March 1, 2010)

22 11 Examle Satur ostiato Overture, mm The to iterlude movemets at the ed o the irst ad secod arts o The Ruiatio o Atlatis icororate a greater roortio o orld istrumets tha the rest o the ork These movemets are ot meat to accoma dace, ut are istead istrumetal reaks i the actio o stage meat to ehace the mood o a mthological culture I the irst Iterlude, a comiatio o Idoesia agklugs, Siss alehor, Arica kora, Tieta sigig ols, Arica log drums, ad aaese shakuhachi lute are icororated ith the strigs o the orchestra This is a rime examle o ho the atmoshere o the lost cotiet as rereseted Examle 22 shos ho some o the istrumets, icludig the shakuhachi, alehor, ad ercussio are itegrated ith the strigs i the ith movemet, Iterlude No 1

23 12 Examle 22 Istrumets o dieret cultures Iterlude No 1, mm 1-7 Gril Agklugs Tieta Sigig ols Tog Zi ercussio Shakuhachi Alehor Violi I Violi II Viola t roductio o the rerecorded Score While aroachig the orchestratio ad develomet o the music rom a traditioal agle, the imortace o the audio roductio o the iece as also ackoledged The ial comositio ould rereset the qualit o the erormace o the ork ad had to e earl laless Almost all o The Ruiatio o Atlatis as comosed usig Ale Comuter s Logic ro sotare, hich is a MIDI sequecig ad audio recordig ackage Comosers i the ocommercial ield ote use this te o sotare to comose electroic music as oosed to istrumetal ieces, here the ted to reer orkig ith stadard otatio or sotare that ocuses o otatio such as

24 13 iale or Sielius While Logic ro does have a limited otatio caailit, it as decided to comose usig the iao Roll, hich is amed as such due to its similarit i aearace to old laer iao rolls igure demostrates ho the Logic ro orksace aears The comositioal rocess is discussed i urther detail i the secod sectio o Chater 3 I this chater, methods used to create a high qualit recordig that souded realistic are discussed ad ho it as accomlished ith the sotare eig used igure Logic ro s orklo, Iterlude, mm 1-13

25 1 Creatig a realistic orchestral soud is deedet o much more tha ust good samles, oe must also cosider the exected lacemet o istrumets ad sectios i the virtual sace Whe someoe atteds a orchestra cocert the violis are situated to the let o the listeer, the cellos ad asses to the right, ad the ids ad rasses ticall sit i the middle The EastWest samle lirar eig used as the rimar source o virtual istrumets recorded the samles alread laced i this maer, so ver little adustmet is required, although these settigs eed to e adusted cosiderig the seciic hall i hich the iece is to e roadcast The violis, or examle, might eed to e aed hard to the let so that he laed ack i a hall the soud as i the are i the roer ositio o the aural sace It as also recorded ith three dieret microhoe ositios: Close, Stage, ad Surroud The close microhoe samles are rimaril used or solo assages ad rereset lacig the microhoe ver close to the sectio or istrumet The close microhoe settig is ot used at a oit i the Ruiatio o Atlatis ecause the iteded ersective is meat to come rom sittig i the audiece A mix o the stage ad surroud microhoe ositios are used throughout the ork to achieve the ercetio that the listeer is hearig a orchestra i a large cocert hall Recordigs meat to e laed i large halls ould ot use the surroud microhoe settig as the rever created aturall ould elimiate the eed or the eect created this settig The stage ositio is a stereo microhoe laced aove the coductor ad the surroud microhoe ositio is recorded rom the audiece ad adds a atural revereratio eect

26 15 Dieret articulatios ad seciic istrumetal eects are loaded ito EastWest s iterace, ko as la rom this iterace adustmets ca e made to the alace o the dieret microhoe settigs, techiques such as legato ad ortameto, ad hich articulatio is curretl loaded igure 22 is a scree cature o the la iterace ith several o the 11 violi sectio articulatios loaded The articulatios are sho i the middle o the iterace, the microhoe ositio mixer is to the right o that, ad other uctios are sread throughout the rest o the iterace igure 22 The la sstem ido ith a 11 violi sectio loaded

