Music History. Middle Ages Renaissance. Classical Romantic Impressionist 20 th Century

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1 Music History Middle Ages Renaissance Baroque Classical Romantic Impressionist 20 th Century

2 Middle Ages Two types of music: (Church music) (Non-Religious music)

3 Middle Ages Sacred Music All (Plainchant a.k.a. Gregorian Chant) NO accompaniment ( not used until ) All (no women) Used (early version of scales) Used early All chants were until the 9 th century when they added another melody (called, the earliest version of polyphonic music)

4 Middle Ages The Mass (3 types) : Used for specific occasions : Everyday church services Kyrie ( ), Gloria ( ), Credo ( ), Sanctus ( ) and Agnus Dei ( ) : Mass for the (funeral)

5 Middle Ages Secular Music Primarily instrumental Used for dancing, storytelling, entertainment Wandering musicians: Northern France Southern France Germany - England

6 Renaissance Means Based on Classical ( ) sources of knowledge Well-rounded Literature, Science, Art, Music, etc In the world Discovery of the

7 Renaissance Sacred Music,, Based on the, song of

8 Renaissance Secular Music More people are trained in music becomes more important music (minuet, waltz, gigue, etc ) (French) and (Italian) (,, based on the and )

9 Renaissance Composers Josquin ( - ) Most influential and highly regarded composer of the Early master of (complex polyphony) Wrote and music: 20 masses and many chansons and motets

10 Renaissance Composers (c. - ) Wrote and music All his Sacred music was vocal (very simple) Helped reform the music of the Church after the Reformation masses, motets, magnificats, offertories and hymns

11 Renaissance Composers ( - ) Transition composer (Renaissance to the ) First composer to use in his music Experimented with (putting musicians in certain places to create different effects, early surround sound )

12 Baroque Period Use of (extra things added) Beginnings of the and makes music more available System: Composers employed by nobility or the church

13 Baroque Period Baroque Small, only - players Mostly (violin family) Some, few, no Used for, and music in the

14 Baroque Composers George Friederic ( - ) Born in Studied in Lived in Wrote many Operas but is remembered for his (smallscale church Operas)

15 Baroque Composers The Handel s most famous In Tells the story of the life of Music for the

16 Baroque Composers Antonio - a.k.a. The ( hair and ordained as a in 1703) Wrote Concertos The Early attempt at Music (a story is told through the music) Each movement represents a season (,, and )

17 Baroque Composers Johann Sebastian - Master of wives, kids ( lived) were composers ( Bach and Bach)

18 Baroque Composers Wrote everything except Famous works: and in D minor Concertos Well-Tempered in minor Passion

19 Classical Period The Age of Return to (Classical) thought Music was simple, balanced and clear (mostly phonic 1 melody with accompaniment) American Revolution ( ) French Revolution ( )

20 Classical Composers Franz Joseph - Father of the Father of the Teacher of Friend to Symphonies

21 Classical Composers Famous Symphonies # # # #

22 Classical Composers Wolfgang Amadeus - Child total works Symphonies Died of fever Conspiracies about his death (Killed by, poisoned by the )

23 Classical Composers Mozart s Operas He wrote his own Started writing it for Mozart did not, a friend did

24 Classical Composers Ludwig van - First - in history Student of Performed for at age First symptoms of at age (1799) Transition Composer into the Era

25 Classical Composers Beethoven s Symphonies Only wrote Symphony No. was named the Symphony after Napoleon, changed to the (Heroic) Symphony after Napoleon makes himself Emperor His th and th Symphonies are his most famous th : note / th : used the theme, first time is used equally in a Symphony Orchestra

26 Romantic Era Music was ( Romantic ) themes movement (use of native folk music) Music (music that tells a story - ) Music (exists for its own sake)

27 Romantic Composers Felix - Child (like ) Revived music based on s A Midsummer Night s Dream

28 Romantic Composers Hector - (1830) based on a drug-induced dream about his love-interest Used (fixed idea) theme assigned to a or

29 Romantic Composers Franz - Piano of the Romantic Era First to use the word for a performance Credited with inventing the

30 Romantic Composers Frederic - Lived in Wrote mainly for, including many sonatas, waltzes,, preludes, ballads, and Died of at age Had Mozart s played at his funeral

31 Romantic Composers Peter Ilyich - and The Overture

32 Romantic Composers The a.k.a. The, The Five, The Mighty, or The New Russian A group of Russian nationalist composers 1. (leader)

33 Romantic Composers Richard - Known for his

34 Romantic Composers Der Ring das Nibelungen (The ) Four Operas 1. Das Rheingold ( ) 2. Die Walkure ( ) Gotterdammerung ( ) Use of (musical for every character, emotion, event, action, place, etc )

35 Impressionist Period - Based in Focused on the, to give an impression Use of (tension) and uncommon (whole-tone scale)

36 Impressionist Composers Claude - Use of exotic harmonies ( - scale) Lack of to his music Used many (different instruments),, Prelude to the Afternoon of a

37 Impressionist Composers Maurice - Pianist et ( , ballet) (1928, ballet)

38 20 th Century and

39 20 th Century Tone ( ) and Uses all tones of the chromatic scale No center Atonal: Random order of 12 Tone ( ): Notes arranged in a certain order ( ) and can be used in other orders (inversion, retrograde, retrograde inversion) of the original row Serial Composers: (teacher), and (students)

40 20 th Century Sometimes electronic Use of repetition and (same note) (b.1937)

41 20 th Century music ( -, American) (1952)

42 20 th Century Igor - The (1910) (1911) The of (1913) Also wrote in Neo- style and tone

43 Musical Styles by Stravinsky

44 20 th Century Aaron - Music rhythm and melody

45 Jazz Originated in Combination of and Music Square where slaves were allowed to gather on Sundays where Jazz began Uses the techniques of: and (slave field-hollers) (emphasis on normally unaccented beats) (making up the music on the spot) Scale/ Notes (7 note scale, sad sounding)

46 Jazz Styles Syncopated music ( ), wrote The, Maple Leaf Rag Morton ( ), self-proclaimed Originator of

47 Jazz Styles Swing Composers Louis ( ) Trumpet/Singer AKA Satchmo

48 Jazz Styles Swing Composers Duke ( ) Piano/Bandleader (If it Ain t Got That Swing)

49 Jazz Styles Swing Composers George ( ) Pop/Jazz/Classical (musical)

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