27 CHATER 3 OVERALL STRUCTURE AND ROGRAM Careul laig o the larger structure o a ork is the most imortat asect o the comositioal laig o this allet I The Ruiatio o Atlatis the larger structure is dictated the stor associated ith the ork Earl i the comositioal rocess, movemets o the allet ad the mood or each movemet ere outlied It as also decided ho thick the texture ould e i these movemets so that the ork as a hole ould have a good alace etee heav ad light orchestratio To create a sese o cotiuit throughout the ork ad or dramatic eect, leitmotis ere used Grove Music Olie deies a leitmoti as: a theme, or other coheret musical idea, clearl deied so as to retai its idetit i modiied o susequet aearaces, hose urose is to rereset or smolize a erso, oect, lace, idea, state o mid, sueratural orce or a other igrediet i a dramatic ork 8 This techique, emloed lierall Richard Wager i his oera, has ee adoted moder ilm comosers, such as oh Williams, to great eect 9 Istead o requirig a seciic stor that is descried i detail i the score, it as decided to give each movemet a descritive title that ca e iterreted idividual 8 Arold Whittall, "Leitmoti," i Grove Music Olie Oxord Music Olie, htt:// oxordmusicoliecom/suscrier/article/grove/music/130 (accessed eruar 2, 2010) 9 Argual the most amous examle o oh Williams use o leitmoti is the to-ote motive i the movie as that accomaies almost ever aearace o the shark 1

28 17 erormers, choreograhers, ad dacers hoever the might choose ithi the coies o the asic dramatic rameork Although this is amiguous, the movemets do outlie a simle dramatic arc that is divided ito three arts The irst art deals ith the deeat o the Atlatia arm to the orces o Athes, although this takes lace rom the ersective o those aitig at home or the retur o the soldiers The secod art deals ith the arrival o the god oseido, ho as the mthical creator o Atlatis, ad his iteractio ith his ives The ial art is domiated the destructio o Atlatis a volcaic erutio, a earthquake, ad a tsuami that eguls the hole cotiet causig it to sik ito the ocea, although the seciics o the destructio ere let amiguous (see igure 31) ART 1 I Overture (o dace) II Da o oseido III War Dace IV Noe Retur rom Athes V Iterlude No 1 (o dace) ART 2 VI Requiem or the Lost VII aare ad the Arrival o oseido VIII The Temle o Cleito ad Wives o oseido IX The Three Oracles ad Dark Omes X The irst Calamit XI Iterlude No 2 (o dace) ART 3 XII Meditatio to oseido XIII The Ruiatio Scee igure 31 Orgaizatio o movemets ithi the larger sectios

29 18 Throughout The Ruiatio o Atlatis to rimar leitmotis are used as the asis or a large amout o the material i the etire allet There is also secodar motivic material that occurs i almost all the movemets to urther relate each movemet to the ork as a hole The mai leitmoti reresets oseido, god o the sea, ad the cotiet o Atlatis (see Examle 31) This simle motive, ad variatios o it, aear i almost ever movemet I additio to uctioig as a leitmoti, it is also used as a asic seed motive or the etire iece, much i the same a eethove used the ourote rhthmic motive i his Smho No 5 Much like eethove s amous motive, the same rhthmic igure is used, aleit much sloer, o short-short-short-log Examle 31 The oseido leitmoti The secodar, cotrastig leitmoti or the allet is called the Omes leitmoti (see Examle 32) This igure is meat to cotrast the more exasive oseido motive, ad reresets the uderlig dager aroachig the deizes o Atlatis It is ote reseted i couctio ith artiicial harmoics i the violis ad, sometimes, ith sul oticello areggios i the violas ad/or violocellos This motive also cotrasts the rimar leitmoti eig chromatic ad made u o more secods, hereas the mai motive is mostl ourths ad iths

30 19 Examle 32 The Omes leitmoti # # # Alog ith the to leitmotis, the allet is give cotiuit through three motives To o these motives are rhthmic ad oe is a ostiato igure that, he it occurs, is redomiatl i the violis The ostiato igure (see Examle 33) irst aears i Movemet I, Overture, ad recurs i to latter sectios o the allet, the teth movemet, The irst Calamit, ad the ial movemet Examle 33 The ostiato motive i the violis, Overture, mm 2-8 VlI 2 Div l VlII 2 Div l 5 5

31 20 Examle 3 shos the irst o to rhthmic motives that are used throughout The Ruiatio o Atlatis This simle igure, ith hemiola-like qualities, is associated ith the more arlike arts o the Atlatia culture It is romiet i the Overture, War Dace, ad aare ad the Arrival o oseido This igure is alas reseted i loud, lo-itched drums such as cocert ass drum, timai, ad taiko drum esemle Examle 3 The War Drum motive, War Dace, mm 1- Timai "Godzilla" Hits I cotrast to the War Drum motive, is the lighter, mixed-meter motive that irst aears i the War Dace movemet sutl, ad is the cetral rhthmic device i Movemet VIII, The Temle o Cleito ad the Wives o oseido (see Examle 35) This divisio o the 9/8 time sigature, , is used i Dave rueck s lue Rodo ala Turk, ad has alas ee a avorite rhthmic device o mie Examle 35 Mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic motive 8 9

32 CHATER ANALYSES O INDIVIDUAL MOVEMENTS I this chater the uique asects o each movemet ad ho the it ithi the overall rameork o The Ruiatio o Atlatis ill e discussed I the irst movemet the harmoic structure ad use o the oseido leitmoti as discussed, as ell as the ostiato motive The discussio o the secod movemet ocuses o ho it as costructed usig the oseido leitmoti The third movemet, War Dace ill address its structure, ased o the Soata orm, e themes itroduced, ad art o its isiratio Noe Retur rom Athes, the ourth movemet, has seciic textural elemets discussed i more detail as ell as harmoic ad modulatio choices The ith movemet, Iterlude No 1, eatures ma exotic istrumets ad acts as a ridge to art 2 o the alletthe use o these istrumets ill e discussed I the aalsis o Requiem or the Lost, the sixth movemet overall ad the irst o art 2, the use o harmo ad ho it relates to the rest o the allet ill e addressed, as ell as the sutle iluece o the Lacrimosa" rom Mozart s Requiem i D Mior to this movemet The use o the oseido ad Omes leitmotis i the seveth movemet, aare ad the Arrival o oseido ill e the ocus o its aalsis There ill e a demostratio o ho the eighth movemet, The Temle o Cleito ad the Wives o oseido, is costructed aroud the mixed meter 9/8 time sigature ad a exchage etee dieret solo istrumets I the aalsis o the ith movemet, The

33 22 Three Oracles ad Dark Omes, there ill e a elaoratio o ho the Omes leitmoti as used as the asis or a etire movemet ad there ill also e a discussio o choices that ere made i orchestratio ad ho the relate to the atmoshere o this movemet The use o motivic material i The irst Calamit, movemet te, ad ho ugal techiques i the middle sectio o this movemet ere used ill e the examied The Iterlude No 2, is the ial movemet o art 2, ad material rom the Requiem or the Lost as rought ack i a rerise There ill e a discussio o the Omes leitmoti s use i this movemet ad ho it as treated The ial art o the allet cosists o ol to movemets Meditatio to oseido reresets the Atlatia s ial raers to oseido eore their ultimate destructio I the aalsis o that movemet, a examiatio o ho textural motives ad clusters ere used istead o traditioal melodic or rhthmic elemets is reseted I the discussio o the ial movemet, The Ruiatio Scee, the structure o the movemet, motivic material that recurs, orchestratio choices, ad the edig o the movemet ad allet as a hole is detailed Movemet I Overture The Ruiatio o Atlatis egis ith a overture called the Overture This movemet is a simle terar orm that is drive the oseido leitmoti ad the ostiato motive that as metioed i Chater 3 The Overture as comosed aroud the ostiato motive, ad as moderatel isired some miimalistic techique I the Overture, the ostiato is ased mostl aroud a C mior toalit that is sulemeted adiatoicism, or the techique o ree use o all seve degrees o the

34 23 diatoic scale, melodicall, harmoicall, or cotrautall 10 The asic C mior atter i the ostiato is reset i the violis (see Examle 1), ad demostrates a commo harmoic root movemet used throughout the allet thirds I this movemet, the eds o hrases are marked a root movemet other tha a third, such as the movemet a secod rom the m9 chord to the Gm7 chord at the ed o the irst eight-measure hrase I measures 15-1 the lutes, ooes, clariets, ad assoos sulemet the ostiato igure ith oe o their o, that ith exteded harmoies, adds aother adiatoic elemet sutl ocusig o the mior toal ceter Ater delaig the domiat uctioig harmo ith mior v7 chords at the eds o hrases, there is iall a more traditioal cadece ith the olloig rogressio: N, V, i Examle 1 A harmoic aalsis o the oeig o the Overture C m7 A ma7 C m7 A ma7 i7 Y7 i7 Y7 5 m7 r7 m9 r9 m9 G m7 v7 It should e oted that the traditioal harmoic uctio exists ithi the adiatoic rameork I Examle 2, hich shos measures -25, the imlied roma umeral aalsis is sho I measure, or examle, the mior ad E maor chords are comied, ut the mior is emhasized i the asses ad timai The 10 adiatoicism, i Grove Music Olie Oxord Music Olie, htt://oxordmusicoliecom/ suscrier/article/grove/music/130 (accessed March 19, 2010)

35 2 techique o stackig chords a maor or mior secod aart is used throughout the Overture The sectio o the irst movemet is more lightl orchestrated, ut the eighthote rhthmic drive cotiues, although it has a irregularl acceted atter istead o the straighter ostiato i the A sectios Examle 3 shos ho the oodids take a more romiet role i the texture The solo voice is rom the Voices o assio samle lirar EastWest The voice is actuall sigig i avaria, ut oe the ords are i a order that ould make sese, thus creatig the sese o it occurrig i a dieret laguage The melodic material is also loosel ased o the rimar oseido leitmoti, although it is more chromatic ad steise (see Examle 3) Whe the A sectio returs, the violis la a couter melod over the ostiato The mai melodic material is still reset i the violas ad cellos The rass have log clusters egiig i the secod hal o the secod A sectio, olloed a thiig o the orchestratio to violis laig the ostiato accomaied izzicato igures i the loer strigs The ostiato ad eighth-ote rhthmic drive iall egis to dissolve durig this sectio ad ecome more arhthmic util it ceases Ater that the rass ad choir have toe clusters that are uilt rom three chords a mior secod aart: C mior, D maor, ad D maor The dieret chords are laed dieret sectios: the trumets la D maor, hors la D maor, ad the tromoes la C mior Each sectio crescedos at dieret times, temoraril rigig each o the idividual harmoies to the orerot The choir has otes rom the C mior ad D maor chord, ad reiorces the cluster (see Examle ) The comlete score or this movemet is i Aedix A

36 25 Examle 2 The Neaolita ad adiatoicism, Overture, mm -25 l 22 O 22 Cl s HIII HIIIIV Tt T ^ ^ 22 ^ l l l l l l Í Í Í Ta 22 l l l l l l Tim 22 Í æ π Talas 22 GH SCm D Str æ π æ π VlI 22 VlII 22 Vla Vc C 22 t r7 Y7 T7

37 2 Examle 3 The sectio, Overture, mm 3-37 icc l 3 3 O EH 3 3 Cl 3 π Cl s 3 3 π HIII Talas Str Solo: # # # SVce VlI VlII Vla Uis Uis # # # #

38 27 Examle rass ad choir clusters, Overture, mm HIII HIIIIV Tt T SVce # S A T Movemet II Da o oseido The secod movemet o The Ruiatio o Atlatis as uilt rom the oseido leitmoti To create a sese o the risig su, the movemet egis i the lo strigs ad ass clariet, the voices are itroduced aove ased o ortios o the oseido leitmoti Istead o usig the exact motivic material, the theme is exaded or cotracted deedig o ho much material as eeded to iish each hrase A sutle, evolvig, sthetic ad is added to the texture that icreases i comlexit throughout the hrase Examle 5 shos the irst hrase o the ive-hrase movemet This examle shos the dieret iteratios o the rimar leitmoti as used i this movemet

39 28 Examle 5 Use o the oseido leitmoti, Da o oseido, mm 1-8 Cl Cl π π cresc cresc Sd π cresc VlII π cresc Vla π cresc Vc π cresc C π cresc To sectios o similar airs o getle, risig hrases are iterruted i the middle o the movemet loud, descedig ell-toe rass igures that outlie mior chords ith maor 7ths, oreshadoig the disasters to come These igures retur i the ial movemet The risig hrases retur ater this iterrutio ith the additio o a Chiese erhu solo At the ed o the movemet a much lighter sectio occurs eaturig the erhu over artiicial harmoics i the violi The egiig o the erhu solo i this last sectio is loosel ased o the rass igure earlier that gives a to a direct statemet o the rimar leitmoti (see Examle )

40 29 Examle The erhu solo, Da o oseido, mm 8-53 Er-hu VlI 8 8 π # # π π VlII 8 Movemet III War Dace The War Dace egis ith lo ercussio laig the War Drum motive metioed earlier ad ollos a quasi-soata orm To deie the War Dace as a te o soata orm oe eeds to estalish the olloig arts i some orm, hich are traditioall deied their toal ceters: a Exositio, Develomet, ad Recaitulatio Sice this movemet is ot as toall ased as the revious movemets, the sectios are delieated idividual themes istead o toalit The mai theme o the War Dace is irst itroduced i the hors, clariets, ad ooes (trasosed u a ourth) ad is sho i Examle 7 The egiig ad ed o this melodic lie are ased o the hrgia scale, hile the middle o it is derived rom a hole toe scale Throughout this allet hole-toe igures are imlemeted to create a ueas mood ad tesio to some o the melodies This melod is the deiig eature o Theme I o the exositio i this movemet Examle 7 Theme I o War Dace, mms # # l l

41 30 Theme II o this movemet uses the 9/8 time sigature ad eatures less ercussio, strigs, ad rass, ocusig istead o the oodid sectio The mai melodic material that deies Theme II is sho i Examle 8, ad is exchaged ad varied throughout dieret voices i the oodids 8 9 Ÿ Examle 8 Theme II o War Dace, mm Ÿ Examle 9 shos ho this short theme is voiced i the oodid sectio A voice ill itroduce the theme i its ormal orm, the a iversio ill ollo as aother voice eters over that This cotiues i a semi-caoic orm ith occasioal rhthmic iterrutios as see i Examle 9 durig measures 33 ad 35 i the doule reeds ad ass clariet Over the course o this sectio, the rhthmic iterrutios egi to outeigh the mai theme o the sectio, evetuall havig equal eight to Theme II itsel Later i this sectio the mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic igure metioed earlier i Chater 3 is irst itroduced i the allet as oe o the rhthmic iterrutios to the caoic orm This dividig o 9/8 ito three quarter otes ad oe dotted quarter ote is used more romietl i the eighth movemet ad as isired Dave rueck s lue Rodo ala Turk Examle 10 shos the mixed meter arts o the War Dace i Theme II o the Exositio

42 31 Examle 9 Theme II i the oodids War Dace mm l O EgH Cl Ÿ 8 9 Ÿ 30 Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ # Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ Ÿ # Ÿ Ÿ Cl s Cs The aearace o the mixed-meter material see i Examle 10 marks the ed o variatios o Theme II ad is the closig theme o the Exositio The Develomet egis ith a sudde sitch to 3/ ad a slight homage to the ireird allet Igor Stravisk The ostiato igure i the asses ad cellos ol sutl hits at the itroductio to Stravisk s oted allet ad serves as a accomaimet or the develomet o oth Themes I ad II Examle 11 illustrates the Develomet melod hich is a comiatio o Theme I ad Theme II, ad is irst itroduced i the cellos

43 32 Examle 10 Mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic igures War Dace mm -8 l # # EgH l Cl s l l l l l l l l l Cs l l l l Examle 11 Themes II ad I i the Cellos War Dace mm 58-5 Vc 3 3 # # # The reaso the orm o this movemet is reerred to as a quasi Soata i this essa is that i the rocess o comosig the movemet, it as decided that Theme I rovided a stroger edig As a result, Theme II does ot reaear i the Recaitulatio Although the ial orm o this movemet is ot Soata orm i the strictest sese, the Soata orm as the asis or the comositio o this movemet

44 33 Movemet IV Noe Retur rom Athes The ourth movemet is meat to texturall cotrast the revious movemet as much as ossile ad is also a lamet to the Atlatia arm that is utterl destroed the Atheias i deese o their cit Whereas the War Dace movemet eatured ercussio, staccato rhthmic igures, strog rass, ad ercussive strigs, this movemet eatures loger duratios, more ad-like souds ad getle solo vocal melodies Noe Retur rom Athes egis ith high, getle mior chords i the violis, douled ith harmoics to create a ethereal, otherorldl qualit to the texture Over this soud, a solo emale voice, the same samles used i the irst movemet, sigs a melod remiiscet o a aciet siger accomaied a droe Examle 12 shos the oeig ars o this movemet As ith the irst movemet, the ords sug the soloist are ulgaria, ut the are ut i a order that ill make little sese to a ulgaria seaker Istead, the ords are meat ol to soud oreig ad urecogizale The melod is derived rom the oseido leitmoti ad rom the violis coutermelod i the ial A sectio o the Overture Harmoic modulatios are loosel isired descedig chromatic movemet i the Omes leitmoti This movemet eatures a dialogue etee the asuri lute ad solo voice The iece alterates etee sectios eaturig the asuri ad sectios eaturig the solo voice, although the irst sectio cotais oth voice ad asuri etee the to sectios that highlight the asuri, there is a short sectio comrised o chorus ad solo voice This sectio also highlights the use o descedig chromatic lies, sho i Examle 13

45 3 Examle 12 The oeig sectio, Noe Retur rom Athes, mm 1- Choir asuri Solo Voice Violi I Violi II π π Ȯ π Ȯ π Ȯ π Ȯ π π O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O 3 O O O O O O O O

46 35 Examle 13 Descedig chromatic movemet, Noe Retur rom Athes, mm S A Chr T V 18 π π π π # # # # # # # # # # # # SVoice 18 # # # # # 3 Movemet V Iterlude No 1 The irst Iterlude occurs at the ed o art 1, rovidig a reak or the dacers ad rom the actio o stage This movemet laces more emhasis o the exotic istrumetatio as oosed to the more traditioal Wester orchestral arts (see Examle 22) The istrumets used i this movemet iclude Alehor, shakuhachi lute, Tieta sigig ols, ad agklugs (hich are deied Grove Music Olie as Tued amoo slidig rattle o ava, Madura, ali, South Sumatra, Cetral ad South Sulaesi, southester Kalimata, Malasia, Sigaore ad Thailad ) 11 ecause this movemet rovides a trasitio etee the ed o art 1 ad the egiig o art 2, it is through-comosed, ith the ol reeated material eig the strig accomaimet The through-comosed structure aados a sese o retur i avor o movig the actio orard Toard the ed o the movemet, the oester istrumets graduall 11 Margaret Kartomi, "Agklug," i Grove Music Olie Oxord Music Olie, htt:// oxordmusicoliecom/suscrier/article/grove/music/00931 (accessed eruar 3, 2010)

47 3 sto laig, leavig strigs, solo hor, ad the solo voice used i the revious movemets Harmoic motio is achieved redomiatl movig ol oe itch o the triad at a time, resultig i more augmeted chords Examle 1 shos the harmoic motio i the strigs achieved movig ol oe ote at a time hal ste as ell as ho the kora ad log drums are itegrated i the orchestral texture The comlete score to this movemet is i Aedix Examle 1 Harmoic motio, Iterlude No 1, mm 3-0 LogDr 3 SH SVoc Kora 3 3 V 3 # # VlI 3 VlII 3 Vla 3 Vc 3 # C 3 t

48 37 Movemet VI Requiem or the Lost art 2 o The Ruiatio o Atlatis egis ith a choral iece reresetig the mourig or the soldiers ho died i Athes ecause o the techical requiremets, comositio o this movemet roved to e the most time cosumig ad diicult The Worduilder alicatio that is icluded ith Smhoic Choirs as icororated, to have the choirs sig actual ords Iitiall those ords ere goig to e Eglish, ut the uidetiiale laguage cocet used i revious movemets as etter suited to the cotiuit o the iece The Worduilder as still used, ut urelated sllales ere sug istead o actual ords ecause o the ho Worduilder uctios, the choral harmoizatio had to e comosed i advace ecause each voice had to e erormed live Ater recordig the voices adustmets had to e made to various elemets o the choral arts such as cosoats that ere too loud or overall volume alace ithi oe hrase arts o this movemet, ad the allet as a hole, cotai chordal root movemet thirds as a drivig actor i the harmoic structure There is o restrictio to rogressios i oe diatoic ke, ad ote the chord chage ill move to a distat ke i the rocess A examle ould e movig rom C mior chord to a E mior chord The comoser ids this te o rogressio satisig ecause it allos or more chromatic melodies ad the commo toe amog the to chords makes or smooth voice leadig I this movemet, this root movemet is itegrated ito the choral arts ote Examle 15 shos the use o root movemet thirds i the chorus Occasioall the movemet thirds is iterruted ith that o a ourth to kee the rogressio iterestig

49 38 Examle 15 Root movemet thirds, Requiem or the Lost, mm 59-8 S 59 A 7 C m G m E m G m D m m A m C m A 3 A T # # I this movemet, a homage is give to Mozart s Requiem Mass i D mior i a coule o sutle as Similarl to Mozart, this movemet uses the D mior ke sigature, although it is ot seciicall ritte ith ma rogressios recogizale as estalishig D mior, excet or the occasioal cadece o a A maor chord Examle 15 demostrates the use o the A7 chord occasioall The most ovious imitatio o Mozart, loosel, is he the strig accomaimet eters at measure 27 This sectio, ith dieret harmoic structure, is ver similar to the strig accomaimet i the Lacrimosa movemet o Mozart s Requiem (see Examle 1) The comlete score to this movemet is i Aedix C

50 39 Examle 1 Imitatio o strig accomaimet rom the Lacrimosa i Mozart s Requiem Mass i D mior, Requiem or the Lost, mm s Gg T VlI VlII Vla Vc C # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # Movemet VII aare ad the Arrival o oseido # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # A maor evet i the allet is the arrival o oseido, ecause it is the last chace the Atlatias ould have had to redeem themselves To give ustice i the music to the arrival o a Greek god, it as decided to use the ull orce o the orchestra alog ith the satur, hose resece ids this movemet ith the ext movemet Everthig i this movemet, excet or a rie sectio ater the itroductio ad the ver ed, is either derived rom the oseido leitmoti, or overshadoed it I the ver egiig the movemet oes ith the trumets ad tromoes laig eighth-ote igures uilt

51 0 mostl o secods, ut soo ater the hors, tua, ad Wager tuas eter ith a oerul statemet o the oseido leitmoti A secod sectio occurs, ith a strog edal toe reeatig i the violis ad some e thematic material is itroduced, ad or a momet the oseido motive is ot heard The War Drum motive does make a aearace i the ercussio durig this sectio This art gives a to hat seems like a e theme i the oodids, ut is merel a coutermelod to the oseido leitmoti i the strigs, this time reseted ith a more maor soudig character (see Examle 17) Examle 17 The oseido leitmoti, aare ad the Arrival o oseido, mm l O EgH Cl 23 # 23 # π 23 π 23 # # # # # # # # # # # # ## # # # s VlI VlII Vla C # 23 # izz # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # I the ext sectio, the oodids are eatured laig variatios o the oseido leitmoti util the aare sectio returs Whe the aare sectio returs, the melod that as i the hors, Wager tuas, ad tuas is reseted exclusivel i the

52 1 lo rass, cellos, ad asses Whereas the istace o the melod i the lo strigs i the egiig o the movemet as a direct imitatio o the oseido leitmoti ad the coutermelod reset i the Overture, i the secod sectio it has evolved ito a comiatio ith the eer thematic material itroduced i this movemet (see Examle 18) Examle 18 Variatios o the oseido leitmoti, aare ad the Arrival o oseido Measures "oseido" leitmoti Coutermelod rom the "Etr'acte" Measures 51-5 # # # # # "oseido" leitmoti Variatio ased o e material This movemet cocludes ith a statemet o the Omes leitmoti i the strigs The high irst violi harmoics are douled ith violas laig sul oticello tremolo assages three octaves aart to create a msterious, ueas tesio Examle 19 demostrates ho this ould look o a stadard musical score

53 2 Examle 19 The Omes leitmoti, aare ad the Arrival o oseido, mm 0-5 VlI VlII VlII Vla 0 0 # # O O æ 0 0 sul ot Ȯ π æ ##Ȯ Ȯ O O # æ æ æ Ȯ O O æ æ O O æ Ȯ æ Ȯ O O æ æ Ȯ æ Ȯ O O æ æ Movemet VIII The Temo o Cleito ad the Wives o oseido The eighth movemet is the dace o oseido ad his ma ives, ad is meat to e a celeratio o seductio ad the excesses o lie i hich the eole o Atlatis articiate Cleito as oe o oseido s ives ad the mother o Atlas, ho as kig o Atlatis Housed i the temle, hich as at the ceter o the caital cit o Atlatis, ere all o oseido s ives Although it is ot seciicall stated i Timaeus ad Critias that oseido s ives are housed i the temle, lato does metio a shrie to oseido ad Cleito i the ceter rig o the cit 12 The mixed-meter rhthmic motive metioed i Chater 3 has its most romiet role i this movemet (Examle 35, g 20) The etire movemet is a dialogue etee the satur, solo violi, lute, clariet, ad assoo To add some sice to the texture, a ome s choir ad some uusual ercussio such as the erimau, darauka, ad rame drum are icluded The erimau is a razilia musical o o Arica origi, ith a sigle ire strig ad sometimes a gourd resoator, 13 (see 12 Sir Her Desmod ritchard Lee ad lato, Timaeus ad Critias, (Ne York: egui, 1971), Schechter, oh M, erimau, i Grove Music Olie, Oxord Music Olie, htt:// oxordmusicoliecom/suscrier/article/grove/music/02811(accessed March 23, 2010)

54 3 igure 1) The darauka is a Easter Euroea drum laed ith either the hads or igers This movemet eatures the satur i its most romiet melodic role o the etire allet he it las at the egiig igure 1 The erimau Ater the irst theme o this movemet is reseted i the satur, a solo violi reeats it i uiso ith the satur This istace o the theme is also trasosed u a hole ste The lute the las a resose to the irst theme, hich although similar i character, is dieret rom the iitial melod Examle 20 illustrates the mai theme ad the resose theme The etire movemet is uilt aroud the exchage o these to themes i various orms The mixed-meter 9/8 rhthmic motive is rimaril reset i the ercussio as a asmmetrical ulse Ote the other istrumets ill create tesio resistig the ulse

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